Lander is the general name of a space probe or lander that lands or is intended to land on a celestial body such as a planet or moon . Landing on a celestial body is considered the most technically difficult concept of a spacecraft, whereby the subsequent return with samples from its surface or with landed astronauts represents a further increase in the degree of difficulty. Other concepts include the orbiter orbiting a celestial body and the flyby probe .
A distinction is made between hard landing and soft landing . In the case of a hard landing, no precautions are taken to protect the lander from impact (was practiced in the early years of space travel), or the lander is designed so that it can withstand the impact undamaged if it hits the ground ( see penetrators ).
In the case of a "soft" landing, on the other hand, suitable measures are taken to allow the lander to touch the surface of the celestial body so gently that the lander remains fully functional. A "soft" landing can, however, be very rough, measured by the usual standards for a human, e.g. B. when a lander touches down on Venus at 30 km / h , only slowed down by the dense atmosphere (without a parachute ).
|(Earth) moon||Lunik , Ranger , Luna , Surveyor , Chang'e-3 and -4 , Beresheet , Chandrayaan-2 , manned lunar lander|
|Mars||Mars , Viking , Mars Pathfinder , Spirit , Opportunity , Beagle 2 , Phoenix , Curiosity , InSight|
|Venus||some Venera probes, Pioneer-Venus , Vega|
|Saturn moon Titan||Huygens|
|Asteroid (433) Eros||NEAR Shoemaker|
|Asteroid Ryugu||Hayabusa 2 , MINERVA , MASCOT|
|moon||Other countries to the moon ( Chang'e 5 , Peregrine etc.)|
|Mars||More landers to Mars ( Mars 2020 Rover , ExoMars Rover , etc.)|
|Venus||More Landers to Venus ( Shukrayaan-1 )|
|Saturn moon Titan||" Dragonfly "|
|Mars||Sample returns from Mars|
|Neptune's moon Triton||" Trident " (orbital mission)|