Carl Zeiss (company)
|Carl Zeiss AG
|founding||November 17, 1846 in Jena|
|Seat||Oberkochen , Germany|
|Number of employees||31,260 (September 30, 2019)|
|sales||6.428 billion euros (2018/19)|
|Branch||Optics , optoelectronics , medical technology , semiconductor technology , measurement technology|
The Carl Zeiss AG is a company of precision engineering - optical industry . The headquarters of the corporate management are today in Oberkochen . Further locations are in Jena , Aalen , Dresden , Berlin , Göttingen , Munich , Karlsruhe , Bochingen , Roßdorf and Wetzlar as well as in the USA , Hungary , Switzerland , Mexico , Belarus , France , Israel , India , in the United Kingdom and in the People's Republic of China .
Carl Zeiss 1846–1945
The mechanic master Carl Zeiß , who originally came from Weimar , opened a precision mechanical and optical workshop in Neugasse 7 in Jena in 1846 . For this he received a “Grand Ducal Concession to Manufacture and Sell Mechanical and Optical Instruments”. In 1847 he hired August Löber as his first apprentice, who later became a foreman at Zeiss. At the end of the year, the first simple microscopes were manufactured in the workshop. In 1852 Zeiss had ten employees.
Carl Zeiss, who was appointed "University Mechanic" in 1860, was not satisfied with the quality of his microscopes. Each microscope was unique . Although one had a lot of practice in assembling lenses to a complete microscope objective by trial and error, there was no way of calculating the properties of a microscope in advance and optimizing them in a targeted manner. The mathematician Friedrich Wilhelm Barfuß tried to calculate microscope optics between 1850 and 1854 in order to create the basis for a scientific microscope construction. However, he was unsuccessful. Therefore, from 1866 Zeiss worked together with Ernst Abbe , a physics professor at the University of Jena . After years of work and setbacks, he succeeded in establishing a theory of microscope optics. As the only company in the world, Carl Zeiss was now able to produce microscopes with pre-calculated properties. This started a unique success story. As early as 1875, Carl Zeiss had 60 employees.
However, Zeiss and Abbe could not solve an important problem: The production of special optical glass that made completely new optics possible. So they worked together with the chemist Otto Schott , whom they brought to Jena. After successful glass melting tests for the Carl Zeiss company, they set up the Jena glassworks Schott and comrades in Jena, today Schott AG . In 1875 Carl Zeiß decided to offer his friend Ernst Abbe a partnership in the company. Roderich Zeiss, the eldest son of Carl Zeiss, also joined the company a year later. Carl Zeiss died in 1888, leaving behind an important company with 327 employees and brilliant prospects.
Before the First World War , the company experienced a rapid ascent, which did not let up with the outbreak of the First World War. In both world wars, the company was one of the most important German manufacturers of armaments and war-relevant optics. Among other things, a factory was opened in Vienna in 1912, for which a four-story new building, the Zeiss factory in Vienna, was built by the architect Robert Oerley during the war years of 1916 and 1917.
After initial conflicts with the National Socialist rulers, the company participated in the armament of the Wehrmacht in the 1930s and sponsored the so-called race research at the University of Jena. During the Second World War , the Zeiss company employed thousands of forced laborers , for example at the main location in Jena and in the various production sites and affiliated companies.
Carl Zeiss in Jena
After the American troops withdrew from Thuringia, the Red Army took control of the company and began dismantling . In 1946/47 the plant was almost completely dismantled and nationalized on July 1, 1948. The Jena plant was integrated into the GDR state industry as VEB Carl Zeiss Jena . The Dresden plant of the subsidiary Zeiss Ikon was also nationalized and initially traded as VEB Zeiss Ikon, in 1960 it was merged with the optical department of VEB Feinmess Dresden, which produced the bonotar , to form a production department of Carl Zeiss.
In 1965, VEB Carl Zeiss Jena became the parent company of the combine of the same name , to which other VEBs from the optical, precision engineering and electronics industries were gradually assigned. In 1965 the VEB Rathenower Optische Werke was incorporated into the combine. There were other VEB in Dresden, Suhl, Gera, Saalfeld, Eisfeld and Freiberg. In 1985 the VEB Pentacon Dresden Combine was added, in which large parts of the Saxon optical-precision engineering industry had already merged (including Zeiss Ikon, Meyer-Optik , Ihagee , Filmosto , Praktica ). In the 1980s, the Zeiss Kombinat comprised 25 companies with up to 70,000 employees.
