Johann Joachim Winckelmann

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Johann Joachim Winckelmann, portrait by Ferdinand Hartmann (1794) after Angelika Kauffmann (1764), Gleimhaus Halberstadt.

Winckelmann's signature:
Signature Johann Joachim Winckelmann (cropped) .jpg
Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Portrait of Angelika Kauffmann (1764), Kunsthaus Zürich

Johann Joachim Winckelmann (born December 9, 1717 in Stendal , † June 8, 1768 in Trieste ) was a German archaeologist , librarian , antiquarian and art writer of the Enlightenment . Alongside Flavio Biondo , he is considered to be the founder of scientific archeology and art history and the intellectual founder of classicism in German-speaking countries .


Origin and career

The son of a master shoemaker lived in poor circumstances. He helped the blind headmaster of the Stendal Latin School, Esaias Wilhelm Tappert. He was accepted into his house for three years and promoted beyond school. He first attended the Stendal City School, then the Stendal Latin School until the end of 1735, the Kölln High School in Berlin from 1736 to around Michaelis 1736, and from Michaelis (29 September) 1736 to the end of 1737 the Old Town High School in Salzwedel.

At the suggestion of Tappert, the Stendaler Schönebeck Foundation granted him a book grant in 1736.

Winckelmann also received a scholarship from the Schönebeck Foundation for university studies, for which he issued a receipt in 1739. This enabled Winckelmann to start studying theology at the University of Halle (Saale) in 1738 , which he gave up in 1740 without a degree to work as a tutor for the von Grolmann family in Osterburg near Stendal . From 1741 to 1742 he studied medicine at the University of Jena . From the summer of 1742 to the spring of 1743 Winckelmann was a private tutor in the family of the Oberamtmann Lamprecht in Hadmersleben and from 1743 to 1748 the vice-principal of the Latin school in Seehausen in Altmark .

From the retrospective , Winckelmann evaluates the years of study and the activity as a teacher consistently in his letters as a period of hardship and suffering. In addition, he conducted philological, philosophical and historical studies. The excerpts that he created are now in his estate in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.

Employed as a librarian

Portrait by Anton Raphael Mengs , 1755

In 1748 Winckelmann became librarian with Heinrich Graf von Bünau at Schloss Nöthnitz near Dresden, where he worked on the Count 's history of the Kayser and Reichs and on the printed catalog of his library. Bünau's 42,139 volumes, publicly accessible private library was one of the most important in Europe. Among her visitors was the papal nuncio in Saxony, Alberico Archinto , who was so impressed by Winckelmann that he offered him the position of a librarian in Rome. In the galleries there, he could develop his sense of visual arts. The prerequisite is that Winckelmann convert to the Catholic Church . During this time, King August III. of Poland his patron ; he recognized Winckelmann's groundbreaking ideas and supported him with 200 thalers. On September 17, 1754 Winckelmann quit his job in Nöthnitz.

Winckelmann first moved to his friend, the painter Adam Friedrich Oeser , at Königstraße 17 in Dresden (today: 10) to learn how to draw with him, as did Goethe later , so that he could take advantage of Archinto's offer and serve various cardinals could record in Rome.

Winckelmann in Italy

In autumn 1755 Winckelmann moved to Rome. In the following years he made various trips to Italy. He visited Naples and Pompeii and collected material for his future writings.

When Archinto, who had taken him in Rome , died in 1758 , Winckelmann received accommodation from Cardinal Alessandro Albani . In the same year he traveled to Florence , where he worked on the gem collection of Baron Philipp von Stosch until 1759 . One of the honors he received for this was admission to the Accademia Etrusca . From 1761 onwards he designed the program for the artistic design of the Villa Albani on behalf of Alessandro Albani , the implementation of which was primarily in the hands of the painter Anton Raphael Mengs .

At the beginning of 1762 Winckelmann accompanied Albert Christian Heinrich von Brühl , the second-born son of the Prime Minister, to Naples and published a letter of the Herculan discoveries: To the bored gentleman, Mr. Heinrich Imperial Count von Brühl.

