|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||143 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||114.77 km 2|
|Residents:||111,343 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||970 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||03641, 036425|
|License plate :||J|
|Community key :||16 0 53 000|
|LOCODE :||DE JEN|
|City structure:||41 districts ,
City administration address :
|Am Anger 15
|Lord Mayor :||Thomas Nitzsche ( FDP )|
|Location of the city of Jena in Thuringia|
Jena is a German university city and an independent city in Thuringia in the metropolitan region of Central Germany . It is located on the Saale between the limestone slopes of the Ilm-Saale-Platte and is the second largest city in Thuringia after the state capital Erfurt and one of the three regional centers of the Free State . Jena is also the 73rd largest city in Germany .
Jena is home to the Friedrich Schiller University Jena , which was founded in 1558 and is currently the largest university in Thuringia with 17,179 students. Jena began to develop into an industrial city with the construction of the Saalbahn in 1874 . It is a center of the German optics and precision engineering industry around the Carl Zeiss company . The Carl Zeiss combine with around 60,000 employees was also the largest combine in the GDR at the time . After German reunification in 1990, Jena changed from an industrial center to a center of education and science. Numerous research laboratories and institutes are based in Jena.
Two of the earliest German skyscrapers were built in the city, the Zeiss Bau 15 and Bau 36 . The 144.5 m (with antenna 159.60 m) high office tower Jentower was the tallest tower block in Germany when it was completed in 1972 .
In 2008, the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft awarded Jena the title City of Science . The city of Jena also advertises itself with the name “Jena. City of Light. ”In 2016, Jena was awarded the honorary title of“ Reformation City of Europe ”by the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe .
Jena is located in the middle Saale valley between limestone and red sandstone slopes that are partly covered by mixed forests (geological phenomena include the devil's holes and the student slide ). On them, e.g. B. in the Leutra Valley, there are numerous, sometimes rare orchid species .
The largest extension is 14.7 kilometers from north to south and 12.2 kilometers from east to west.
Cities in the area
The following larger cities are in the vicinity of Jena: Weimar (approx. 19 km west), Apolda (approx. 12 km north), Rudolstadt (approx. 30 km south), Naumburg (Saale) (approx. 29 km north-east), Gera (approx. 35 km east), Erfurt (approx. 40 km west), Halle (Saale) (approx. 67 km northeast), Leipzig (approx. 72 km northeast), Chemnitz (approx. 96 km east) and Dresden (approx . 152 km east).
- in the Saale-Holzland district :
- Administrative community Dornburg-Camburg with Lehesten (with Altengönna), Neuengönna (with Porstendorf ), Golmsdorf (with Beutnitz ), Jenalöbnitz and Großlöbichau
- Administrative community Südliches Saaletal with Rabis , Fraitsch, Gröben (belong to Schlöben , the fulfilling municipality is Bad Klosterlausnitz ), Laasdorf , Zöllnitz , Rutha , Rothenstein , Milda (with Dürrengleina and Zimmritz ) and Bucha (with Pösen , Oßmaritz , Nennsdorf and Coppanz )
- in the Weimarer Land district :
The administration of the city of Jena is divided into 30 districts according to § 45 of the Thuringian municipal code. These districts were determined by the main statute of the city of Jena. These are mostly spatially separated areas or villages that were formerly independent communities. For each locality there is a local council elected by direct election at a citizens' meeting . The chairman is the also directly elected mayor of the district . The 30 districts of the city are listed in the list of districts of Jena .
In addition, the urban area of Jena is divided into 41 statistical districts . These are: Ammerbach Ort, Beutenberg / Winzerlaer Straße, Burgau Ort, Closewitz , Cospeda , Drackendorf , Drackendorf / Lobeda-Ost, Göschwitz , Ilmnitz , Isserstedt , Jena-Nord , Jena-Süd , Jena-West , Jena-Zentrum , Jenaprießnitz , Krippendorf , Kunitz , Laasan , Lichtenhain Ort, Leutra , Lobeda-Altstadt , Lobeda-Ost , Lobeda-West , Löbstedt Ort, Lützeroda , Maua , Mühlenstraße, Münchenroda, Nord II, Remderoda , Ringwiese Flur Burgau, Vierzehnheiligen , Wenigenjena / Kernberge, Wenigenjena Ort, Wenigenjena / Schlegelsberg, Winzerla , Wogau , Wöllnitz , Ziegenhain Ort, Ziegenhainer Tal and Zwätze .
Mountains and heights
Due to the location of Jena in the valleys of the Saale and its tributaries, which have cut into the surrounding plateau, numerous prominent peaks and mountain formations emerged, the heights of which are mostly overlie. Once unforested and bare, these heights and slopes have been reforested over the past two centuries.
Other mountains in the area are west of the Saale - from north to south - the Plattenberg (345 m) on the Neuengönna district , the Jägerberg and the Windknollen (with Napoleon stone, 363 m, both within the Jena city limits), the Cospoth (397 m ) on the districts of Jena and Bucha , the Spitzenberg (374 m) near Maua on the Rothenstein district and the Kuppe (438 m, Dürrengleina ). To the east of the Saale, for example, are the (Große) Gleißberg (365 m, more rarely Gleisberg ) in Golmsdorf , on which the Kunitzburg ruins stand, and the Eichberg south of the Roda confluence with the Saale in the Sulza district . There is another castle hill in the valley of the tracks .
The formation of the surface relief in the urban area, especially the valley slopes, is the result of a differentiated geological situation based on the geological conditions in the central Saale valley .
Jena is one of the climatically particularly favored areas of Germany. Due to this location, however, Jena is particularly affected by the effects of overheating of the earth's climate system as part of climate change , which means that adaptation measures are required. The strong reflection of the sun's rays on the steep valley slopes and especially the heat storage of the shell limestone create an early and mild spring, hot summer, long and warm autumn and mild winter. With an average annual temperature of 9.3 ° C (1961–1990), Jena is one of the warmest places in Central Germany. On the plateaus 200 to 250 m higher and the areas bordering them in the east and south, the annual mean temperature is already 1 to 1.5 ° C lower. In addition, the location is sheltered from the wind, because the course of the valley means that the winds are mostly deflected and weakened in a north-south direction. The low mountain ranges surrounding the Thuringian Basin shield the precipitation. The annual rainfall is only 570 to 680 liters per square meter, most of it falls in the summer months. Due to the warm microclimate, the region near Jena is also called Thuringian Tuscany or the Tuscany of the East .
Origin of the city name
The origin of the name Jena has always been a point of contention and is still not fully clarified today. As early as 1858, Johann Karl Schauer rejected some derivations, including from Hebrew ֶַַיַיִן jajin and ancient Greek οἶνος oínos for wine, the name Johannes in relation to the Johanneskirche, the Roman god Janus , the Slavic jiny (dt. different, different) for marked change of terrain and brittle land, as well as some German explanations such as the word yawn with reference on the Schnapphans who opens his mouth at the strike of the hour (and yawns). Schauer himself (and later also the city historian Herbert Koch ) sees the solution in Celtic, especially in the word gen, which stands for mouth and in a figurative sense for mouth, whereby Jena is shaped like a mouth through the valley basin or, in the case of Koch, a confluence two bodies of water, the Leutra brook together with the Saale. The main objection to this is that the Celts never lived in East Thuringia.
The more recent discussion is mainly concerned with the question of whether the name Jani can be derived from Slavic or from German, since there is evidence of a settlement in the vicinity for both peoples. Ferdinand Mentz and Rudolf Fischer rejected a derivation from the Slavic form Jan von Johannes, mainly on the grounds that on the one hand the Slavs were not Christianized (i.e. pagan) in the middle of the 9th century, so they could not know the name and they contracted Form Jan, on the other hand, did not exist before the 10th century. In addition, Fischer does not want to identify an ancient Slavonic form that Jani could refer to. A Germanic-German origin of the name is therefore favored by many name researchers. It is possible to derive it from the Old High German gang with the meanings aisle, path or route, or - more likely - from the agricultural and historical-vintner-language expression "Jahn", which, in addition to forest strips and farmland, also includes a part of a built-up area or a vineyard section to be done in one aisle can denote. It remains to be seen whether viticulture had already taken place at this time. Some authors are also critical of the fact that the meaning as a stripe is not characteristic enough for a place name, and that viticulture in the area probably developed outside the city center, where it no longer had any influence on the formation of the name.
The city was first mentioned from the period between 830 and 850. In Hersfelder tithe directory appears Liutdraha (the risen in today's locust suburban village Leutra) next Iani . For 1145 and 1182 the form Gene is used, for 1216 Iehene and for 1252 Iene . The ending -a has been traceable since the middle of the 15th century. In Latin texts , Jena is called the Athens on the Saale (Athenae ad Salam) .
After the death of Wilhelm IV , Count Palatine of the Rhine, in 1140 as the owners of Jena, the lords of Lobdeburg raised the town to a town in 1230, which was soon afterwards walled, expanded its self-government under the council attested to in 1275. Century the mayor's office , 1365 the lower courts and 1429 the upper courts to itself. When the Saale flooded on June 23, 1263 35 of the approximately 1000 inhabitants died. The rapidly flourishing viticulture brought the citizens good profit. Around 1176 a "Hermann, lord of the upper house" in Lobdeburg ordered "the knights and citizens of Gene to pave a public street that goes through a courtyard that the monastery of Heusdorf had acquired and that was in the court of Jena" . In 1286 the Dominicans built their monastery, in 1301 the Cistercian convent was built near the Michaeliskirche . The lords of Lobdeburg had the Jena mint built in the 12th century .
When the Lobdeburgers weakened, the Counts of Schwarzburg and the Wettins appeared. By 1331 the Wettins came into full possession of the city. In 1332 they granted Jena city rights to Gotha. In 1414 the Carmelite monastery was built . After the death of Friedrich the Strengen (1381), his three sons Friedrich der Streitbare (1370-1428), Wilhelm der Reiche (1371-1425) and Georg (* 1380; † December 9, 1401 in Coburg) received the city of Jena in the year 1382 jointly, the two older ones granted the city exemption from customs duties. Frederick's three sons, Frederick the Meek , Sigismund and Wilhelm the Brave , confirmed this administrative act. When the hereditary lands were divided on January 4, 1436, Jena fell to Sigismund, who, however, became a clergyman in the Mildenfurth monastery out of love for a nun from Lohma . Because of his behavior, however, he was arrested by his brother Wilhelm in Freyburg an der Unstrut and held captive for a while. With the death of Wilhelm III. Jena fell to his nephews Ernst and Albrecht on August 26, 1485 . Just six weeks later there was another division , in which the office of Jena (excluding Kunitz , Zwätze and Porstendorf ) was awarded to Ernst in return for payment of 50,000 florins . After his death in 1486, his sons Friedrich the Wise and Johann the Steadfast inherited the office of Jena, to which they granted market rights on December 10, 1492.