- General Directors
- Hugo Schrade (1945–1966)
- Ernst Gallerach (1966–1971)
- Helmut Wunderlich (1971–1975)
- Wolfgang Biermann (1975 to 1989), member of the Central Committee of the SED
Technological highlights of the VEB Carl Zeiss
In 1955, Zeiss Jena completed the OPREMA, the first computer built in the GDR, of which only two were built. In 1961, another computer was presented with the Zeiss calculating machine ( ZRA 1 ), which was manufactured until 1964.
From the 1960s onwards, an in-house design office headed by the respected industrial designer Gerd Böhnisch took over the design of all newly developed products from VEB Carl Zeiss Jena. Microscopes, theodolites, planetariums, telescopes, cinema technology and other devices showed a uniform design line. At least in the area of product design , Gerd Böhnisch and his team at VEB Carl Zeiss Jena ensured what is now known as corporate design or corporate identity .
The multi-spectral camera MKF 6 for remote sensing of space and aircraft was developed and built at VEB Carl Zeiss Jena . The first deployment took place in September 1976 on board the Soyuz 22 spacecraft . Even Sigmund Jähn , the first German in the cosmos, thus conducted during his space flight experiments on remote sensing. The further developed version MKF 6M came u. a. on the Mir space station .
After the GDR was only allowed to manufacture simple optics for military use for a long time, the Soviet Union increasingly transferred military development and production projects since the 1970s. As a result, the combine gained increasing importance as an armaments company: A large number of optical military devices were developed and produced here, such as the UMGPi universal measuring device for pioneers, the PM 1 stereo night vision device for engineer tanks, the homing head of the K-13M air-to-air missile , and the Wolna fire control system for the T-55 A and the rangefinder for the T-72, to name a few projects. In the years 1976 to 1980, the share of military production was 5.5% of total production, in 1986 it was 21.8% for the Carl Zeiss combine. A further increase to 28% was planned by 1990.
However, Gorbachev's disarmament policy meant that the production capacities that had already been set up were no longer used for this purpose. That is why another major project in the GDR was becoming increasingly important: the provision of all the equipment needed to manufacture microchips. The VEB Carl Zeiss Jena combine was awarded the gold medal for the 1 megabit chip U61000 at the Leipzig spring fair in 1989. It is controversial whether the equipment for the production of this chip was ready for series production at that time. It is certain that this project far exceeded the financial possibilities of the GDR and the technological potential of the combine.
Planetarium projectors continued to be developed, built and exported worldwide in Jena .
Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen
At the end of the Second World War, Jena was briefly occupied by US troops. With the withdrawal of the US armed forces from Thuringia in June 1945, numerous specialists and the incumbent management from Jena were deported to Heidenheim ( Württemberg ). On October 4, 1946, Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH was founded in Oberkochen and a new production location was set up. On July 31, 1947, the name was changed to "Zeiss-Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH". On October 1st, it became the "Carl Zeiss" company. New production facilities were built out of nowhere, initially focusing on the areas of eyeglass lenses, microscopes and photo optics that are particularly needed by the population.
Selection of technical milestones Carl Zeiss West (1946–1989)
In 1949 new lenses are calculated which for the first time take into account the physiological visual conditions of humans. In 1950 the completely redeveloped “Standard” microscope model series was presented, which became the most successful and best-selling generation of microscopes worldwide. In 1956 the EM9 electron microscope was presented, the world's first electromagnetic transmission electron microscope with automatic exposure control. In 1957, the Meyer-Schwickerath xenon light coagulator was introduced, the world's first light surgical device and the forerunner of ophthalmic lasers. In 1969 the photographs of the first moon landing are made with Zeiss lenses. In 1977 the S-Planar 10 / 0.28 lens with a resolution of 1 micrometer was used in the world's first wafer stepper from the American company David Mann (later GCA). In 1982 Zeiss presented the first optics for the working wavelength of 365 nanometers (I-Line). The S-Planar 10 / 0.32 is the first step into the nanometer world (structure size: 800 nanometers) and the basis for developments in semiconductor technology. In 1984 the simultaneous spectrometer was presented, which combined several cutting-edge technologies and was awarded the American IR-100 Prize as one of the 100 most important developments of 1984 and, shortly afterwards, the 1985 German Business Innovation Prize. 1986 Zeiss introduces a new generation of highly modular microscopes with infinite optics (ICS), the "pyramid generation".