In 1763 Winckelmann met Baron Friedrich Reinhold von Berg (1736–1809) and probably also loved him. His love, however, should be unrequited. After his departure, Winckelmann wrote the treatise on the abilities of feeling the beautiful in art and teaching in it . The treatise is considered both a foundational work of art theory and a key text of his own personality, i. H. especially his homoerotic tendencies.

Also in 1763 Winckelmann was won by Pope Clemens XIII. overseer of antiquities ( Commissario delle Antichità ) in the Papal States and the Scrittore at the Bibliotheca Vaticana appointed. In 1764 he was elected a foreign member of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences .


Portrait of Anton von Maron , 1768

In April 1768 Winckelmann went on a journey together with the sculptor Bartolomeo Cavaceppi , which was to lead him to old and new friends in his homeland. Among other things, he wanted to Leipzig, Dessau and Berlin, Hanover and Göttingen were also goals. An illness and the troubles of the trip led to a melancholy attack that caused him to break off the trip in Regensburg. On the way back he visited Vienna and was received by Empress Maria Theresa . After another fever, he continued the return journey. In Trieste , he stopped at the Hotel Locanda Grande , where he met the convicted chef Francesco Arcangeli , who was his roommate.

The two men met frequently in the days that followed. Winckelmann showed Arcangeli innocently again his four gold and silver medals he had received from Maria Theresa for his scientific achievements. On one of these occasions on the morning of June 8th, Arcangeli tried to strangle Winckelmann with a rope and steal the coins. When this failed, he stabbed him with a knife. Winckelmann's resistance, however, was so violent that both hands were injured when he reached into the blade to ward off the knife. Five of the seven stitches that hit Winckelmann's body were life-threatening. Winckelmann bled to death, but was still available for hours and was able to give the authorities precise information about what had happened. When questioned, he referred to the perpetrator and named greed as a motive. He died about six hours after the attack. The assassin could be caught with anything connected to the murder.

Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717–1768) grave in the cemetery of the Cathedral of San Giusto in Trieste
Johann Joachim Winckelmann's grave in the cemetery of the Cathedral of San Giusto in Trieste

The trial files of the very meticulous investigation of the course of events are also available in German translation. According to the perpetrator's confession, the motive for the murder was to appropriate Winckelmann's considerable travel wallet. Possible backgrounds of the crime, such as erotic ones, could never be clarified beyond doubt. Arcangeli was sentenced to death on wheels after evidence of the murder.

Winckelmann was buried in the common grave of a brotherhood in the cemetery of the Cathedral of San Giusto in Trieste. His grave was initially forgotten. In 1802, at the time of Johann Gottfried Seeum's trip to Italy, about which the walk to Syracuse reports, the grave was almost unknown. The bones were later placed in a general ossuary.

About 40 years after the event, Domenico Rossetti was the first to try to present the course of events as detailed as possible based on the trial files. On his initiative, a grave monument for Winckelmann was erected in Trieste, almost 60 years after his death.

Another, barely received thesis was put forward by Hein van Dolen in 1998. According to this, Winckelmann died in May 1768 in Vienna during his hospital stay there; a stranger stole from him and assumed his identity.

Work and meaning

The most important publications

Title page of the main work by Winckelmann with a copper engraving of Stosch's stone by Johann Adam Schweickart as the title vignette

In 1755 Winckelmann published his first work in an edition of just 50 copies: Thoughts on the imitation of Greek works in painting and sculpture (Dresden). This epoch-making work quickly became very successful, so that Winckelmann published a second edition as early as 1756, to which he published a counter- writ he wrote himself ( missive on the thoughts of the imitation of Greek works in painting and sculpture ) and one again under his name Counter-counter-written ( explanation of the thoughts of the imitation of Greek works in painting and sculpture; and answering the letter about these thoughts ) and thus significantly increased public attention for his first work. The ideas included in a nutshell, most of his ideas and concepts in a shapely language: "The only way for us, great, even if it is possible to be inimitable, is the imitation of the ancients."