Urban prosperity expressed itself in the new buildings of the Michaeliskirche since 1380/1390 and the town hall at the end of the 14th century. From 1423 Jena belonged to the Electorate of Saxony ( Electorate of Saxony ), since the Wettins received the electorate after the Ascanians died out . The division of Kursachsen in the Leipzig division showed that Jena belonged to the newly created Ernestine Electorate of Saxony from 1485 . In addition to the already mentioned viticulture (a Turkish tax register from the year shows 70 percent of the taxable citizens of Jena as vineyard owners) the cultivation of woad , hops and the brewery contributed significantly to Jena being one of the wealthiest cities in today's Thuringia in the late Middle Ages. Another source of the city's wealth was the cloth-making industry, but despite its economic prosperity, Jena was always in competition with neighboring Weimar, which developed into a main Wettin residence from the end of the 14th century. However, this brought Jena the advantage of being able to develop largely independently of the sovereign regiment. For a payment of 3000 Rhenish guilders in 1480 by Wilhelm III. jurisdiction was extended from the city to the city hallway.
Early modern age
The Reformation began in 1523 with the radical theologian Martin Reinhardt, who was expelled in 1524 after Martin Luther's intervention. In 1525, farmers and parts of the townspeople destroyed the Carmelite monastery and devastated the Dominican monastery. In 1536 the Jews were expelled from Jena (as well as from other Thuringian cities) by an anti-Jewish mandate from the sovereign - triggered by the Reformation and its anti-Semitic orientation, reinforced by Martin Luther . By the defeat in the War of Schmalkalden 1546/47 lost Ernestiner the electoral dignity and all possessions east of the White Elster , u. a. the city of Wittenberg . The Ernestine Electorate of Saxony became the Duchy of Saxony under the reign of Johann Friedrich I the Magnanimous, who had been demoted to Duke . In 1548 he founded the high school in the Dominican monastery in Jena as a replacement for the lost University of Wittenberg , from which the University of Jena emerged in 1558 .
Since 1566, the Schöppenstuhl, which is important for jurisprudence throughout Thuringia, and a court court have been associated with this institution, which is crucial for further urban development.
Even after the division of the country in 1572, the university remained under the patronage of the whole of Estonia, while the city fell to the Duchy of Weimar. During the Thuringian Flood at the end of May 1613, parts of the city were flooded.
From 1672 to 1690 Jena was the capital of the independent principality of Saxony-Jena , whose dukes lived in the castle mentioned in 1471 and expanded in 1662, and whose central authorities worked in the city until 1809. After the death of the Duke of Saxony-Jena, the office and the city came along with the castle, palace garden, government house, princely cellar and hunter's house together with Burgau and Lobeda, as well as the Allstedt office , the Zillbach, the Remda rule, the Schwabsdorf suburb, Döbritschen and others Income on July 12, 1691 to the Ernestine line of Saxony-Eisenach and 1741 to Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach , which remained until 1920.
In the theological teaching disputes of the late 16th century, the university was the focus of Lutheran Orthodoxy (Matthias Flacius), after the Thirty Years War it experienced a heyday and with 1,800 students between 1706 and 1720 was at the top of all German universities. The baroque period was expressed in magnificent town houses. The ducal court gave suggestions for the maintenance of art and music. In 1570 the Collegium Musicum began to work, which, after the reorganization carried out in 1769, organized the academic concerts from 1770 until the 20th century.
The decline in viticulture, student numbers, and printing caused a decline in the urban economy in the 18th century. In 1788 the city's finances were placed under compulsory administration. During the reign of Duke Carl August 1775 to 1828 and his minister Johann Wolfgang Goethe , the new spirit of Weimar also gained influence on Jena and brought about a second heyday of the university. Goethe devoted his official and personal interest to her. Here he made friends in 1794 with Friedrich Schiller , who had been a professor since 1789 and lived in Jena until 1799.
In 1794 Johann Gottlieb Fichte and in 1798 Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling were appointed, in 1801/07 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel taught here, so that Jena became a capital of German idealistic philosophy, where the literary direction of the older romanticism with August Wilhelm Schlegel , his wife Caroline Böhmer-Schlegel-Schelling , Friedrich Schlegel , Ludwig Tieck , Clemens Brentano and Friedrich von Hardenberg found an excellent foster home. The Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung , published in Jena from 1785 to 1803, increased the city's reputation. The university had a reputation for particularly liberalism, but its fame quickly declined from 1800 onwards as a result of the departure of famous teachers (Fichte's dismissal in 1799).
On October 14, 1806, Napoleon victoriously fought the Prussian and Saxon armies in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt . This double battle on the heights north-west of Jena and around Auerstedt caused severe damage to the city and its university. There was strong resistance against Napoleonic rule in Jena, especially among the students who joined the Lützow Freikorps in droves in 1813 .
In 1815 the original fraternity was founded in Jena , which used the colors black, red and gold as a sign of the desired unity of a democratized German Confederation . The freedom of the press in the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach significantly favored the struggle for national unity. The Wartburg Festival in 1817 originated mainly from the University of Jena and aroused the mistrust of conservative German governments, which the murder of August von Kotzebue by the Jena theology student Karl Ludwig Sand in 1819 offered a welcome opportunity for increased reprisals. The University of Jena felt this in the form of a curator appointed in 1819, by restricting the freedom of the press and dissolving the fraternity .
The university in particular is to be seen as the economic basis in modern times. In addition, cultivation of fields, vines, horticulture and hops and the printing of books brought profits. After 1800, smaller commercial operations emerged, and a worsted spinning mill built in 1820 was the only company with more than 100 employees in 1840. In 1864 she introduced the steam engine. In 1830 Jena had 5491 inhabitants. With the construction of the Saalbahn from Großheringen to Saalfeld in 1874 and the Gera- Weimar line in 1876, the city became a traffic junction. A piano factory was built in 1843, an oven factory in 1859, a cement factory in 1886 and a measuring tool factory in 1895.
From the optical workshop founded by Carl Zeiss in 1846, which only had 20 employees in 1860, the precision mechanics and optics company, which had been working in its own factory buildings since 1880 and which was to make the Carl Zeiss brand famous worldwide and for its own , emerged with the significant contribution of Ernst Abbe Ascent received a significant impetus from the collaboration with Otto Schott's glassworks, which has been up and coming since 1884 . In 1886 the ten thousandth microscope was made, which was given as a gift to the bacteriologist Robert Koch . The profits of the Carl Zeiss Foundation , established in 1889 , went to a large extent to the university, which at that time had one of its most famous teachers in the zoologist Ernst Haeckel . In 1908 she moved into her new main building in place of the former castle.
A state post office at Löbdergraben was built in 1858 and moved into in 1862. Telegraph operations and local telephone traffic were then moved to the post office in 1876 and 1893, respectively.
Between 1800 and 1880 the university was designed for around 500 students. The number of students rose to 2000 by 1914. The natural science and medical institutes in particular were expanded. The publishing houses Gustav Fischer (1878) and Eugen Diederichs (1896) enriched the intellectual life. In 1879, the Higher Regional Court for all Thuringian states began its business as the successor to the Higher Appeal Court established in 1817 (new building in 1880).
1900 to 1945
On March 19, 1901, the municipal power station was opened and on April 1, 1901, the Jena electric tram went into operation . With the unification of the Thuringian states in 1920, Jena became part of the state of Thuringia, the city in 1922 independent. At the same time the district of Stadtroda was created, to which the surrounding area belonged. The workers' parties SPD and KPD found strong support among the workers at the large Zeiss and Schott plants , so that during the Weimar Republic the conservative parties and the NSDAP achieved the worst election results in Thuringia. As a result, the later resistance against the National Socialists was also considerable.
With the transfer of power from the Chancellorship to Adolf Hitler , discrimination and persecution of all political and humanist forces began in the city. Many were sentenced to prison and penitentiary service or were sent to the first Nohra concentration camp , its successor to Bad Sulza and later to the Buchenwald concentration camp . According to the Professional Civil Service Act , numerous unpopular scientists were expelled from their posts. The university mutated more and more into an ideology producer of racism (chair for social anthropology) and anti-Semitism (cooperation with the church institute for research and elimination of the Jewish influence on German church life ).
On April 1, 1933, Jewish shops and establishments were boycotted . In October 1938, ten Jewish people without citizenship were deported to Poland as part of the “ Polenaktion ”. During the November pogroms in 1938 , anti-Jewish riots broke out in the city. In the period that followed, numerous Jewish families and individuals were able to emigrate abroad. In between 1942 and 1945, the remaining Jews were from the West train station in the ghettos and death camps of the East deported and murdered. The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 73 Jewish residents of Jena who were deported and mostly murdered. Several Jews, including Clara Rosenthal , committed suicide.
In the surgical clinic and the women's clinic, forced sterilizations were carried out on a large scale on the basis of the law for the prevention of genetically ill offspring . Later, patients were extradited to euthanasia centers . Thousands of forced laborers were employed in the Jena armaments factories . Shortly before the end of the war, a sabotage group carried out a bomb attack on the NSDAP office. From September 1944 onwards , up to 1,000 prisoners had to do forced labor in the “RAW Jena” subcamp , a subcamp of the Buchenwald concentration camp , in the adjoining Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk (RAW).
During the Second World War , allied bombing raids , especially in February and March 1945, caused a great deal of destruction. The heaviest bombing took place on March 19, 1945. In total, the US Army Air Forces dropped 870 tons of bombs on Jena during their attacks. The bombing caused severe damage and total destruction, a large part of the city center was completely destroyed, the ruins of the partly historic town houses were later removed. The house on the market where Goethe and Schiller had made their friendship, the Griesbach and Bachstein house, the city museum and the historic castle cellar were lost. The town church of St. Michael suffered severe damage. The college or university church was destroyed and the ruins torn down in 1956. Its tower and the college buildings were damaged. The town hall was partially destroyed, the court and council pharmacy and the university library were destroyed and later demolished. The Abbeanum suffered severe damage and was rebuilt by 1951. The university library and six university institutes were completely destroyed, and several clinics in Bachstrasse were partially destroyed. 709 people lost their lives and 2000 were seriously injured.
40 people died when the city was bombarded by US artillery on April 11, 1945. On April 13, 1945, US troops occupied the city without a fight.
When the war ended, large parts of the city were destroyed. 1424 apartments and 140 commercial and department stores were completely destroyed, 4743 apartments were badly damaged. After Nordhausen, Jena was the most destroyed city in Thuringia.