Carl Zeiss after 1990
From 1990 the VEB Carl Zeiss Jena came under the administration of the Treuhandanstalt and from 1990 to 1991 it was split into the Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH and the Jenoptik GmbH, whereby the former included the optical core business. Carl Zeiss Oberkochen and Jenoptik shared the shares in Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, and in 1995 the shares in Jenoptik were taken over by Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen. Due to the corporate crisis of the entire group and the consequences of reunification, there were several waves of layoffs in the mid-1990s.
In the following ten years the company was restructured. The larger business areas became independent subsidiaries with overall responsibility for development, production and sales. A new plant was built in Oberkochen for semiconductor technology. With the exception of the crisis year 2008/09, the years since the turn of the millennium have been among the most successful in the company's history.
After the death of Carl Zeiss , Ernst Abbe founded the Carl Zeiss Foundation in 1889 , to which he and the descendants of Carl Zeiss transferred their company shares. The Jenaer Glaswerk, now Schott AG , is also 100 percent owned by the Carl Zeiss Foundation.
In the foundation statute of 1896, Abbe not only laid down the goals of the foundation, but also basic principles of corporate governance and enforceable rights of employees. In this respect, the foundation is a forerunner of modern labor law.
During the division of Germany, there were two Carl Zeiss foundations in the GDR and in the Federal Republic of Germany, each claiming sole agency. After many years of legal disputes, an agreement was reached on October 1, 1971 in the London Agreement. For export to RGW -Staaten the devices from the West bore the name "Opton" reversed exported goods from Jena outside the Comecon area the name "from Jena." In the other countries, the more precise designations of origin "Jena" or "West Germany" had to make the products distinguishable.
In 1992 these two foundations were merged. In 2004, the foundation statute was fundamentally reformed and the companies belonging to the foundation were converted into stock corporations.
The foundation administration, which is formed by the science ministers of the states of Baden-Württemberg and Thuringia, appoints a three-person foundation council. He exercises the owner's rights and obligations of the foundation towards the companies. The board members of the companies in turn have a seat on the board of directors and must be heard on all important questions of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. The managing director of the Carl Zeiss Foundation has been Dr. Felix Streiter.
- The Carl Zeiss Industrielle Messtechnik GmbH , a wholly owned subsidiary of Carl Zeiss AG, one of the world's leading manufacturers of coordinate measuring unterschiedlichster design, measurement volume and measurement accuracy.
- The Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH develops and manufactures customized optical and mechanical components and systems for clients inside and outside the Carl Zeiss Group.
- The Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH offers microscopy solutions and systems for research and laboratory applications in biology and medicine, and for materials analysis, as well as spectral sensors for the analysis market. The microscopic systems include wide-field microscopes and laser-scanning microscopes as well as charged particle microscopes.
- The listed Carl Zeiss Meditec AG , majority shareholder is Carl Zeiss, is one of the world's leading providers of system solutions for ophthalmology.
- The Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH presents with its subsidiaries Carl Zeiss SMS GmbH and Carl Zeiss Laser Optics GmbH products for the semiconductor industry.
- The Carl Zeiss SMS GmbH , a subsidiary of Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology), specializes in equipment for inspection and repair photolithographic masks in the semiconductor industry.
- The Carl Zeiss Vision International GmbH is one of the world's leading manufacturers of glasses nglasprodukten, ophthalmic devices and services for opticians and optometrists . With the merger of the optics division of Carl Zeiss AG and the US eyeglass lens manufacturer SOLA International Inc., Carl Zeiss Vision was created in 2005 as the world's second largest eyeglass lens manufacturer with headquarters in Aalen .
- Riflescopes, binoculars and spotting scopes are produced by Carl Zeiss Sports Optics GmbH (formerly Hensoldt AG) in Wetzlar.
- The traditional business with optronic systems for defense technology, surveillance and security - the former Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH - was taken over by a majority of Cassidian , a division of EADS GmbH, at the end of the 2011/12 financial year and merged into today's Hensoldt Group .