Thereupon he received the invitation to a trip to Rome , where after a short time he worked as a librarian with Cardinal Archinto, later in the same position with Cardinal Alessandro Albani , a liberal and art-devoted patron. In 1763 Winckelmann was the first foreigner to oversee the antiquities in and around Rome and during this time he wrote, among other things, writings on the latest excavations at Herculaneum , which he followed with great interest. In 1764 he was finally able to publish his main work, History of Ancient Art (2 quarto volumes, Dresden). Winckelmann not only presented the history of art, but also designed a comprehensively developed system of Greek art. In essence, it is a characteristic of the style of sculpture according to the components and types and classes of ideal beauty . It was Winckelmann who introduced the concept of development for the assessment of ancient art.

Basic idea

Apollonius Belvedere Torso from Winkelmann in an enthusiastic Ekphrasis described

For Winckelmann it was the highest task of art to represent beauty. For this he found the formula “noble simplicity and quiet grandeur”, which he contrasted with the playful and overloaded of the baroque and rococo . His enthusiasm for the male statues of heroes and gods of antiquity was at the same time an expression of his homosexual inclination, which is also evident in his correspondence.

When Winckelmann tried to justify the exemplary nature of ancient Greek art with geographical (mild climate, landscape) and political ( periclean democracy ) circumstances, a contradiction arose: on the one hand, he emphasized the uniqueness of Greek art, on the other, he demanded that it be imitated. Strictly speaking, the latter was not possible because the requirements in Germany at that time were not met. Winckelmann was not aware of this contradiction.

A peculiarity of Winckelmann's classicism is the preference for the Greek heritage over Latin-Roman antiquity. There were also political and time-critical reasons for this: French culture, which at that time was also lived at the German courts, referred to Roman antiquity. The Enlightenmentist Winckelmann contrasted Roman despotism with Greek democracy . He also emphasized the supposedly greater originality of the Greek works. In his eyes, the Romans had only created bad imitations that did not come close to the Greek originals. However, this assessment was based on an error: all works that Winckelmann saw on his travels in Rome and believed to be Greek creations were in truth themselves “only” Roman copies. Friedrich Nietzsche later commented:

"Winckelmann's and Goethe's Greeks, V. Hugo's Orientalien, Wagner's Edda-Personnagen, W. Scott's Englishman of the 13th century - at some point you will discover the whole comedy: it was all historically wrong beyond all measure, but - modern, true! "

Winckelmann's importance for the reception of antiquity

It is his great merit to have led the reception of Greek antiquity from the field of antiquarian book scholarship to a sensual-erotic reception of ancient art. Winckelmann's image of Roman and Greek antiquity had a major influence on the spirit of German classicism , especially that of Weimar Classicism . How influential Winckelmann was is demonstrated by Goethe's book Winckelmann and his century from 1805, published in Tübingen .

The idea that the ancient architecture and thus also the sculpture was mostly white, ultimately goes back to Winckelmann. However, archaeological evidence shows that the architecture and, in many cases, the sculpture was colored. An example of this is a blond head from the Acropolis . With his ideal of the white art of antiquity, Winckelmann also had a lasting influence on the discussions about ancient polychromy , which he was more aware of than many of his successors.

Winckelmann was one of the people who urged excavations to uncover the historic Olympia . In January 1768 Winckelmann's travel plans took on concrete form; his violent death ended this initiative. It was not until the years 1875 to 1881 that the systematic excavation in Olympia began under the direction of Ernst Curtius by the German Archaeological Institute . The results obtained under Curtius' direction, as well as those produced by Wilhelm Dörpfeld and Georg Treu , posthumously gave Winckelmann right with regard to his demand for an excavation of Olympia.

Winckelmann's ideal, based on the formula “noble simplicity and quiet greatness”, was formative for sculpture until the middle of the 19th century, and even beyond that for late representatives of the Thorvaldsen school , such as the Swiss Ferdinand Schlöth .