Development from 1945
In the course of the ongoing reconstruction, the University of Jena was the first German university to resume teaching on October 15, 1945. In 1946, 94 percent of the Zeiss and Schott companies were dismantled and over 300 specialists from both plants were brought to the USSR to rebuild the plants there. The large pharmaceutical company Jenapharm was founded in 1950. During the GDR era , the city belonged to the Gera district from 1952 to 1990 .
During the popular uprising of June 17, 1953 , there were strikes and protests by around 30,000 citizens of the city against measures by the GDR government. The demonstrators called for free elections, German unity and the resignation of the government. The buildings of the SED district leadership, the prison on the Steiger (with the liberation of 61 prisoners), the houses of the mass organizations and the district office of the MfS were stormed . To quell the protests, Soviet tanks arrived in the city. A state of emergency was declared and several hundred people were arrested. On June 18, 1953, locksmith Alfred Diener , born in Jena in 1927, was executed in the building of the Soviet headquarters in Weimar . Together with two delegates from the coal workers in the office of the First Secretary of the SED district leadership, he presented the demonstrators' demands. Other participants in the popular uprising received several years' imprisonment.
In 1957 the prefabricated building was introduced in Jena . The Jena-Lobeda-West development area was built between 1965 and 1975 . On the occasion of the redesign of the city center from 1968, the historic city center around Eichplatz was demolished and the fraternity oak planted in 1816 was felled. At the edge of the vacated space, the university's high-rise building dominating the cityscape was built . In the same year the Jena Madrigal Circle, chamber choir of the Jena Philharmonic, was founded. In 1969 the Jena Symphony Orchestra was named Jena Philharmonic . The Jena-Lobeda-Ost development area was built between 1971 and 1983.
In 1975 the population of the city exceeded 100,000, making Jena the 14th major city in the GDR. The residential area on the Rähmen was completed in 1986.
From the 1970s onwards, several working groups made the city a center of the GDR opposition . In the 1980s, the Weißer Kreis group was formed with the aim of submitting numerous requests to leave the country in concert.
During the change in the GDR on November 4, 1989, Jena experienced the largest demonstration in the city's history at a citizens' forum on the Platz der Kosmonauten with around 40,000 participants, after the number of demonstrators had skyrocketed from week to week. Until 1991 Jena was the location of the 79th Panzer Division of the Group of Soviet Armed Forces in Germany . On the occasion of the reconciliation of interests with the Soviet Union from 1990 and the dissolution of the Red Army in 1991, the last, mostly Russian, soldiers withdrew from Jena on March 24, 1992. After the district reform on July 1, 1994, the Jena district then became part of the new Holzlandkreis, which has been called the Saale-Holzland district since September 14, 1994 .
In the post-reunification period, especially between 1995 and 1997, several crimes with a right-wing extremist background occurred in Jena . In November 2011 it turned out that some members of the neo-Nazi scene in Jena had been terrorist as the National Socialist underground since the turn of the millennium . In a video, they confessed to a series of murders and bomb attacks across Germany, which were almost always racist.
Since 1909 numerous communities and districts have been incorporated into Jena. In 1900 the urban area covered an area of 1,323.2 hectares. Since the last incorporation in 1994 based on Section 23 of the Reorganization Act in Thuringia, 11,421.6 hectares belong to the city of Jena. All integrated places were previously independent communities and had (except Isserstedt) already included one or more neighboring communities (Cospeda the communities Lützeroda and Closewitz, Drackendorf the community Ilmnitz, Krippendorf the community Vierzehnheiligen, Kunitz the community Laasan, Münchenroda the community Remderoda, Maua die Municipality Leutra and Jenaprießnitz the municipality Wogau).
In addition to today's districts, there were a large number of places in today's urban area of Jenas that no longer exist, so-called desolations . These were Proschitz and Kötschen at Zwätzen , Krolip, Schondorf and Ziskau at Close joke, Rödel and Schichmannsdorf in Mühltal, Krotendorf, Schetzelsdorf, Nollendorf than old northern suburbs, Hodelsdorf / on the sand as the eastern suburbs, doubt Bach as old southern and Leutra western and old Vorstadt, Nobis in the Jena Forest, Wüstenwinzerla, Dürrengleina on the Kospoth, Niederleutra near Leutra, Hirschdorf, Selzdorf near Lobeda, Clöchwitz, Büsitz, Schlendorf am Hausberg, Benndorf, Wenigenkunitz near Kunitz, Gaberwitz and Kalthausen near Kunitz.
In 1975 the population of the city of Jena exceeded the limit of 100,000, making it a major city . In 1988 the population reached its historical high of 108,010. After the reunification in the GDR, the population of Jena fell until the end of the 1990s and since then - in contrast to many other cities in East Germany - it has been increasing and is growing by around 1000 inhabitants every year, also because of the students who have their main residence Register while studying in Jena. On December 31, 2014, the official population for Jena was 108,207 (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices) according to an update by the Thuringian State Office for Statistics and thus exceeded the historical high of 1988 for the first time (but with the 14 incorporations from July 1 1994).
According to the 2011 census , 15.4% of the population were Protestant, 5.3% Roman Catholic and the overwhelming number 79.3% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants has fallen since then. At the end of 2019, 14,276 (13.1%) of the 108,940 inhabitants were Protestant, 5,715 (5.2%) were Catholic and 88,949 inhabitants (81.6%) were registered as non-denominational or did not provide any information.
Jena is the seat of a superintendent of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany within the supervisory district East, whose district church office is in Gera. The existing Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Jena all belong to the Jena superintendent. The Roman Catholic parish also looks after believers outside of Jenas, as well as in Camburg, Apolda and Bad Sulza, and with around 7,300 members is one of the largest parishes in the Erfurt diocese and, according to the 2011 census, one of the largest diaspora congregations in eastern Germany. To free churches include the Adventist Church , the Evangelical Free Church community ( Baptists ), the United Methodist Church , the Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church (SELK) and the Christian community Lobeda ( Brethren ).
Jews are first mentioned in Jena in 1379. Several Jewish families lived here in the later Middle Ages. In the 16th century, Jews with sovereign mandates were expelled and were not allowed to settle again until 1825. During the 19th century, rooms were set up in private houses. In the era of National Socialism , the last deportations took place in the Theresienstadt concentration camp in late January 1945. Today's Jewish community has about 150 members and is named after the collapse of the Soviet Union Russian by the influx and Ukrainian Jews emerged. The community is not yet recognized as independent and is therefore looked after by the Erfurt community . It has a small community center but no synagogue .
The Muslims living in Jena , the number of which is estimated at around 500 (as of January 2015), meet in two Islamic centers.
History of religion
Before the Christianization of the area around Jena, the Thuringians lived here in the 3rd to 6th centuries , a tribal association about whose history little is known. Due to the diverse contacts with Rome and the Ostrogoth Empire , the first influences of Christianity came early. The Thuringians themselves initially worshiped Germanic or local gods . This belief was prevalent until the 8th century for the area in which Jena later developed. In the 7th century there were also Slavic settlers with their religious ideas . Jena, which later lay in the border area between these settlement areas, is therefore likely to have been a place where Christian and various pagan beliefs came together. It was only with the mission of Boniface that Christianity gradually spread in this area, starting from Fulda’s sphere of influence. A consolidation of the Christian faith did not take place until the 10th century.
The population of the area around Jena belonged from 742 to the specially created diocese of Erfurt , which, however, did not last long and in 755 was added to the diocese of Mainz . The existence of other, already established Christian church structures on the Saale is shown by the fact that the old original parishes continued to maintain a number of parish rights beyond the newly created diocese borders (e.g. Lobeda, Wenigenjena). The city was directly assigned to the dean's office of Oberweimar within the archdeaconate of Beatae Mariae virginis in Erfurt. The area to the right of the Saale, which was incorporated from 1909, belonged to the diocese of Naumburg , although Jena also had parish rights in Wenigenjena and Camsdorf in the Middle Ages. In 1252 a clergyman was first mentioned in Jena. In 1523 the first Reformation sermon was given in Jena. There were serious disputes between the individual branches of the Reformation movement ( Lutherans , Flacians , etc.). The Reformation quickly gained a foothold and Jena became a center of Lutheranism as a new denomination.
For a long time Jena was a predominantly Protestant city. The Lutheran creed was predominant ; Martin Luther stayed personally in Jena several times. Instead of the Pope, the sovereign took over the leadership of the so-called Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church . The church thus shared the fortunes of the respective sovereigns. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Grand Duchy of Saxony, to which Jena had belonged since 1741 (at that time still Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach), merged with the other regional churches in Thuringia to form the Thuringian Evangelical Church . In 1948 it was renamed the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thuringia .
Since the 19th century at the latest, citizens of Catholic faith have moved to the city again. The Catholic Parish Church of St. John Baptist is Jena's oldest church. Its history goes back to the 10th century. Before the Reformation, it was the city's parish church. After that it functioned as a cemetery chapel and was often left to decay.
After the battle of Jena and Auerstedt, Napoleon donated the church ruins to the town's small Catholic community, which had gathered around a French emigrant, the priest Gabriel Henry.
In 1813 the parish was dissolved again and from 1817 pastoral care was linked to the parish of Weimar. From 1821 the Catholic parish of Jena belonged to the area of the Archdiocese of Paderborn . Only in 1905 was a canonical parish established. Fundamental renovations and extensions from this time testify to the demands of lively community life. The church ruins were expanded to become today's parish church, with a longitudinal nave being pulled towards the west and the altar being moved to a new apse in the west. With the Prussian Concordat of 1929 the community in Jena became part of the diocese of Fulda .
After the Second World War, more and more Catholics came to Jena through expulsion and persecution, their total number rose to 14,000. The parish church's limited capacity prevented many Catholics from attending services, despite eight Sunday meetings and branch offices in the surrounding villages. That is why the altar was rebuilt from the apse in the west from 1957 to 1959 , placed in the former entrance area in the east and a gallery was added to the former apse. The apse can be recognized by its choir windows. The congregation in Jena was administered at that time by a vicar general based in Erfurt. In 1973 the Erfurt-Meiningen Episcopal Office was established and the Erfurt diocese was re-established in 1994 , to which the parish belongs.
The parish of St. Johannes Baptist, newly founded on January 1, 2017, is not only responsible for the city of Jena and all the surrounding places up to Dornburg in the north, Bürgel in the east, Rothenstein in the south and Großschwabhausen in the west, but also includes the parish Apolda, Bad Sulza and Camburg each with a Catholic church. Since some of the eastern districts that were later incorporated (Drackendorf) belong to the area of the Dresden-Meißen diocese , the pastor of the Jena parish is also the chaplain of the neighboring Stadtroda parish in order to be able to officially look after the Catholics who live beyond the diocese border.