- The GOM GmbH was acquired in mid of 2019. GOM was founded in 1990 in Braunschweig as a company for optical measurement technology mbH and specializes in optical 3D measurement technology. At the time of the takeover, it had around 600 employees.
- Photo lenses and industrial optics are classic optics products that look back on a long history and yet always produce something new.
- In 1923 the first planetarium projector was built for the German Museum in Munich. Since then, the devices have been continuously developed.
- The Cinemizer video glasses are a new product for a future market.
- In the history of Zeiss, fundamental inventions were made in the fields of surveying technology and the creation and evaluation of aerial photographs. Both areas were brought into joint ventures in the 1990s. Today one only manufactures the lenses for aerial cameras.
- Since the 1890s, a large number of devices for chemical analysis technology have been manufactured on an optical basis. Today the product catalog for spectral sensors includes, for example, devices for environmental protection (determination of air pollution by means of reflected laser light) and much more.
- The Carl Zeiss company achieved great fame for its astronomical instruments. This includes telescopes, reflector telescopes and equipment for observatories, but also planetariums. In the field of astronomical instruments, Carl Zeiss also manufactures mirrors for mirror telescopes (e.g. the GREGOR telescope) and satellites.
Photo technology digression
Carl Zeiss has been manufacturing camera lenses since 1890. With a few exceptions, the parent company Carl Zeiss limited itself to optics production and development and left the production of cameras to the subsidiaries. In 1902 Zeiss received the patent for the Tessar lens calculated by Paul Rudolph , the rear lens arrangement of which was used in the former Carl Zeiss company logo. In 1900, Rudolph helped found Palmos AG to manufacture cameras, which, however, was unsuccessful in business. In order to avert bankruptcy, Carl Zeiss took over the company and incorporated it into the newly founded ICA AG in 1909, which also included Hüttig AG and Wünsche AG from Dresden and the company Dr. E. Krügener from Frankfurt am Main. ICA AG was again incorporated into Zeiss Ikon AG in 1926.
VEB Carl Zeiss Jena
The Contax camera was originally developed and produced at Zeiss Ikon in Dresden. Since the means of production had been dismantled in a first wave of dismantling, but never fully arrived in the Soviet Union, the Soviet occupying power commissioned Carl Zeiss Jena to set up a production facility. From 1946, the production of Contax rangefinder cameras (and lenses for them) of the pre-war series was prepared in Jena and Saalfeld . After the start of a trial production, the systems were brought to Kiev, where the camera was manufactured under the name of Kiev, and thus the camera production in Jena was ended again. VEB Carl Zeiss Jena supplied some of the lenses for the SLR cameras of VEB Pentacon in Dresden, including Contax , Praktina , Praktica , Praktisix and Pentacon Six until Pentacon ceased production in the early 1990s. The Werra camera was manufactured in the Eisfeld factory from 1954 to 1967 .
Carl Zeiss (Oberkochen)
After establishment of a special optical production, the lenses of which were from Carl Zeiss Messsucherkameras Contax IIa and Contax IIIa and below for the SLR Contaflex and Contarex built by acquisition of Voigtlander by the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung also for their cameras. Carl Zeiss later also manufactured lenses for medium format cameras from non-foundation manufacturers, namely Hasselblad and Rollei . The video and photo equipment (Hasselblad cameras) used for the first Apollo 11 lunar landing mission on July 21, 1969, with which the world-famous pictures were taken, was equipped with lenses from Zeiss.
After the cessation of camera production at Zeiss Ikon in 1972, Carl Zeiss acted briefly as the manufacturer of the Contarex cameras until they were discontinued. Also in 1972 the cooperation agreement was signed with the Japanese camera manufacturer Yashica , which provided for the delivery of lenses for newly developed SLR cameras under the classic name Contax , which continued to be owned by Carl Zeiss. The cooperation started in 1974, but the manufacture of most Contax lenses was soon transferred to Yashica as contract manufacturing . This cooperation lasted until 2005 and was expanded to include compact cameras , medium format cameras and digital cameras from the manufacturer Kyocera , which took over Yashica in 1982. However, Carl Zeiss was responsible for the optical design and quality monitoring in all cases. For example, the Zeiss Tessar lens was used in the compact cameras of the Yashica (Kyocera) T2 / T3 / T4 / T5 series.