Influence on subsequent authors

Winckelmann's image of Greece showed utopian traits of idealization, which also influenced the authors who followed him. The equation of antiquity - beauty - enhancement of life permeates the works of both Goethe, Schiller, Lessing and Holderlin "and, despite several important differences, leads them back to a common starting point - Winckelmann's image of Greece".

The feeling of the works of art, which is particularly oriented towards the forms, and their reception by Winckelmann had a formative effect on both Goethe and Schiller . Goethe was in Italy from 1786 to 1788 . His travel description ( Italian trip ) contains numerous references to Winckelmann.

Goethe was later to overcome Winckelmann's classicism for himself. While Winckelmann still demanded to imitate them in the spirit of the Greeks (i.e. not simply to imitate them), Goethe created a space for himself which also gave the spirit of his own time its right. This can already be seen in Iphigenia , for which Goethe chose an ancient material, but in which humanity does not appear as eternal Greek property, but must first be fought for. Goethe was aware that myth and Greek reality also contained blind cruelty - he contrasted them with the modern, sensitive and humane, as Schiller also notes. In his later creative phase in the third decade of the 19th century, Goethe dealt with the subject again (Faust II). The historicization of ancient materials had now progressed further and was condensed into a bloodless educational canon for Goethe . Winckelmann had contributed indirectly to the historicization, on the one hand by emphasizing the geoclimatic uniqueness of the Greek antiquity, on the other hand by drawing an equally unique development path of the development and decay of Greek art in his history of art . This raised the question for Goethe of how the historically unique epoch could still be of significance for the present. The symbol for this in Faust II was Helena , the most beautiful of all Greek women: She shows beauty as timeless and eternal, but at the same time it has to be realized in a living way. Goethe resolved the conflict by emphasizing the productive, creative life force as the value of classical art and emphasizing its use for the present.

Also Hölderlin fought later against the principle of imitation Winckelmann, as it suffocate the living force. Nonetheless, he remained loyal to the ancient materials, because they made it possible “to encounter one's own origin as a strange one.” Lessing, in turn, criticized Winckelmann's interpretation of the Laocoon group . Winckelmann saw the fact that the Laocoon does not scream as a confirmation of his thesis that the Greeks basically kept everything painful and ugly out of their art. Lessing, on the other hand, tried to show in his work Laocoon that the neutral facial expression was not due to this principle, but to the difference between the visual arts and literature.


Monument erected in 1859
for Winckelmann in Stendal


  • Every year around December 9th, classical archaeologists commemorate Winckelmanns as the “forefather” of their subject, who founded scientific archeology. Lectures held there are often published as Winckelmann programs .
  • At the University of Halle, from 1905 to 1939, his birthday was commemorated with celebratory lectures that were published as Hallesche Winckelmannsblätter . After a long break, this tradition was renewed in 2004 and revived in a different form. The Winckelmann Lectures in Halle now take place at the beginning of the summer semester, close to the anniversary of his enrollment on April 4, 1738 and in cooperation between the Central Custody of the Martin Luther University , the Seminar for Classical Archeology and the Archaeological Museum of Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg .
  • On April 29, 2013, a Winckelmann Day and the interdisciplinary colloquium His Capital was the time of the 275th anniversary of his enrollment and his studies (1738–1740) at the “University of Enlightenment”.
  • The anniversaries in 2017 (300th birthday on December 9, 2017) and in 2018 on the 250th anniversary of his murder on June 8, 1768 in Trieste were celebrated at the Martin Luther University with exhibitions, lecture series, colloquia and lectures.
  • The Classical Archaeological Seminar at the Humboldt University in Berlin is called the " Winckelmann Institute ".

Winckelmann medals

Medal Johann Joachim Winckelmann 1819

Winckelmann Society


  • On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of his death, the Basel Historical Museum is presenting some of his important writings from the holdings of the Basel University Library until June 30, 2019.