The administration of the city of Jena was initially incumbent on the officials of the Lobdeburg rule. But soon there was also a council at the head of the city, which from 1317 was headed by two councilors. Since the 14th century the council was divided into three parts. In 1540 the Elector of Saxony introduced a new city order. There were several mayors, but from 1604 only one mayor at the head of the city. The mayor has held the title of Lord Mayor since 1892 . The first was Gottlieb Heinrich Singer . The council was elected by the people.
After the peaceful revolution in the GDR , a free election of the city council took place for the first time. On May 6, 1990, it elected Peter Röhlinger ( FDP ) as mayor. With the entry into force of the Thuringian municipal code in 1994, the city council was replaced by the city council, headed by a city council chairman. The mayor has also been elected directly by the people since 1994; Thomas Nitzsche ( FDP ) currently holds this office. He is assisted by three department heads elected by the city council . Eberhard Hertzsch (non-party; family, education and social affairs), Benjamin Koppe (CDU; finance, security and citizen service) and Christian Gerlitz (SPD; urban development and environment, at the same time mayor and thus deputy mayor) are currently in office.
The municipal debt level is declining and amounted to around 69.9 million euros at the end of 2012.
|Parties and constituencies||
|THE LEFT.||The left||13||19.7||9||21.4||9||24.2||11||20.2||9||24.0||11||20.4||9|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||10||9.9||5||7.9||3||12.2||6th||10.1||5||11.3||5||19.4||9|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||7th||13.7||12||13.4||6th||9.1||4th||11.0||5||4.8||2 *||12.8||6th|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||35||21.4||12||24.7||10||22.9||10||19.0||9||22.2||10||12.6||6th|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||23||25.2||12||23.1||10||19.0||9||25.2||11||20.8||10||12.6||6th|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||10.0||5|
|BfJ||Citizens for Jena||9.6||4th||12.5||6th||10.2||5||10.4||5||7.5||3|
|FWJ||Free voters Jena||2.4||1*||3.4||1*|
|Party the good guys||Party the good guys||1.8||1*||1.9||1*||1.3||1*|
|PIRATES||Pirate Party Germany||4.6||2 *|
|Voter turnout in%||53.0||43.8||54.5||51.5||63.1|
|* Group status only from 2 members or since November 2013 from 3 members|
Chairman of the City Council
- 1990–1994: Rainer Oloff (CDU, then still city council)
- 1999-2004: Gustav-Adolf Biewald (CDU)
- 2004–2009: Gudrun Lukin (PDS)
- 2009–2014: Sabine Hemberger (SPD)
- since 2014: Jens Thomas (Die Linke)
For the first time since the fall of the Wall, a city council meeting had to be canceled on November 6, 2013 due to massive protests by residents. The reason was the planned new construction of a campus on Inselplatz and the associated demolition of the socio-cultural project Inselplatz 9a.
|Results of the elections for Mayor of the City of Jena since 2000|
|Mayor election 2000 on May 14th and 28th, 2000|
|Mayor election 2006 on May 7th and 21st, 2006|
|Gudrun Lukin||The left||8,927||24.97%||-||-|
|Heike Seise||Single applicant||1,854||5.19%||-||-|
|Milutin Michael Nickl||Gray ones||489||1.37%||-||-|
|Mayor election 2012 on April 22nd and May 6th 2012|
|Gudrun Lukin||The left||5,560||14.23%||-||-|
|Andreas Mehlich||Individual applicants||3,522||9.01%||-||-|
|Mayor election 2018 on April 15 and 29, 2018|
|Martina Flmmich-Winckler||The left||4,999||11.17%||-||-|
|Sandro Dreßler||Individual applicants||918||2.05%||-||-|
|Arne Petrich||Individual applicants||597||1.33%||-||-|
Lord Mayor since 1922
Coat of arms, flag and official seal
|Blazon : “The coat of arms of the city of Jena showsan angel cladin silver and blue with long golden hair and a golden nimbus , armor , helmet and wings ; with his right hand thrusting a lance into the throat ofa green dragon , in his left hand holdinga golden shield with an upright black lion ; the left foot is on the kite. Under the kite a small silver plate with blue grapes . "|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms figure represents the Archangel Michael . The grape symbolizes the once flourishing viticulture in Jena. The lion was included as the coat of arms of the Lords of Meissen when the city passed to the Landgraves of Thuringia . The heraldic figures were taken from the city's historical seal , which is very old. In its current form, the coat of arms was last established by the main statute of the city in 1999.|
The city flag is striped lengthways in the colors blue-yellow-white, covered with the city coat of arms.
Jena maintains city partnerships with:
- Lugoj (Romania), since 1983, renewed in 1993
- Porto (Portugal), since 1984
- Erlangen (Germany, Bavaria), since 1987
- Berkeley (USA), since 1989
- San Marcos (Nicaragua), since 1998
- Aubervilliers (France), since 1999
- Bait Jala (Palestine), since 2011
- Vladimir (Russia), since 2008
Jena is also a founding member of the Federation of European Napoleon Cities (since 2004).
Culture and sights
In cooperation with the Theaterhaus Jena, the city awards the Jakob-Michael-Reinhold-Lenz Prize for Drama every three years as part of a competition for young dramatists.
There are several free, mostly student theater groups in the city, which regularly perform on various small stages in the city.
The Jena Philharmonic was founded as a concert orchestra in 1934 and expanded to its present size in 1969. It also has three choirs: the Philharmonic Choir (founded in 1970), the boys' choir (1976) and the Madrigal Circle (1968).
- The Göhre City Museum , which houses a museum on the history of Jena, is just like
- the Romantikerhaus (the former home of Johann Gottlieb Fichte ) with its literary exhibitions is a city institution. Every three years the Romantikerhaus organizes the literary competition to award the Caroline Schlegel Prize .
- The German Optical Museum is currently being converted into an interactive and research-based museum and is therefore closed to visitors.
- The Schott GlasMuseum offers insights into the production and use of glass as well as the family background of Otto Schott , the founder of the Jena glassworks and inventor of refractory glass.
- Biological exhibitions are located in the Phyletic Museum , Mineralogical Collection and Botanical Garden , which are part of the university.
- The Meyer-Steineg medical history collection (since 1909) in the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus, the 200-year-old Museum Anatomicum Jenense (anatomical collection) and the traditional medical history teaching and display collection at the Institute for the History of Medicine at the Jena University Hospital are only limited public.
- A Goethe memorial in the Botanical Garden, Schiller's garden house and the Ernst Haeckel House in the former home of the zoologist can also be visited.
- In the community of Cospeda there is a memorial to the battle of Jena and Auerstedt ( museum 1806 ).
- The Imaginata in the Alten E-Werk is an exhibition for children and adolescents to grasp and understand physical phenomena.
- Traveling exhibitions are shown in the Göhre City Museum, in the Schott Villa, in the Phyletic Museum and in the Mineralogical Collection.
- Galleries are the Kunsthof Jena and the gallery pack of patches .
The fraternity monument (1883), which originally stood on Eichplatz and later in front of the main building, is now in the university's depot as a result of a paint attack by previously unknown perpetrators. The Schiller Monument is also in front of the main building of the university.
The district of Krippendorf was in the main battle area of the aforementioned battle near Jena, and its post mill served as a landmark for the armies. Today this windmill can be visited as a fully functional technical monument .
There are also several Holocaust memorials in Jena. On the B 7 there are several memorial plaques for the prisoners of the Buchenwald concentration camp , whose death march passed there at the end of the Second World War . A memorial plaque to the Jews , Sinti and Roma hangs at the Westbahnhof , as the trains to the concentration camps started from there. A stone monument on the B 7 between the Johanniskirche and Friedenskirche bears the slogan "In memory of our dead, their murderers as shame, the living as a warning".
In memory of the 1,459 Jena soldiers who perished in the field during World War I, the monument on the Friedensberg (until 1949 Hainberg ) was erected in 1929 "Our Fallen 1914/18" (current dedication) based on a design by the architect Emil Högg . A wall ring with a diameter of 30 m surrounds a grove of honor with an altar-like stone block that contains the names of the dead. Further war memorials can be found in the north cemetery and on the Landgrafenberg ( Blinkerdenkmal ).
On many Jena houses there are boards on which the life dates of well-known personalities are named, who lived here or had a significant connection to this place. Only local celebrities like Friedrich Wilhelm Demelius are thought of in this way.
In memory of the Jews of Jenas murdered by the National Socialists , the first eight of the so-called stumbling blocks were laid on May 23, 2007 in a public action by the Cologne artist Gunter Demnig . Eight more were added on May 7, 2008. By 2011 a total of 28 stumbling blocks had been set in Jena.
Seven miracles from Jena
In Jena there were the so-called Seven Wonders , with which the city advertised beyond its borders as early as the 17th century and of which four are still completely preserved. The Latin motto, which a student at Jena University should know by heart at the time, is: "Ara, caput, draco, mons, pons, vulpecula turris, Weigeliana domus, septem miracula Jenae" . The miracles include:
- the altar ( ara ) of the town church St. Michael , especially the passage under it;
- the head ( caput ) of the Schnapphans on the art clock of the town hall;
- the dragon ( draco ), a bizarre, multi-headed mythical creature made of bone, wire and paper mache , which may have been built around 1600 for a student prank;
- the Jenzig , a mountain ( mons ) whose white limestone ridge glows red in the morning and evening sun;
- the old Camsdorfer bridge ( pons ), the successor of which is still in the old place today;
- the fox tower ( vulpecula turris ), keep of the former Kirchberg castle on the local mountain ;
- the Weigelsche Haus ( Weigeliana domus ), a house with elevator and roof observatory from the 17th century that no longer exists.
The replica of the miracle "draco" can be seen in the city museum.
- City Archives
- Building files archive
- Company archive SCHOTT JENAer GLAS GmbH
- Company archive Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH
- Archive of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena
- Archive of the Ernst Haeckel House Jena (EHH)
- Thuringian Archive for Contemporary History Matthias Domaschk
Large parts of the historic city center were destroyed by American air raids at the end of the Second World War, from February to April 1945, or fell victim to socialist renovation plans, so that - especially around the new Eichplatz - there are few historic buildings to be found in the city center. Planning is currently underway for the development of the Eichplatz, a project that is controversial among the population. The center has already been supplemented with partly larger building complexes in the last few decades. The architecture in the city center was thus created in different construction times and styles and, compared to other cities in Thuringia, is modern as well as partly industrial.