In addition to lenses for technical applications and for filming, Zeiss currently offers interchangeable lenses with a focal length of 12 to 135 mm for system cameras from various brands (2015). These lenses are also manufactured at Cosina in Japan under the supervision of Zeiss employees . Zeiss is also active as a supplier of lenses for smartphones and compact cameras.
There has been a particularly close cooperation between Zeiss and Sony since 1996 . Both companies are jointly developing lenses for Sony cameras that are specified by Zeiss, produced by Sony and supplied with the Zeiss logo. In addition, Zeiss itself produces the Batis , Loxia and Touit lens families for Sony's mirrorless system cameras.
In June 2010 the Federal Cartel Office imposed fines totaling 115 million euros on several lens manufacturers and the Central Association of Opticians (ZVA) for cartel agreements . Carl Zeiss Vision GmbH was the addressee of the fine in the Carl Zeiss Group . However, the amounts of money were reduced due to good cooperation.
- Fritz Scheffel: Glass miracles. Three men create a work. Zeiß, Abbe, Schott. Braun & Schneider, Munich 1938.
- Heinz Sponsel: Made in Germany. The dramatic history of the Zeiss company. Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1957.
- Wolfgang Held: The glass torch. Volume 1, Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 1989, ISBN 3-354-00510-6 .
FC Carl Zeiss Jena football club
- The visionaries - Zeiss is revolutionizing vision. Documentary, Germany, 2017, 29:45 min., Script and direction: Tamara Spitzing, production: SWR , series: made in Südwest , first broadcast: April 19, 2017 on SWR television , synopsis by ARD , online video available until April 22 , 2017 . August 2019.
- Werner Plumpe: A vision. Two companies. 125 years of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66285-0 .
- Bernd K. Otto : Carl Zeiss Camera Register 1902–2012. Contributions to the company's history. Camera Register Index. List of all camera models . Rudolf Hillebrand, Neuss 2012, ISBN 978-3-9813746-4-3 .
- Stephan Paetrow: ... what belongs together. 20 years of reunification of Carl Zeiss. Hanseatischer Merkur, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-922857-51-8 .
- Matthias Georgi, Tobias Mahl: 90 years of industrial measurement technology at Carl Zeiss . August Dreesbach, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-940061-34-8 .
- Katharina Schreiner, Klaus-Dieter Gattnar, Horst Skoludek: Carl Zeiss East and West - History of a Reunification. Jena 2006.
- Armin Müller: Institutional breaks and personal bridges. Plant manager in state-owned companies in the GDR in the Ulbricht era (= economic and social-historical studies. Volume 15). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2006, ISBN 3-412-31005-0 (from 1945 to 1975; also: Konstanz, Universität, dissertation, 2005).
- Franz-Ferdinand von Falkenhausen, Otto Haueis, Ute Leonhardt, Otto Wiegand, Wolfgang Wimmer: Carl Zeiss in Jena 1846 to 1946. Sutton Verlag, 2004.
- Wolfgang Mühlfriedel, Edith Hellmuth: Carl Zeiss in Jena 1945–1990 (= Carl Zeiss. Volume 3). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2004, ISBN 3-412-11196-1 .
- Hans-Jürgen Kuc: On the trail of the Contax. Volume 2: Contax history from 1945 to today, with Contaflex, Contarex, Icarex and Kiev. 2nd Edition. Wittig Fachbuchverlag, Hückelhoven 2003, ISBN 3-930359-34-0 .
- Armin Hermann: And still brothers. The German-German history of the Carl Zeiss company (= Piper 3821 series ). Piper, Munich et al. 2002, ISBN 3-492-23821-1 .
- Reinhard Neunhöffer: Jena laser technology: between science, business and state security. Stuttgart 2001 (Stuttgart, university, dissertation, 2001).
- Rolf Walter : Zeiss 1905-1945 (= Carl Zeiss. Volume 2). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2000, ISBN 3-412-11096-5 .
- Armin Hermann: Jena and Jenoptik. From combine to global player. ECON, Düsseldorf et al. 1998, ISBN 3-430-14461-2 .
- Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel: Zeiss 1846–1905. From a workshop for mechanics to a leading company in optical device construction (= Carl Zeiss. Volume 1). Böhlau, Weimar et al. 1996, ISBN 3-412-05696-0 .
- Armin Hermann : Only the name remained. The adventurous history of the Carl Zeiss company. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-421-06515-2 .