Designation of traffic areas (small selection)

Other awards

  • In 1819 a medal was struck in honor of Winckelmann for the French medal series "Series Numismatica Universalis Virorum Illustrium".
  • With the construction of the Düsseldorf Art Academy (1875–1879), his name was chiseled into the frieze of the facade on the west side (Rhine side) as a "cornerstone", alongside important sculptors as the founder of art history.
  • With the 1967 postage stamp year , the GDR's Deutsche Post issued a stamp in honor of Winckelmann.
  • The most famous football tournament for archaeologists is called the Winckelmann Cup . It is an international tournament that has been played since 1991 and represents an important platform for networking.
  • The German railway 2011 christened a new double-deck train of DB Regio in Stendal for the route Halle (Saale) -Köthen- Magdeburg-Stendal-Uelzen Salzwedel- in the name of Johann Joachim Winckelmann.
  • On the occasion of Winckelmann's 300th birthday, the Federal Ministry of Finance issued a stamp and a 20 euro commemorative coin on October 12, 2017 .


  • Thoughts on the imitation of Greek works in painting and sculpture. Second increased edition. Walther, Dresden / Leipzig 1756 ( digitized version ).
  • Description of the pierres gravées de feu Baron de Stosch. Florence 1760 ( digitized ).
  • Epistles from the Herculan Discoveries. Walther, Dresden 1762, urn : nbn: de: bsz: 16-diglit-59649 .
  • History of the art of antiquity. Walther, Dresden 1764. (Vol. 1 as digitized and full text in the German Text Archive , Vol. 2 as digitalized and full text in the German Text Archive , urn : nbn: de: bsz: 16-diglit-13431 ). Facsimile reprint of the 1st edition 1966 ( Studies on German Art History. Vol. 343.)
  • Ancient monuments of art. 2 volumes. Translated from the Italian by Friedrich Leopold Brunn . Christian Gottfried Schöne, Berlin 1791/92 ( digitized version ).
  • Joseph Eiselein (Ed.): Johann Winckelmann's complete works: including portrait, facsimile and detailed biography of the author; below the text the earlier and many new quotations and notes; the letters collected everywhere in chronological order, fragments, illustrations and quadruple index . 12 volumes. Verlag Deutscher Classiker, Donaueschingen 1825–1829 ( digitized version ).
  • Letters. 4 volumes. Edited by Walther Rehm and Hans Diepolder . De Gruyter, Berlin 1952–1957.
  • Selected writings and letters . Edited by Walther Rehm. Dieterich, Wiesbaden 1948.
  • Small writings, prefaces, drafts. Edited by Walther Rehm, with an introduction by Hellmut Sichtermann . De Gruyter, Berlin 1968.
  • Writings and bequests. Edited by the Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz. Zabern, Mainz 1996 ff.