The most distinctive building in Jena and a landmark is the Jentower (popularly called Uniturm or biscuit roll ), the tallest office building in the new federal states. It was planned from 1969 to 1972 by Hermann Henselmann , one of the most famous architects in the GDR. The skyscraper was supposed to be the Zeiss research center, but it turned out to be unsuitable and was used by the university. The high-rise should symbolize a telescope. Around the turn of the millennium, the building was renovated and the original structure of the building envelope was lost due to significant interventions in the building fabric. The tower now houses a restaurant and a hotel on the upper floors.
There are also the remains of the tower of the old city wall. These include the Red Tower , which collapsed during renovation work in 1995 (but has since been rebuilt) at the southeastern end, the Anatomy Tower , in which Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Justus Christian Loder discovered the intermaxillary bone, at the southwestern end and the Johannistor at the western end of the historic city center . A short section of the wall, on which the so-called House on the Wall stands, runs from the Johannistor to the former Powder Tower in the northwest of the city center .
The Collegium Jenense , one of the oldest university buildings and the place where the university was founded, is located within the city center ; it was set up in a former monastery. In addition to the historic Gothic town hall (1377-1413) with the Schnapphans , the Göhre , in which the city museum is located, is located on the historic market square . A monument to Johann Friedrich I the Magnanimous, the founder of Jena University, stands on the market square . In Jena he is also called Hanfried . The main university building, built between 1905 and 1908, completes the north-east of the old city center. The old Jena City Palace previously stood in its place. Only the old castle fountain in the inner courtyard is reminiscent of the castle. The second oldest Accouchierhaus in Germany, Jenergasse 8 / corner Fürstengraben, was restored in the years 2000/03 , a half-timbered house built in 1556, which in 1779 had been converted into a "teaching establishment for obstetrics" with the help of the physician Justus Christian Loder . A rare written source (edited by City Lord Wolter ) dates from this time : the desperate letter of an unmarried pregnant woman who was supposed to make herself available in this house for the interest of prospective doctors.
In the north of the city center is the Thuringian University and State Library (ThULB for short) , which was rebuilt in 2001 . The building contains almost all the libraries of the Friedrich Schiller University as well as a large restoration and digitization workshop. To the west of the ThULB, north of the city center, is the Botanical Garden and immediately to the north of it is the Zeiss Planetarium by the Jena architects Schreiter and Schlag, the oldest preserved planetarium building in the world. To the north-west of the planetarium is the Griesbachsche Gartenhaus, also known as the Prinzessinnenschlösschen , with a large garden, to which the Philosophenweg cafeteria, built by Ernst Neufert , is connected.
Building 15 is the first German high-rise building on Ernst-Abbe-Platz to the west of the city center . The Goethe Galerie shopping center and Building 36 are also located on a former factory site of the Carl Zeiss combine . The construction of 59 was the former research skyscraper of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena . Two houses by Bauhaus architect Walter Gropius have also been preserved in the west of the city , the Zuckerkandl house (1927–1929) and the Auerbach house (1924). Both houses were refurbished after 1990 and are privately owned. Particularly noteworthy is the only original Bauhaus kitchen in the Zuckerkandl house.
A monument to Ernst Abbe in the form of a temple with an Art Nouveau roof structure was erected between the Goethe Gallery, the Volkshaus and the old Bachstrasse clinic . The architect of the monument was Henry van de Velde . The Volkshaus contains halls for various events, the rehearsal rooms of the Jena Philharmonic and a large part of the Jena City Library, the Ernst Abbe Library .
South-west of the city center is the Schillerhaus with garden and theater, of which only the stage remains. The Urania Jena public observatory in Schillergässchen regularly offers public sky observations and astronomical lectures. There is a former cinema south of the market. The last film screenings took place in the historic building designed by Jena architects Schreiter and Schlag in 2009, but the Art Deco architectural style of the 1920s was taken into account in the renovation.
East of the city center are the Saale with the Camsdorfer Bridge and the Gasthaus Grüne Tanne (owned by the Arminia fraternity on the Burgkeller ), the place where the Jena fraternity, known as the original fraternity, was founded . The black, red and gold flag, which is used today as the German flag , has its origin here.
- Maua - Sulza
- Jagdberg tunnel - Lobdeburg tunnel ( 2 Saale valley bridges Jena )
- Göschwitz - Neulobeda I ( rail only )
- Göschwitz - Neulobeda II (tram only)
- Göschwitz - Neulobeda III (pedestrian bridge)
- Bridge fragment (district heating pipe)
- Pedestrian bridge (currently closed)
- Burgau - Im Wehrigt I ( Old Burgau Bridge )
- Burgau - Im Wehrigt II (tram only)
- Burgau - Lobeda old town
- Ringwiese - Oberaue (only tram)
- Lichtenhain - Oberaue (New Lichtenhain Bridge)
- Rasenmühleninsel - Oberaue (sports field footbridge)
- Knebelstraße - Paradies (only tram)
- Fischergasse - Stadtrodaer Straße ( Paradiesbrücke )
- Steinweg - Wenigenjena ( Camsdorf Bridge )
- Löbstedter Straße - Wenigenjena ( Griesbrücke )
- Löbstedt - Wenigenjena (meadow bridge)
- Zwatzen - Kunitz I ( Kunitz House Bridge )
- Zwatzen - Kunitz II
The old Camsdorf Bridge, which was one of the seven wonders of the city, was demolished from July 1912 and replaced by a wider one by November 1913, which could handle the increasing volume of traffic. Like all other bridges in Jena, it was blown up by the Wehrmacht at the end of the Second World War , rebuilt in 1946 with the help of the Red Army and for a long time was the only Saale crossing for heavy goods vehicles in the Jena city area. In 2005 it was renovated due to serious damage.
Further bridges were not built until the end of the 19th century. The Schützenbrücke (since 1882) and the Wiesensteg were primarily important for pedestrian traffic, especially because of the lively construction activity in Obercamsdorf and Wenigenjena . In 1927/1928 the Schützenbrücke was replaced by the Paradiesbrücke , which was newly built a few meters upstream, and the Wiesensteg was replaced by the Griesbrücke located upstream . There is another pedestrian bridge between the Südviertel and the Oberaue .
In the 1980s, a bridge was built between Neu-Lobeda -West and Göschwitz , which was in principle closed to motor vehicles. A few meters upstream there are bridges for tram and train traffic, each of which leads over Saale and Roda . In Burgau and with the Paradiesbrücke, existing bridges from the 1940s were used.
After the surrounding villages had been incorporated, the Saale bridges between Zwätze and Kunitz , the Burgauer bridge and the Maua bridge were added. Like the bridge in Burgau, the Kunitz house bridge , which connects Zwätze and Kunitz , was blown up in 1945. The latter, however, was rebuilt as a pedestrian bridge in 2012 and its appearance corresponds to the medieval model. Car traffic is directed over a new bridge from the 1980s.
In the 1990s, the Wenigenjena bypass was completed, which connects the Jenzigweg in the eastern part of Wenigenjena (often called Jena-Ost ) through the Wiesenbrücke with Löbstedter Straße in Jena-Nord and the city center .
Castles and fortifications
Only ruins or small parts of the former castles of Jena remain. The southernmost castle is the upper Lobdeburg . The lower Lobdeburg no longer exists. It was most likely at the end of the market. The building on the northeastern edge of the old town, widely known as the lower Lobdeburg , is a new building from the 20th century. Another Lobdeburg castle was located in the village of Burgau ( castle ruins Burgau - small remains of walls and moats preserved on rocks next to the old Saale bridge), possibly parallel to a fortification of the Wettins, who named an office after it at an early stage. On the Johannisberg (between Lobeda and Wöllnitz) there are several fortifications from the late Bronze Age and the early Middle Ages (9th / 10th centuries). To the east of the city center of Jena there are four former fortifications, the Kirchberger_Schlösser and an Kaiserpfalz . The Fuchsturm is the remainder of the Kirchberg castle complex from the 12th century. The remains of the castles Greifberg, Königspfalz Kirchberg (10th century), Kirchberg (12th century) and Windberg extend from west to east . Further north on the Jenzig there is a prehistoric rampart. In the north you can find the ruins of Kunitzburg , actually Gleisberg Castle, a former seat of Reich ministerials. Certainly there were a number of fortified aristocratic residences within the incorporated villages, such as in Drackendorf, Kunitz, Isserstedt and Lichtenhain.
In Jena itself, the city palace, a former moated castle, was the seat of government of the Duchy of Saxony-Jena from 1670 to 1692 on the site of today's main building of the Friedrich Schiller University . Around 1900 it had to make way for the new university building, which was inaugurated in 1908 on the occasion of the 350th university anniversary. The foundation walls of a castle tower remained from it.
Many important churches belong to the parish of Jena. In the city center is the late Gothic three-aisled city church of St. Michael , the Evangelical Parochial Church (main church) of Jenas. Its predecessor, an old Romanesque parish church, which was probably built in the 12th century, underwent several modifications, especially when the Cistercian nunnery was built in 1301, which no longer exists. The nave of today's church was built from 1380–1506, the tower from 1486–1557. It is considered the largest hall church in East Thuringia. Martin Luther had preached here several times. His bronze tombstone (but not his grave) has been here since 1571. Worth mentioning is the church's restored renaissance one-hand clock . The church bike path Jena - Thalbürgel connects the town church St. Michael with the monastery church Thalbürgel and leads past four more churches of the church district Jena.
Parts of the Roman Catholic Church of St. Johannes Baptist in Wagnergasse in the city center have existed since the 9th century. Therefore, the church is considered to be one of the oldest Jenas. The former garrison church, now the Friedenskirche , actually Johann-Georgs-Kirche, stands near the Catholic Church . After Jena had become the capital of the Duchy of Saxony-Jena in 1672, the church was built in 1686–1693 on the advice of Johann-Georg II, Duke of Saxony-Eisenach, on the site of the old Johannisfriedhof because the old cemetery chapel was in very poor condition and renovating it would have cost more than building a new one, and named it after him. In 1743, Duke Ernst August von Sachsen-Weimar assigned it to the Jena garrison community, hence the name Garrison Church. In the spring of 1938, Thuringian Protestant pastors were sworn in to Adolf Hitler there . In 1946 it was renamed the Friedenskirche .
Other churches played an important role in the city's history, such as the Collegiate Church as the university church of the Collegium Jenense, which arose from the former Dominican monastery at the southwest end of the old town. Not far from there was the Carmelite monastery on Engelplatz. For travelers and the sick, the church of St. Nicolaus, which stood in front of the city in the area of today's Spittelplatz, was a place of prayer.
According to some researchers, one of the previous buildings of the Schiller Church “Our Lady” was the church of old Jani, which was mentioned in 937 in connection with the Kirchberg Castle. The first parts were in the 14./15. Century erected. The construction of the nave was not "provisionally" finished until 1557. Friedrich Schiller and Charlotte von Lengefeld were married here on February 22, 1790 .
