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This is a model of the Viking 1 lander

Lander is the general name of a space probe or lander that lands or is intended to land on a celestial body such as a planet or moon . Landing on a celestial body is considered the most technically difficult concept of a spacecraft, whereby the subsequent return with samples from its surface or with landed astronauts represents a further increase in the degree of difficulty. Other concepts include the orbiter orbiting a celestial body and the flyby probe .


A distinction is made between hard landing and soft landing . In the case of a hard landing, no precautions are taken to protect the lander from impact (was practiced in the early years of space travel), or the lander is designed so that it can withstand the impact undamaged if it hits the ground ( see penetrators ).

In the case of a "soft" landing, on the other hand, suitable measures are taken to allow the lander to touch the surface of the celestial body so gently that the lander remains fully functional. A "soft" landing can, however, be very rough, measured by the usual standards for a human, e.g. B. when a lander touches down on Venus at 30 km / h , only slowed down by the dense atmosphere (without a parachute ).

So far, landers have been used on the following celestial bodies
(Earth) moon Lunik , Ranger , Luna , Surveyor , Chang'e-3 and -4 , Beresheet , Chandrayaan-2 , manned lunar lander
Mars Mars , Viking , Mars Pathfinder , Spirit , Opportunity , Beagle 2 , Phoenix , Curiosity , InSight
Venus some Venera probes, Pioneer-Venus , Vega
Saturn moon Titan Huygens
Asteroid (433) Eros NEAR Shoemaker
Asteroid Itokawa Hayabusa
Asteroid Ryugu Hayabusa 2 , MINERVA , MASCOT
Asteroid Bennu OSIRIS-REx
Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet Philae
Planned missions in the next few years
moon Other countries to the moon ( Chang'e 5 , Peregrine etc.)
Mars More landers to Mars ( Mars 2020 Rover , ExoMars Rover , etc.)
Venus More Landers to Venus ( Shukrayaan-1 )
Proposed missions for later 2020s
Saturn moon Titan " Dragonfly "
Mars Sample returns from Mars
Neptune's moon Triton " Trident " (orbital mission)

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Lander  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Single receipts

  1. ^ Lander - Duden , Bibliographisches Institut ; 2016