  • Johann Gottfried Gurlitt : Biographical and literary note from Johann Winkelmann . School program from Kloster Berge, Magdeburg 1797 ( digitized version ).
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe : Winckelmann and his century . Tübingen 1805 (with contributions by Meyer and Wolf).
  • EL Fernow et al .: Winckelmann's works , 6 volumes with copper in the appendix. In the Waltherschen Hofbuchhandlung, Dresden 1808.
  • Constantin von Wurzbach : Winckelmann, Johann Joachim . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 56th part. Kaiserlich-Königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1888, pp. 264–271 ( digitized version ).
  • Carl Justi : Winckelmann and his contemporaries . 2nd edition, 3 volumes, Leipzig 1898.
  • Julius VogelWinckelmann, Johann Joachim . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 43, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1898, p. 343 f.
  • Wilhelm Schäfer: Winckelmann's end . 1st edition limited to 500 copies, Georg Müller Verlag, Munich 1925.
  • HC Hatfield: Winckelmann and his German Critics. 1755-1781. A prelude to the Classical Age . New York 1943.
  • Horst Rüdiger : Winckelmann and Italy . Scherpe, Krefeld 1956.
  • Horst Rüdiger: Winckelmann's death. The original reports . Insel-Verlag, Wiesbaden 1959 ( Insel-Bücherei 695/1).
  • Heinrich Alexander Stoll : Winckelmann, his publishers and his printers . Berlin 1960.
  • Heinrich Alexander Stoll: Death in Trieste - life, deeds and miracles Johann Joachim Winckelmann . 2nd edition, Berlin 1970.
  • Thomas W. Gaehtgens (Ed.): Johann Joachim Winckelmann. 1717-1768. (= Studies on the eighteenth century , edited by the German Society for Research in the Eighteenth Century, Vol. 7), Felix Meiner Verlag, Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-7873-0666-8 .
  • Martin Disselkamp: The city of scholars. Studies on Johann Joachim Winckelmann's letters from Rome . Tubingen 1993.
  • A. Potts: Flesh and the Ideal. Winckelmann and the Origins of Art History . New Haven and London 1994.
  • Wolfgang Leppmann : Winckelmann. A life for Apollo . Propylaeen, Berlin 1996 ISBN 3-549-05595-1 (biography, 1st edition 1971).
  • Elisabeth Décultot : Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Inquiry on the genesis of the history of art . Paris 2000.
  • Ekaterini Kepetzis:  WINCKELMANN, Johann Joachim. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 18, Bautz, Herzberg 2001, ISBN 3-88309-086-7 , Sp. 1530-1559.
  • Élisabeth Décultot: Investigations into Winckelmann's excerpts. A contribution to the genealogy of art history in the 18th century (Stendaler Winckelmann Research Volume 2) , Verlag Franz Philipp Rutzen, Ruhpolding / Stendal o. J. [around 2004], ISBN 3-910060-57-9 .
  • Esther Sophia Sünderhauf: Greek Longing and Cultural Criticism. The German reception of Winckelmann's ideal of antiquity 1840–1945 . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-05-004100-5 .
  • Wolfgang von Wangenheim : The discarded stone , Matthes-Seitz publishing house, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-88221-861-4 (biography).
  • Mathias Schmoeckel: Fiat Iustitia! Theme and variations on a murder in Trieste , Stendal 2005; Akzidenzen 15, Flyers of the Winckelmann Society, ed. by Max Kunze, ISBN 3-910060-71-4 .
  • Urs Müller: field contacts, cultural transfer, cultural participation. Winckelmann's contribution to the establishment of the German intellectual field. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-86583-035-8 (= Transfer - The German-French Cultural Library, 24).
  • Francesca Lui, L'antichità tra scienza e invenzione. Studi su Winckelmann e Clérisseau . Prefazione di Giorgio Cusatelli, Minerva Edizioni, Bologna 2006, ISBN 978-88-7381-144-2 .
  • Wouter Soudan: Normativiteit en Historisch Bewustzijn in de Achttiende Eeuw: Winckelmanns kunstpedagogie en de epistemologie van het Schone . Dissertation PhD Leuven, 2008. ( full text as PDF with detailed bibliography ).
  • Klaus-Werner Haupt: Johann Winckelmann. Founder of classical archeology and modern art studies . Weimarer Verlagsgesellschaft, Weimar 2014, ISBN 978-3-86539-718-8 .
  • Christian Kohfeldt: Johann Joachim Winckelmann in Piranesi's Rome. In: Michael Sommer (Hrsg.): Place of longing Rome: the ancient world in Piranesi's vedute. Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-7308-1165-8 pp. 30–34.
  • Joachim Bartholomae (ed.): The wonder Winckelmann. A pop star in the 18th century . Swarm of men, Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-86300-220-6 .
  • Franziska Bomski, Hellmut Seemann , Thorsten Valk (eds.): The invention of the classic. Winckelmann readings in Weimar (= yearbook of the Klassik Stiftung Weimar ). Wallstein, Göttingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-8353-3025-2 .
  • Élisabeth Décultot, Martin Dönike, Wolfgang Holler u. a. (Ed.): Winckelmann. Modern antiquity. Catalog for the exhibition from April 7, 2017 to July 2, 2017 in Weimar. Hirmer, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-7774-2756-0 .
  • Martin Disselkamp / Fausto Testa (ed.): Winckelmann manual. Life - work - effect , JB Metzler, Stuttgart 2017 ISBN 978-3-476-02484-8
  • Christian Kuhlmann: From Stendal to Arcadia. For the 300th birthday of Johann Joachim Winckelmann . In: Sachsen-Anhalt-Journal 27 (2017), no. 2, p. 19f.
  • Friedrich-Wilhelm von Hase (Hrsg.): The art of the Greeks with the soul searching. Winckelmann in his time . Philipp von Zabern, Darmstadt 2017, ISBN 978-3-8053-5095-2 .
  • Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Bavaria. A European dimension . Special issue for issue 5/2019 of the journal on debate . Catholic Academy in Bavaria, Munich 2019.