The church of St. Peter in the Lobeda district is probably the oldest church in Jena, as it is a so-called original parish , which was the center of the Lobeda deanery within the diocese of Naumburg until the Reformation. The village church of St. Marien in Zwätze was formerly the seat of the Deutschordensballei Thuringia . The tomb of the von Ziegesar family, who were close friends of Goethe , is located in the Church of the Resurrection in Drackendorf . The “bird pastor” Christian Ludwig Brehm also preached here . According to the latest research, Liuthraha, mentioned in the 9th century, became the place of Leutra with the former fortified church of St. Nicholas in the Leutratal.
The Trinity Church is located in the Burgau district . It dates from 1330 and belongs to the parish of Lobeda.
The oldest cemetery in Jena, which dates back to the 9th century, was discovered in the area of the Church of Our Lady in Wenigenjena. The city archaeologist Matthias Rupp therefore assumes that Wenigenjena was the origin and the first settlement area of Jena.
The largest cemetery is the Nordfriedhof ; the second largest is the east cemetery, inaugurated in 1912. There is also the historically significant Johannisfriedhof , which was probably built outside the city walls as part of the planned urban development of Jena and has been in use since the Middle Ages. In the course of the 19th century it became too small for the expanding city, so the north cemetery was created. The Johannisfriedhof has only been used as a park since 1978. The Friedenskirche and the grave of Carl Zeiss are located on its premises . The Johannisfriedhof used to extend to the Catholic Church, but it was greatly reduced in size by the construction of today's federal road 7 to Weimar.
The incorporated villages also have their own cemeteries.
The burial places of the pastors and gentlemen of the city are in St. Michael, in the Collegiate Church, in the Carmelite monastery, in the hospital and in St. Nicolaus.
On viewing tower .the high Landgrave is the 30 m high Landgrave Tower, built in 1971 , a television tower that is no longer in operation and is now used as a
On the Cospoth mountain on the boundary of Bucha there has been a 91 meter high telecommunications tower of the company Deutsche Funkturm , a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom AG, since 1992 at 50 ° 52'49 "north latitude and 11 ° 33'57" east longitude . In addition to radio relay, the tower is used to broadcast the radio programs listed below:
Analog radio (FM)
(in MHz )
(in kW )
|Radio Top 40||94.8||0.32|
Digital radio (DAB +)
DAB + is broadcast in vertical polarization and in single-frequency mode with other transmitters.
- Volkspark Oberaue
- Botanical Garden
- Grießbachscher garden
- Friedensberg with war memorial
- Goethe Park in Drackendorf
- Schiller's garden with cottage garden battlement
- Park on the Leutra in Jena-West
- Lobdepark in Neulobeda -Ost
- Trießnitz in Winzerla
- Country festivals
- Saaleufer in Wenigenjena
- Johannisfriedhof (Jena) (former cemetery)
- March / April: Black Beer Night (suspended in 2017)
- April: wood market
- April / May: Cellu l'art short film festival
- April / May: Jazz spring
- April / May: creative arena
- May: spring market
- May / June: Long-distance hike "Horizontale" around Jena
- June: Festival de Colores, Long Night of Museums
- June / July: Camsdorf Bridge Festival
- July: pottery market
- July to August: Kulturarena , seven-week open-air music festival in the center
- August / September: Thuringian Chamber Music Days (every two years)
- September: Fountain festival at the Romantikerhaus
- September / October: Old Town Festival
- October / November: Jena Jazz Days
- October / November: Irish days
- October / November: creative arena
- November: Lichtbildarena, three-day festival with live slide reports and culture
- November: Theater in motion, international dance and movement theater festival in the Theaterhaus (every two years)
- December: Christmas market
Leisure and sports facilities
There are several sports fields in Jena. The largest is the Ernst-Abbe-Sportfeld , the home ground of FC Carl Zeiss Jena , with a capacity of 12,630 spectators. There are also post-sports court in Jena East next to the Ostbad and a sports field in Jena Zwätzen .
Most of the Oberaue university sports grounds are not far from the stadium . It houses the USV Jena , the largest sports club in Thuringia. The university sports center comprises three playing fields that can be used multifunctionally. The main square with athletics facility holds 2000 spectators. The most popular departments of USV Jena are FF USV Jena (women's soccer in the 1st division ) and the rugby department , which has a women's team in the regional league and a men's team in the 2nd Bundesliga. The UPS also maintains a three-field hall not far from the USZ. The football clubs SV Schott Jena and SV Jenapharm Jena play their home games in the Oberaue sports center .
In addition, the Werner-Seelenbinder-Halle in Neulobeda -West, which offers space for 1,500 spectators, is used by the Jena Caputs wheelchair basketball club and is generally the venue for small events.
There are also sports halls of various schools and the sports hall complex of TuS Jena opposite the Ernst Abbe sports field. This is also used by the sports high school.
In the warm season of the year, water sports in the form of canoeing , kayaking and rowing are practiced on the Saale . In recent years, the Saale has also been expanded in the Jena section for water sports. The relevant clubs are located on the western bank of the Saale. There is also a slalom course on the river here.
Aviation is based at the Jena-Schöngleina airfield . Occasionally hang-glider , paraglider and paramotor pilots use the slopes around Jena to take off. In good weather, paradise is used as a starting zone for hot air balloon rides.
There is a training facility for dogs near the Landgrave.
The center of Jena nightlife is Wagnergasse and its immediate surroundings. Mainly pubs and cafes are located here. The oldest student club has been the Rosenkeller on Johannisstrasse since 1966 . Several concerts of various genres take place here every week.
Below the Westbahnhof is the center for youth and socioculture Kassablanca , where many artists have performed since the early 1990s. Jena offers several other night clubs close to the center.
Economy and Infrastructure
Jena is one of the three regional centers in Thuringia. More workers commute to Jena than commute from Jena. Jena, along with the cities of Erfurt and Ilmenau, is part of the Thuringian technology triangle. In the Future Atlas 2019 , the independent city of Jena was ranked 29th out of 401 rural districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects".
Jena is a member of the Central Germany metropolitan region .
In 2016, Jena generated , within the city limits, a gross domestic product (GDP) of 4.464 billion euros, placing it 69th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . The gross domestic product per capita in the same year was 40,609 euros (Thuringia: 27,674 euros / Germany 38,180 euros) and thus above the regional and national average. About 60 percent was generated with services, another 30 percent came from the manufacturing industry. In 2013 there were a total of 4,255 companies, 28 of which had more than 250 employees.
The turnover of companies in the manufacturing sector with 50 or more employees was 1.41 billion euros in 2014. The export quota of companies in the manufacturing sector with 50 or more employees was 59.9 percent (2014), making it the highest in Thuringia.
As of June 30, 2017, there were 55,192 jobs subject to social security contributions in Jena and 40,810 residents of the city were employed subject to social security contributions. This results in a commuter surplus of 14,382 people, which puts the city in second place after Erfurt in Thuringia. There were 25,610 inbound commuters compared to 11,267 outbound commuters, with 14,155 from the neighboring districts of Saale-Holzland-Kreis, Weimarer Land and Weimar, 6,673 from the neighboring districts as well as Gotha and Altenburger Land and 4,782 employees subject to social insurance contributions from more distant regions working in Jena. In contrast, 4,391 Jenaers had their jobs in the neighboring districts, 3,265 in the second ring and 3,611 in more distant regions. The upswing since around 2005 has improved the labor market situation, so that the average unemployment rate in 2017 was 6.1 percent.
There were a total of 313,100 overnight stays in hotels and other accommodations in 2014. The average length of stay was just under two days.
Economic history and resident companies
The glass and optics industry has been based in Jena since the 19th century. The pertinent companies are known worldwide through inventions that revolutionized the microscope and the development of the planetarium . After the Second World War, the companies Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH and SCHOTT JENAer GLAS GmbH were re-established by emigrated scientists and employees in West Germany . By July 1945, the American occupiers deported much of the know-how in the form of scientists and records to their zone of occupation. After that, under the Soviet occupation, the industry was dismantled and its deportation to the Soviet Union . At first, the population of Jena rebuilt the urban industry itself, until the Soviet occupiers in the newly founded GDR also supported the reconstruction in order to strengthen it against the Federal Republic of Germany. The VEB Carl Zeiss Jena combine was created later . The Schott works were also converted into a combine. In addition, Jenapharm, a pharmaceutical company, emerged during the GDR era , which emerged from the bacteriological laboratory of the Schott glassworks founded in the 1940s. The fiber optics division was later spun off from the glassworks and the majority of the shares were transferred to Leoni AG in January 2007 .
After the fall of the Berlin Wall , the state-owned large combine Carl Zeiss, in which almost all optical companies in the GDR were united, was privatized. Carl Zeiss Oberkochen took over responsibility for the core optical business. A renovator was sought for the majority of the Jena works and was found in Lothar Späth . In Jena, Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH was founded as a subsidiary of Zeiss Oberkochen and Jenoptik GmbH as the legal successor to the former combine with Späth at the top. In 1998 Jenoptik dared to go public as a stock corporation.
After the fall of the Wall, the VEB Jenapharm combine looked for a buyer and found him in Gehe AG. The company was later taken over by Schering AG . The company has established itself as the market leader in the field of oral contraceptives in Germany and is now part of Bayer Pharma AG. A number of pharmaceutical institutes and companies have settled in the area.
Wacker Chemie AG and Schott Solar established a joint venture, which is a factory for the production of 16 April 2008 silicon - wafers took for the solar industry in operation. After Wacker withdrew at the end of September 2009, SCHOTT Solar employed around 350 people at the site. At the end of March 2012, wafer production in Jena was discontinued.
Numerous biotechnology companies have been founded as part of the BioRegio initiative with the “bio-instruments” concept. Companies in this sector that have their headquarters in Jena are Analytik Jena and CyBio . Biolitec has relocated its headquarters to Vienna. Medical technology company Alere has been represented in the city since the takeover of Clondiag in 2006 . WACKER Biotech GmbH produces therapeutic proteins using biotechnological processes. It was founded in 1999 under the name ProThera GmbH as an offshoot of the Hans Knöll Institute in Jena and has been a full subsidiary of Wacker Chemie AG since 2005.
Deutsche Effecten- und Wechsel-Beteiligungsgesellschaft AG (DEWB for short), a former subsidiary of Jenoptik AG, which specialized in the financing and development of young companies in the field of optical technologies and sensor technology, is headquartered in Jena. The Sparkasse Jena-Saale-Holzland is the largest financial company based in the city.