- Ilse Wettig: The education of the working people in socialist work discipline by the union leadership on the basis of the ten commandments of ethics and morals , examined in the VEB Carl Zeiss Jena . Union college, Bernau 1960 (diploma thesis).
- Friedrich Schomerus: History of the Jena Zeisswerk. 1846-1946. Piscator, Stuttgart 1952.
- MV Rohr: On the history of the Zeissische Werkstätte until Ernst Abbe's death. With contributions by Max Fischer and August Köhler. Volckmar, Leipzig 1936.
- Manuel Schramm: Precision as a model? Carl Zeiss and the German culture of innovation in East and West, 1945–1990 . In: Technikgeschichte, Vol. 72 (2005), H. 1, pp. 35-49.
- Lutz Sartor: Auto Union AG and its reactions to the “Volkswagen” project 1931–1942 . In: Technikgeschichte, 72nd Vol. (2005), H. 1, pp. 51-72.
- Carl Zeiss AG website
- Zeiss Museum in Oberkochen
- Carl Zeiss company history, an older article but updated and covers Zeiss history up to around 2000, with interesting content and images
- Management Board and Supervisory Board of Carl Zeiss AG. Carl Zeiss AG
- ZEISS relies on continuity when changing CEOs. Carl Zeiss AG
- economic. Carl Zeiss AG, accessed December 11, 2019 .
- Directions to Carl Zeiss in Germany. Carl Zeiss AG, accessed on September 11, 2013 .
- For the early history see: Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel: Zeiss 1846-1905. From a workshop for mechanics to a leading company in optical device construction. (= Carl Zeiss. The history of a company. Volume 1). Böhlau, Weimar et al. 1996, ISBN 3-412-05696-0 .
- For the early history see: Horst Alexander William: Carl Zeiss 1816–1888. (= 6th supplement to the tradition, magazine for company history and entrepreneur biography.) Bruckmann, Munich 1967.
- On the collaboration with Abbe see: Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel: Zeiss 1846–1905. From a workshop for mechanics to a leading company in optical device construction. (= Carl Zeiss. The history of a company. Volume 1). Böhlau, Weimar et al. 1996, ISBN 3-412-05696-0 , pp. 59ff.
- On the collaboration with Abbe see: Rüdiger Stolz, Joachim Wittig (eds.): Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe. Life, work and meaning. Universitätsverlag, Jena 1993, ISBN 3-925978-14-3 .
- On the collaboration with Schott see: Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel: Zeiss 1846–1905. From a workshop for mechanics to a leading company in optical device construction. (= Carl Zeiss. The history of a company. Volume 1). Böhlau, Weimar u. a. 1996, ISBN 3-412-05696-0 , pp. 90ff.
- Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel: Zeiss 1846-1905. From a workshop for mechanics to a leading company in optical device construction. (= Carl Zeiss. The history of a company. Volume 1). Böhlau, Weimar et al. 1996, ISBN 3-412-05696-0 , pp. 85ff.
- Wolfgang Wimmer: Carl Zeiss in the First World War. In: Birgitt Hellmann, Matias Mieth (Ed.): Home Front. A central German university town during the First World War. (= Building blocks for Jena city history. Volume 17.) Jena City Museum, Jena 2014, ISBN 978-3-942176-32-3 , pp. 193–212.
- Robert Oerley's Zeiss factory in Vienna-Breitensee (PDF; 7.5 MB) in Denkma (i) l of the Monument Protection Initiative, issue 07/2011, accessed on March 1, 2018.
- University of Jena and the Nazi era - racial mania and intrigue. Retrieved February 6, 2020 .
- For the history of Carl Zeiss Jena during the Nazi era, see: Rolf Walter: Zeiss 1905–1945. (= Carl Zeiss. The history of a company. Volume 2). Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2000, ISBN 3-412-11096-5 .
- Evelyn Halm, Margitta Ballhorn: Foreign civil workers in Jena 1940-1945. Municipal museums, Jena 1995, ISBN 3-930128-21-7 .
- For the history of Carl Zeiss Jena in the GDR era, see: Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel: Carl Zeiss 1945–1990. (= Carl Zeiss. The history of a company. Volume 3). Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-412-11196-1 .
- Edgar Mühlhausen: OPREMA and ZRA 1 - Early developments in digital computing technology in the Zeiss plant in Jena. In: Jena yearbook on technology and industrial history. 1999, ISBN 3-931743-10-1 , pp. 109-127.