  • Stendaler Winckelmann research . Verlag Franz Philipp Rutzen, Ruhpolding / Stendal, (published since) 2003–, ed. from the Winckelmann Society in Stendal.


radio play

  • Prefect with stab wounds. Sentimental documentation on the murder of Winckelmann . Radio play by Guntram Vesper , Radio Bremen, Saarländischer Rundfunk 1975.
  • The Winckelmann Affair ( Memento from October 24, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), radio play by Rolf Schneider , directed by Walter Niklaus, with Jürgen Hentsch, Walter Kreye, Klaus Manchen, Rolf Hoppe, Angelica Domröse and others. a., Ton Dietmar Hagen, production MDR / ORF 2009, 56'49.
  • Beautiful world where are you Ways to Johann Joachim Winckelmann, radio play by Jean-Claude Kuner , with Fritz Lichtenhahn, Ulrich Matthes, Walter Giller, Nadja Tiller, Alexander Khuon, Max von Pufendorf, Johannes Schäfer, Sabin Tambrea, in an interview: Wolfgang von Wangenheim, sound Peter Kainz, Author's production on behalf of Deutschlandfunk 2011, 73'39 and 54'43.

Fiction adaptations

  • Klaus-Werner Haupt: Johann Joachim Winckelmann among the scholars. Bertuch Verlag, Weimar 2018, ISBN 978-3-86397-096-3 .
  • Gerhart Hauptmann : Winckelmann. Fragment. (Published as partial prints in newspapers, January - August 1939). Complete reprint in the centenary edition, Volume X. Propylaeen Verlag, Frankfurt and Berlin 1970.
  • Claus Back: The way to Rome. A Winckelmann novel. 2nd Edition. Book publisher Der Morgen , Berlin 1965.
  • Jutta Hecker : dream of eternal beauty. Johann Joachim Winckelmann's novel of life. Verlag der Nation, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-373-00126-9 .
  • Jutta Hecker: Flaming life. Longing, fulfillment and catastrophe in the life of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Knabes Jugendbücherei, Weimar 2016, ISBN 978-3-940442-32-1
  • Franco Farina: End point Trieste. Suffering and death of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Drama in 12 stations. (= Akzidenzen Volume 5.) Winckelmann-Gesellschaft, Stendal 1992.
  • Gerhard Köpf : Piranesi's dream. Luchterhand, Hamburg 1992.