Jena is one of the centers in the field of electronic commerce in Germany. Intershop has developed as one of the pioneers in the development of online shops since the mid-1990s . However, after the dot-com bubble burst , the company lost a lot of its value. In addition to internet agencies , other companies such as ePages with headquarters in Hamburg, T-Systems Multimedia Solutions , ESET and Demandware are represented in the city.
In the security technology sector, the US American Cross Match Technologies group has had a branch in Jena since it took over the British Smiths Heimann Biometrics Group (SHB) in August 2005. Jena is also an important location for the armaments industry, which has established itself primarily in the field of optical companies. Carl Zeiss Jena was already active in this area before 1990 . Zeiss produces target devices and other military equipment.
Several municipal companies are located under the umbrella of the Holding Stadtwerke Jena GmbH. Electricity, gas and district heating as well as other services are provided by Stadtwerke Energie Jena-Pößneck GmbH . Jenaer Nahverkehr GmbH operates tram and bus transport within the city . Several baths are operated by Jenaer Bäder und Freizeit GmbH. The largest housing provider in Jena and Blankenhain with around 14,000 residential units, Jenawohnen GmbH (previously SWV GmbH), is also part of the association.
The housing cooperative Carl Zeiss e.V., founded in 1954, has around 6,200 apartments . G. the second largest landlord in Jena and the surrounding area.
Resident industry networks
- InfectoGnostics Research Campus Jena e. V. (infection diagnostics, point-of-care technologies)
- medways e. V. (medical technology, bioanalytics, laboratory equipment technology)
- MNT Micro-Nano-Thuringia e. V.
- OptoNet Jena e. V. (optics and photonics)
- Precision from Jena (work group of the BVMW )
- SpectroNet (image processing)
- TowerByte eG (software and e-commerce)
Region Erfurt-Weimar-Jena "The ImPuls Region"
The cities of Jena, Weimar and Erfurt , which are lined up next to one another in the “ Thuringian chain of cities”, have been working together in selected areas despite all competition since the preparations for the “Weimar 99” City of Culture year. A striking result of this cooperation is the network tariff for the use of (almost all) buses, trams and DB trains in the region with just one ticket. In 2005, the cooperation was expanded to include areas beyond tourism and local transport through a new ImPuls regional concept. The overall regional goals include above all the economic cooperation under the brand "Erfurt-Weimar-Jena Die ImPuls-Region", which includes the Weimarer Land district in addition to the cities mentioned .
The “Guidelines for Mobility in Jena 2030” were adopted on February 14, 2018 by the city council. They form the basis for further traffic development planning in Jena up to 2030.
All trains in the east-west direction run via the Jena-Göschwitz and Jena West stations . The connections in north-south direction lead via the Jena-Zwätze stop , the Saalbahnhof , the Jena Paradies stop and also the Jena-Göschwitz train station, where the two railway lines meet. In the area between Göschwitz and the Ringwiese, a central station was planned in the 1970s and 1980s, but it never got beyond the planning stage.
The hall station was used as a long-distance traffic stop in Jenas until 2001, before it was replaced as such by the Jena Paradies stop. A new, modern reception building was opened there on June 12, 2005, replacing the temporary wooden platforms used as part of the renovation. Jena Paradies was served every hour by ICE on the route from Berlin via Leipzig and Nuremberg to Munich . Since the completion of the new Leipzig / Halle – Erfurt and Erfurt – Nuremberg routes in December 2017, these trains have been run via Erfurt and therefore no longer via Saalfeld and Jena.
In regional transport, Weimar , Erfurt , Göttingen , Gera , Glauchau , Rudolstadt , Saalfeld (Saale) , Lichtenfels , Pößneck , Blankenstein , Großheringen , Naumburg (Saale) as well as Bamberg and Nuremberg using a regional express can be reached directly.
Road, bicycle and pedestrian traffic
The federal motorway 4 ( Frankfurt am Main -) Erfurt - Chemnitz - Dresden - Görlitz runs through the southern urban area in a west-east direction . The city can be reached via the Jena-Göschwitz and Jena-Zentrum junction. The B7 and B88 also lead through Jena.
For 2009, the police recorded 2,779 road traffic accidents, of which 362 resulted in personal injury. The total number of vehicles was 45,920, 40,782 of which were passenger vehicles.
Two long -distance cycle paths cross in Jena - the Saale cycle path and the Thuringian chain of cities long -distance cycle path . Both are part of the so-called Radnetz Deutschland of 12 long-distance cycle paths, which are shown in the National Cycling Plan 2002–2012 of the federal government. The Saale cycle path is part of the Baltic Sea-Upper Bavaria route . The Thuringian chain of cities long-distance cycle route is part of the Mittelland route that runs from Aachen (coming from Western Europe) to Zittau (and on to Eastern Europe). The Thuringian Mill Cycle Path and the Church Cycle Path Jena - Thalbürgel also lead through Jena .
The share of bicycle traffic in the total traffic volume in the city ( modal split ) is 9 percent and is expected to reach 15 percent in the next few years. According to the results of the " System of Representative Traffic Surveys" (SrV) from 2009 and 2013, Jena has a top position across Germany in terms of pedestrian traffic (38 percent) with an increasing trend since 2003, while motorized individual traffic (MIT) has fallen to 34 percent in the modal split is.
The Apolda – Jena bus line , which started scheduled traffic on September 5, 1909, is the oldest regular motor vehicle connection between two Thuringian cities. The local public transport is provided by tram and bus lines of the Jenaer Nahverkehr GmbH (JeNah). In addition to late- night traffic on most of these lines, there is night service on a tram line every 30 or 40 minutes every weekday between around midnight and 4 a.m. Some places can only be reached with regional bus lines from JES Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH, Personenverkehrsgesellschaft mbH Apolda (PVG) or Omnibusverkehr Saale-Orla-Rudolstadt GmbH (OVS), but this is often only possible Monday to Friday or on school days in the mornings and afternoons is. At the end of the 1960s the construction of an Alwegbahn was planned, for which technology would have to be imported from the FRG. The building had to be abandoned in 1971 because of the directive “ clearing interference from the west ”. The current public transport plans are contained in the traffic development plan 2002 of the city of Jena and in the local transport plan of the city of Jena 2008–2012. The number of commuters from the surrounding area to Jena has risen sharply in recent years, by almost 6,000 people a day between 2007 and 2017. About 46 percent of the employees subject to social security contributions in Jena are commuters, a challenge for public transport. In June 2018 around 26,100 people commuted to work in Jena with around 57,000 employees subject to social insurance; 11,284 people commuted from Jena to the surrounding area.
Due to several barrages, the Saale near Jena is no longer navigable. There used to be a mooring point for smaller transport ships here and the wood from the Thuringian woodland was rafted through Jena .
To the east of the city is the Jena-Schöngleina airfield , which is used exclusively for general aviation. The airfield has a 1,170 m asphalt runway and a transverse 610 m grass runway. The next landing sites with regular service are Leipzig / Halle , Erfurt-Weimar and Nuremberg .
In Jena there are local editorial offices of the daily newspaper Ostthüringer Zeitung (OTZ, emerged from the central organ of the SED in the Gera district (“People's Watch”)) and the lower-circulation Thuringian State Newspaper (TLZ). Both belong to the media group Thuringia ( Funke media group Essen). The advertising-financed advertising paper Allgemeine Anzeiger , which has its own editorial office in Jena, is published on a weekly basis . In addition, the student newspapers Akrützel , Die Wurzel and Unique appear at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena , the Ernst Abbe University of Applied Sciences in Jena and at some grammar schools . The city magazine 07 has been published since August 2008.
There is also the television station JenaTV, which has been feeding moving picture news in and from Jena into the local cable network since 1998. The Open Channel Jena , a radio station, has been broadcasting on 103.4 MHz (VHF) and on cable on 107.90 MHz since 1998. Since 2003 the student radio of the university and FH, the campus radio Jena , has been broadcasting as part of the Open Channel . There is also a city-wide radio program from students for Jena schools.
Jenaer local news from OTZ.de, TLZ.de, jenanews.de (July 2007 to August 2012) and Jenaer Nachrichten (since autumn 2011) are presented on the Internet. Daily news is published on jenapolis.de (since spring 2009).
In Jena there is an office of the German Patent and Trademark Office , whose headquarters are in Munich, and a small office of the Bundeswehr , a career counseling office , in the office building of the former District Armed Forces Replacement Office in Jena at Saalbahnhofstraße 25 c as well as a district liaison command within the framework of civil-military cooperation consisting of reservists (officers and non-commissioned officers) who will be based in the new security center in the future .
In addition to the Thuringian Higher Regional Court , which has been located in Jena again since 1993, the Thuringian Public Prosecutor's Office is located in the Jena Justice Center . The Jena District Court is also located in the Justice Center . With effect from January 1, 2014, the formerly independent labor court Jena was merged with the labor court Gera .
Education and Research
With the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena is the only city in the Free State of Thuringia with a full university . In addition, the city on the Saale is home to another important national educational institution, the Ernst Abbe University of Jena . Almost 22,000 students are being trained in Jena (as of winter semester 2018/2019). Several institutes and small optics technology and biotechnology companies have settled in the vicinity of the university and technical college, doing basic research or developing medical instruments. Many academic institutes and start-up companies are located on the Beutenberg Campus .
Jena is part of the BioRegio network and operates a bio-instrument center to promote biotech companies. With the theme of “Future Light”, Jena is one of the ten German cities where science will meet in the 2009 Science Year.
In 1942, Hans Knöll developed the first laboratory process for the production of penicillin on the European continent in the bacteriological laboratory of the Jena glassworks Schott & Gen. In 1953 Hans Knöll founded the Institute for Microbiology and Experimental Therapy , from which the Hans Knöll Institute (HKI) emerged, which was later renamed the Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology - Hans Knöll Institute (HKI) .
- Leibniz Institute for Aging Research - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI)
- Leibniz Institute for Photonic Technologies (IPHT; 1992–2007 Institute for Physical High Technology, 2007–2013 Institute for Photonic Technologies)
- Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
- Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
- Max Planck Institute for the History of Man
- Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Mechanics (IOF)
- Friedrich Loeffler Institute:
- Helmholtz Institute Jena (HI-Jena)
A total of around 4,500 scientists conduct research in Jena. With a focus on optics and photonics as well as health and the life sciences, research in Jena is geared towards important future issues that are relevant to the further development of society and the economy. The profile line "LIGHT LIFE LIBERTY" of the Friedrich Schiller University and the slogan "where life sciences meets physics" of the Beutenberg Campus document the interdisciplinary research at the Jena location. The main research areas include a. Optics and photonics, infection research and sepsis, as well as innovative materials and surface technology.
Promoting talented students and reform pedagogy have a long tradition in Jena. Various approaches have been and are being pursued with regard to science and humanities schools.