- Ingeborg de Roode: Bauhaus Reception and GDR Design Policy: From Socialism to Stalinism to Capitalism . In the scientific journal of the University of Architecture and Construction . Weimar 1992, Ed. 38, pp. 291-292. Online at e-pub.uni-weimar.de (PDF; 6.0 MB)
- Achim Zickler: The MKF-6 multispectral camera. Start of Zeiss-Jena participation in manned space travel. In: Jena yearbook on technology and industrial history. Volume 3, 2001, ISBN 3-931743-48-9 , pp. 101-121.
- Klaus-Dieter Gattnar: production of military products in the VEB Carl Zeiss Jena. In: Jena yearbook on technology and industrial history. Volume 10, 2007, ISBN 978-3-940265-06-7 , pp. 127-153.
- Gerhard Barkleit : Microelectronics in East Germany. SED, the state apparatus and state security in the competition of systems. (= Reports and studies. No. 29). Hannah Arendt Institute for Research on Totalitarianism, Dresden 2000, ISBN 3-931648-32-X .
- Reinhard Buthmann: Management security in the VEB Carl Zeiss Jena combine. State security and the failure of the microelectronics program. Links, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-86153-153-4 .
- For the history of Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen see: Stephan Paetrow: … what belongs together. 20 years of reunification of Carl Zeiss. Hanseatischer Merkur, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-922857-51-8 .
- See: Stephan Paetrow: ... what belongs together. 20 years of reunification of Carl Zeiss. Hanseatischer Merkur, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-922857-51-8 .
- Peter Steinbach, Sebastian Demel: Ernst Abbe and the establishment of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. Promotion of science - will to shape - responsibility. In: Werner Plumpe (ed.): One vision two companies. 125 years of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66285-0 , pp. 47-58.
- Carl Zeiss Foundation. About us. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 17, 2014 ; Retrieved July 22, 2017 .
- Louis Pahlow: "... anti-capitalist, but by no means socialist." In: Werner Plumpe (ed.): One vision two companies. 125 years of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66285-0 , pp. 65-85.
- Rainer Karlsch: The Carl Zeiss Foundation in Jena 1945 to 1989. In: Werner Plumpe (Hrsg.): One vision two companies. 125 years of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66285-0 , pp. 195-237.
- Dieter Ziegler: The Carl Zeiss Foundation Heidenheim 1948 to 1989. In: Werner Plumpe (Ed.): One vision two companies. 125 years of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66285-0 , p. 239 ff.
- André Steiner: The (re) unification of the Carl Zeiss Foundations West and East. and Christian Kleinschmidt: The 21st Century - The Foundation Reform. In: Werner Plumpe (ed.): One vision two companies. 125 years of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66285-0 , p. 293ff.
- Carl Zeiss Foundation. Organization. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 17, 2014 ; Retrieved July 22, 2017 .
- Matthias Georgi, Tobias Mahl: 90 years of industrial metrology at Carl Zeiss . August Dreesbach, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-940061-34-8 .
- EQT, Carl Zeiss buy of Sola International cleared by EU. In: finanznachrichten.de , March 3, 2005, accessed on May 9, 2019.
- Press release on the acquisition of GOM
- Christian Klaß: 3D-capable video glasses with head tracker also for games. In: Golem.de , February 28, 2012.
- Werra IV. In: seeing1.de , accessed on May 9, 2019.
- Zeiss Touit lenses. In: zeiss.de. Retrieved September 20, 2015 .
- Zeiss Distagon lenses. In: zeiss.de. Retrieved September 20, 2015 .
- Sony and ZEISS: What Photographers Should Know About the Partnership - Camera Lens Blog, In: blogs.zeiss.com , accessed on July 21, 2016.
- Photographing with subpages, in: zeiss.de , accessed on July 27, 2016.
- Press release: 115 million euros fine against lens manufacturers. ( Memento from September 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: Bundeskartellamt , June 10, 2010.
- 115 million euros fine for eyeglass lens manufacturers and opticians' association. In: Telepolis , heise.de , June 12, 2010.
- YaaCool Europe Webcontent Ltd .: Consumer deception: Leading German eyeglass lens manufacturers have been negotiating prices for years. Retrieved May 30, 2018 .