Web links

Commons : Johann Joachim Winckelmann  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Johann Joachim Winckelmann  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Arthur Schulz: Johann Joachim Winckelmann. An Altmarker who created a new science. In: The Altmarkbote. Culture papers for town and country. Issue 5, Salzwedel January 1957, p. 8.
  2. ^ Heinrich Alexander Stoll: Death in Triest - Life, Deeds and Miracles Johann Joachim Winckelmann , 2nd edition Berlin 1970, p. 602.
  3. ^ Request from the Rector of the Stendal Latin School Esaias Wilhelm Tappert for a book grant for Winckelmann to the Schönbeck Foundation of April 4, 1736, Winckelmann Museum Stendal, Collection: Letters and Autographs, Inventory No .: WM-IV-Pa-3, digital museum- (PDF)
  4. Winckelmann receipt for receiving the university scholarship from the Schönbeck Foundation from January 29, 1739, Winckelmann Museum Stendal, collection: Winckelmann autographs, inventory no .: WM-IV-Pa-2, digital (PDF)
  5. ^ Heinrich Alexander Stoll: Death in Triest - Life, Deeds and Miracles Johann Joachim Winckelmanns 2nd edition Berlin 1970, p. 602.
  6. Epistles from the Herculan discoveries ... Dresden 1762, p. 3
  7. See Bernd-Ulrich Hergemöller: Man for Man . P. 742; See Heinrich Detering: The open secret. On the literary productivity of a taboo from Winckelmann to Thomas Mann . Göttingen 1994, pp. 39-77.
  8. Thomas Fröhlich: Johann Joachim Winckelmann as Commissario delle Antichità In: Festschrift for Max Kunze. Rutzen, Ruhpolding 2011, ISBN 978-3-447-06433-0 , pp. 55-64 ( full text ).
  9. Holger Krahnke: The members of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen 1751-2001 (= Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Philological-Historical Class. Volume 3, Vol. 246 = Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Mathematical-Physical Class. Episode 3, vol. 50). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-82516-1 , p. 260.
  10. ^ Domenico de Rossetti: Johann Winckelmann's last week of life. A contribution to his biography. From the original judicial files of the criminal trial of his murderer Arcangeli. Edited by Dom. v. Rossetti. With a preface by Böttiger and a facsimile by Winckelmann. Dresden 1818.
  11. Hein van Dolen: Murder in Trieste. The death of Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717–1768) from a new perspective. Commercial printing 10. Flyer of the Winckelmann-Gesellschaft, Stendal 1998.
  12. Johann Joachim Winckelmann: Thoughts on the imitation of Greek works in painting and sculpture . 2nd increased edition. Waltherische Handlung, Dresden and Leipzig 1756, p. 2
  13. Cf. Paul Derks : The Shame of the Holy Pederasty , Homosexuality and the Public in German Literature 1750-1850 . Berlin 1990, pp. 174-231.
  14. See Lorella Bosco: The terribly beautiful Gorgon head of the classical, Deutsche Antikebilder (1755-1875) . Würzburg 2004, pp. 32-34; also as a digital dissertation
  15. Quoted from: D. Borchmeyer / J. Salaquarda: Nietzsche and Wagner. Stations of an epochal encounter . 2 vol., Frankfurt / M. 1994, Vol. 2, p. 1025.
  16. Stefan Hess : Between Winckelmann and Winkelried. The Basel sculptor Ferdinand Schlöth (1818–1891). Berlin 2010.
  17. Lorella Bosco: The terribly beautiful Gorgon head of the classic, Deutsche Antikebilder (1755-1875) . Würzburg 2004, p. 94; also as a digital dissertation
  18. Bannewitzer preserve the memory of Winckelmann ( memento from December 10, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), (video 01:58 min), accessed on December 10, 2017
  19. Online presentation of the exhibition on
  20. Stephan Lehmann / Olaf Peters / Elisa Tamaschke: Ideale. Modern art since Winckelmann's antiquity , ed. for the art museum Moritzburg Halle (Saale) by Christian Philipsen in connection with Thomas Bauer-Friedrich (Dresden: Sandstein Verlag 2018).
  21. Winckelmann - The inventor of an ideal antiquity . Exhibition by the Basel Historical Museum.
  22. Winckelmannstrasse. In: Street name lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near  Kaupert )
  23. a b 37 ° 57 ′ 41.6 ″ N, 23 ° 44 ′ 25.3 ″ O Evi Melas: Travel correctly. Greece. 12th edition. Cologne 1990, p. 78.
  24. Stefan Krmnicek, Marius Gaidys: Taught images. Classical scholars on 19th century medals. Accompanying volume to the online exhibition in the Digital Coin Cabinet of the Institute for Classical Archeology at the University of Tübingen (= From Croesus to King Wilhelm. New Series, Volume 3). University Library Tübingen, Tübingen 2020, p. 62 f. ( online ).
  26. New double-decker coaches from DB Regio in Stendal named "Johann Joachim Winckelmann" ( memento from January 27, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) on
  27. Presentation of the special postage stamp and the 20 euro commemorative coin “300. Birthday Johann Joachim Winckelmann ” ,, accessed on December 10, 2017