In the middle of the 19th century, the pedagogue Karl Volkmar Stoy worked there. In the summer of 1853 he wandered through the countryside with all of the students and thus invented the hiking day . The school he founded in 1844 was one of the first to have an attached gym. The vocational school center Karl-Volkmar-Stoy-Schule now bears his name. At the beginning of the 20th century, Hermann Pistor founded a specialist school for optics ; the pedagogue Peter Petersen developed the Jena Plan model at the university and in his own university school. The first German Montessori school was founded at Pentecost 1923 in the former elementary school of Wenigenjena . It existed until 1929 and was closed by the National Socialist- led state government of Thuringia .
The special high school Carl-Zeiss focuses on mathematics and natural sciences. Since it was founded in 1963, special emphasis has been placed on the self-confident and comprehensive approach to these areas. The school attracted attention through successes at national and international level in natural science competitions such as the Mathematics Olympiad , the Federal Computer Science Competition or the International Chemistry Olympiad .
In addition to the Jenaplan school , which was re-established in the Ziegenhain Valley immediately after the fall of the Wall and was one of the winners of the German School Prize in 2006 , there is also a Montessori school in Jena again. There is also a free Waldorf school in the south and a European school in the Alt-Lobeda district. The integrated comprehensive school "Grete Unrein" Jena was created in 1991 as a special model with the conversion of the Erich Weinert School on the Leutra to a primary school.
The Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths -Gymnasium focuses on sport. Under regional church sponsorship standing Christian School Jena . Another grammar school is the Ernst Abbe grammar school . The Realschule Ostschule and the Adolf-Reichwein-Gymnasium are currently being combined in the building of the Gymnasium to form a cooperative comprehensive school. The reason for this is the declining number of students. The Angergymnasium has been housed in the eastern school building since November 2006 . There is also the Otto-Schott-Gymnasium, which offers bilingual classes, in Lobeda-West.
Medical care and fire brigade
The Jena University Hospital is the only university hospital in Thuringia. There are 26 clinics and polyclinics with a total of 1375 beds at locations in Lobeda , on Bachstrasse and in the Landgrave area. The clinic is a maximum care hospital and at the same time a teaching hospital of the University of Jena. In 2013 the outpatient rehabilitation center (ARZ) was opened in Jena. It belongs to the clinic group of the Graefliche Kliniken Bad Driburg and has specialized in the fields of neurology and orthopedics. The in-house health and prevention center offers a wide range of options in the areas of nutrition, exercise and relaxation. The resident practices for occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech therapy complete the extensive health offer.
The Jena fire brigade is part of the city's fire brigade, rescue and disaster control department. It is divided into a professional fire brigade with almost 120 employees as well as 15 departments of the volunteer fire department and seven departments of the youth fire department . Together, the active units handle around 2000 missions a year, of which around 15 percent are in the area of fire fighting . The professional fire brigade also has a height rescue service .
The rescue helicopter Christoph 70 , manned by doctors from the Jena University Hospital, is stationed at the nearby Jena-Schöngleina airfield . The integrated control center Jena coordinates the intensive care transport helicopter Christoph Thuringia stationed in Bad Berka .
Jena became a garrison town during the armament of the Wehrmacht in the 1930s . An infantry barracks were built in Zwatzen and an artillery barracks in Löbstedt for the army . In Jena Forst accommodation for the created anti-aircraft artillery ; also an air base of the Luftwaffe in nearby Rödigen . The facilities in Zwätz, Löbstedt and the forest were occupied by the Soviet / Russian troops after 1945 until the withdrawal in 1991/92, and those in Rödigen by the National People's Army .
In addition to politicians and scholars from the university, people who have rendered outstanding services to the city were also awarded honorary citizenship of the city of Jena.
For the first time this honor was bestowed on the professor of theology, church councilor and superintendent Eduard Schwarz on February 1, 1837. The former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck received the award at the end of July 1894, one day before his visit to the city.
Sons and Daughters of the City (selection)
- 1621–1676: Ernst Friedrich Schröter , legal scholar
- 1659–1731: Johann Christian Schröter , legal scholar
- 1675–1747: Johann Adolph Wedel , physician
- 1676–1752: Friedrich Gottlieb Struve , lawyer and university professor
- 1707–1758: Johann Christian Stock , medic
- 1734–1799: Karl Friedrich Walch , legal scholar
- 1786–1866: Louise Seidler , painter
- 1884–1953: Hugo Schmeisser , designer of automatic handguns
- 1888–1970: Günther Hertwig , anatomist
- 1891–1950: Walter Eucken , economist and important exponent of ordoliberalism
- 1897–1959: Kurt Held , writer
- 1903–1994: Erich Schwinge , lawyer
- 1907–1975: Karl Paul Hensel , economist
- 1909–1994: Elisabeth Oestreich , middle-distance runner
- 1910–1989: Lothar Grisebach , painter
- 1911–2004: Bernhard zur Lippe-Biesterfeld , Prince of the Netherlands
- 1913–1997: Wolfgang Stock , sculptor, wood carver, painter and draftsman
- 1917–2003: Otto G possibly , SS-Sturmbannführer and personal adjutant to Adolf Hitler
- 1922: John Goodenough , chemist, 2019 Nobel Prize winner
- 1930–2001: Franz Peter Schilling , Apolda's last master bell founder
- 1932: Margarete Schilling , expert on bells and carillons
- 1940–2006: Tilo Medek , composer and music publisher
- 1945: Heikedine Körting , radio play producer
- 1951: Martin Seifert , actor and speaker
- 1953: Roland Jahn , journalist and civil rights activist
- 1955: Siegfried Reiprich , civil rights activist
- 1967: Petra Kleinert , actress
- 1969: Sahra Wagenknecht , politician (Die Linke) and publicist
- 1972: André Kapke , neo-Nazi
- 1972: Pierre Geisensetter , presenter and actor
- 1973: Bernd Schneider , soccer player
- 1975: Beate Zschäpe , NSU terrorist
- 1975: Ralf Wohlleben , neo-Nazi
- 1977–2009: Robert Enke , soccer goalkeeper
- 1981: Karoline Schuch , actress
- 1981: Melanie Raabe , writer
- 1982: Steffen Justus , 2010 triathlon runner-up on the Olympic distance
- 1983: Franz Dinda , cinema and television actor
- 1984: Diana Riesler , duathlete and triathlete
- 1985: Albrecht Schuch , actor
Personalities who have worked on site
Many people who spent part of their lives in Jena have shaped the history of the city and noticeably changed their face. Streets and squares are named after them.
Scholars and students at the Friedrich Schiller University made a significant contribution to the city's reputation with their work. In the years 1740/41 the classical scholar Johann Joachim Winckelmann studied in Jena. Johann Christian Günther spent the last weeks of his life here and died in Jena in 1723. Philosophers and poets such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Novalis , Friedrich Schlegel and Friedrich Schiller learned or taught and created their works here. The chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was looking for a connection between the elements. The logician, mathematician and philosopher Gottlob Frege worked in Jena from 1874 and 1917. He made significant contributions to the foundations of mathematics and linguistic semantics. Karl Volkmar Stoy and Peter Petersen have made great contributions in the field of education with their work in Jena. Johann Gottlob Marezoll was a nationally known preacher who worked in Jena as pastor, superintendent and consistorial councilor.
In the second half of the 19th century, Carl Zeiss, together with Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott, laid the foundations for modern optics in Jena. The companies they founded achieved world fame for the manufacture of scientific instruments. Lothar Späth , former Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg, headed one of the successor companies there around 150 years later.
From 1938 until his death in 1960, the children's and youth author and writer Albert Sixtus lived here , made famous for his numerous picture book verses ("The Bunny School") and adventure novels and as the editor of Auerbach's German children's calendar. From 1971 until his death in 2010, Curt Letsche , author of science fiction stories, descriptions of anti-fascist resistance and detective novels lived here ; he is buried in the north cemetery.
Residents of the city Jena Jena and Jenaerinnen . In contrast, Jena and Jenenserinnen exclusively in Jena born; According to another source, her parents must also have been born in Jena.
To commemorate the victorious battle of Jena, ships of the French navy carried the name "Jena": A corvette (1807-1810), a 110-cannon ship of the line (1814-1864), which served as a Hulk in Toulon until 1915 , and a Ironclad from 1897 that exploded in the port of Toulon in 1907. After that, the name was no longer given to warships. In Paris , the Avenue d'Iéna and the Seine bridge Pont d'Iéna are named after the battle of Jena.
The asteroid (526) Jena is named after the city.
On the back of the 10- mark note from the series from 1964 was a view of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena . At the bottom left the church tower of St. Johannes Baptist (Jena) could be seen, the only church on a GDR bank note. From 1971 the 10-mark note had different images on the front and back.
There are two geological nature trails in the geologically very interesting area around the city .
The veins of Jena are a landscape architecture project in Jena-Paradies and an official support project of the Federal Horticultural Show Gera-Ronneburg 2007. They are district heating pipes that have been redesigned into works of art.
See the bibliography by Jonscher in Koch (1996).
- Jena from its origins to the most recent times according to Adrian Beier, Wiedeburg, Spangenberg, Faselius, Zenker u. A. von Carl Schreiber, painter, and Alexander Färber, museum writer. Jenaer Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Jena 1850 ( limited preview in the Google book search); Verlag für Kunstreprod., Neustadt an der Aisch 1996, unchanged. Reprint of the 1850 edition, ISBN 3-7896-0568-9 .
- Jena city and university chronicle by Martin Schmeizel. Edited by Ernst Devrient . Along with a city map from 1758, Jena 1908.
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): German city book. Handbook of Urban History Volume II Central Germany. On behalf of the Conference of the Regional History Commissions of Germany with the support of the German Municipal Association, Stuttgart 1941.
- Joachim H. Schultze: Jena. Becoming, growing and developing the university and industrial city. Verlag Gustav Fischer, Jena 1955, OCLC 875770026 (detailed work on planning urban development).
- Herbert Koch : History of the City of Jena. Unchangeable Reprint of the 1966 edition. With an afterward by Jürgen John and a bibliography on Jena city history by Reinhard Jonscher. Gustav Fischer, Jena [a. a.] 1996, ISBN 3-437-35130-3 .
- About Jena. The riddle of a place name. Old and new posts. Edited and commented by Norbert Nail and Joachim Göschel (= Journal for Dialectology and Linguistics. Supplements, No. 104). Steiner, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-515-07504-6 .
- Magister Adrian Beier's Jehnische Chronika. Chronologus Jenensis 1600–1672 (= series of publications by the Jena Municipal Museums ). Photos by Günter Schörlitz. Edited by Ilse Traeger. Municipal museums Jena, Jena o. J. , .
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