|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||88 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||135.02 km 2|
|Residents:||238,762 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1768 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0345|
|License plate :||HAL|
|Community key :||15 0 02 000|
|LOCODE :||DE HAL|
|Urban division:||5 districts with
City Administration Address :
06108 Halle (Saale)
|Lord Mayor :||Bernd Wiegand ( independent )|
|Location of the city of Halle (Saale) in Saxony-Anhalt|
Halle (Saale) , approximately from the late 15th to the late 17th century Hall in Saxony until the early 20th century officially Halle an der Saale , 1965-1995 Halle / Saale , is a county-level city in southern Saxony-Anhalt in Germany and lies on the Saale . Halle is one of the three regional centers of the state as well as the seat of the state administration office and with 238,762 inhabitants (state statistical office as of December 31, 2019) the largest city in Saxony-Anhalt . In 2017 it moved up to 31st place among German cities in terms of population and has been the fourth largest city in the new federal states since then .
Together with the neighboring metropolis Leipzig, the city forms the agglomeration of Leipzig-Halle , in which more than a million people live, as well as the metropolitan region of Central Germany with Leipzig and five other cities in Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Thuringia . Halle is an important traffic junction and an important economic center in the eastern German federal states.
The first documentary mention dates back to the year 806. The number of inhabitants of the city exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1890, making Halle a major city.
With the Francke Foundations founded by August Hermann Francke in 1698, Halle is the starting point for social-humanistic education in Germany. Halle is the only major German city that had more than 200,000 inhabitants during the Second World War and remained undestroyed, so that its overall urban development and monument preservation condition is unique among the major cities.
Halle is the seat of one of the oldest universities in Germany, the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg , as well as the Evangelical College for Church Music Halle and the Burg Giebichenstein Art College . In addition, the city is the seat of the National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and the Federal Cultural Foundation , which are responsible for the international representation of national science and German culture for the Federal Republic of Germany. There are a number of cultural and museum institutions in the city, such as the Moritzburg Foundation or the State Museum for Prehistory . The Weinberg Campus is an important technology and start-up center in the eastern German states.
The city of Halle is home to one of the oldest boys' choirs in Germany, the Stadtsingechor zu Halle .
Geography, hydrography and geology
Halle is located on the north-western edge of the Leipzig lowland bay , the greater part to the east of the navigable Saale, which divides into several arms here and forms a wide floodplain , and below the mouth of the White Elster .
The Saale flows through Halle over a length of 27 km. The electricity hall manages a height difference of 9 m. To their navigability manufacture, five were weirs with locks built. Together with the side arms, flood reliefs, sluices and lock canals as well as the harbor basin, this results in a total length of 47 km of watercourses in the city. In addition, the Weisse Elster, the Reide and other flowing streams have a length of 6.3 km . In addition, there are around 180 man-made standing water in the urban area. The Hufeisensee with 73 ha the biggest lake of the city. Other larger lakes are the Osendorfer See with 21 ha and the Heidesee with 12.5 ha.
Natural resources and their use
The natural resources in the urban area contributed to Halle's favorable location . In many cases, their use has had a positive impact on economic development. Lignite deposits exist under many parts of the urban area. A useful they learned over several centuries in both the Day as in civil engineering , especially in the west of the city around the place Nietleben , in the north ( Seeben and Merry future ) and southeast (between Osendorf and Büschdorf ). Hard coal could be mined in the formerly royal Dölau hard coal mine and in the area of the Wittekind valley. Clay was extracted near Angersdorf , shell limestone in Neustadt , porphyry on Galgenberg, gravel in the Saale floodplain and kaolin clay northwest of the city limits near Salzmünde . The use of brine was of paramount importance, as it was possible to promote it in some places in the city area as a result of the Halle Marktplatz fault . Today the extraction of mineral resources from the area of the city no longer plays a role. Many opencast mines now form bodies of water.
The urban area is divided into the five urban districts center, north, east, south and west . The city districts are divided into districts and these in turn are divided into districts.
The annual mean temperature is approx. 10.3 ° C. The average air temperature in Halle-Kröllwitz is 9.1 ° C, the annual precipitation 451 millimeters. Based on data from the German Meteorological Service , Halle is in the penultimate place in a ranking of 49 examined major German cities with an average annual rainfall of only 481.5 mm ( rain shadow of the Harz Mountains ).
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Halle (Saale)
station Bad Lauchstädt
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
Origin of the name
The origin of the place name "Halle" is unclear.
The traditional interpretation puts it in Old Saxon and Old High German halla "building supported by pillars", which means the boiling house of the salt works. Other interpretations see it in Middle High German hal "Salzquelle, Salzwerk" or connect it as ancient German * hal directly to Indo-European * sal "salt". In addition, the Low German hāl "dried out, dry" is also considered.
The Leipzig professor of onomastics Jürgen Udolph doubts the former representation for the name Halles for reasons of linguistic geography and language chronology. He argues that the stem of the word for “salt” begins in all languages that have hitherto been used to explain the name “Halle” or that are temporally and geographically possible with an S and not an H sound, which is also phonetic could not have arisen subsequently from an initial S-sound. Udolph thinks that the name Halle and many other Germanic place names that contain hal can be traced back to an older Indo-European word stem with the meaning “slope, slope” or “incline”.
Similar theses were already advocated by August Friedrich Pott in the 19th century and, according to lawyer Heiner Lück , by linguists from Halle in the 1950s. He found the motivation for the naming in Halle's case in the sloping terrain between the town's market square and the banks of the Saale.
Historically, Halle was also called by its Latin name: Hala Saxonum .
From the settlement to Cardinal Albrecht
Salt springs - created by a geological peculiarity, the so-called Hallesche Marktplatz Fault - were used in what is now the area of the city of Halle in prehistoric times. Recent excavations on the market show the continuity of the importance of salt for the city. The settlement of the urban area in prehistory presumably followed the Hermunduren , the fishing and warning ( Thuringian ) as well as the Wends who called the place Dobrebora. In the Chronicon Moissiacense 806, Halle is first mentioned as "Halla". In 968 Otto I founded the Archdiocese of Magdeburg , to which Halle belonged until 1680. Around 1120 the city was extensively expanded. This was made possible by the increasing salt trade and the wealth that came with it. Initially this was in the hands of the archbishops, from the end of the 12th century the guild of Pfänner was formed, it was free entrepreneurs who were able to transfer the feudal shares of solgoods into free property. The result was a self-confident bourgeoisie, which in 1263 concluded a contract with the Archbishop of Magdeburg , Rupertus, according to which the archbishop was not allowed to build a castle within a mile or any other brine wells. The Pfänner determined the politics of the city for centuries. In 1281 Halle was first mentioned as a member of the Hanseatic League , and in 1310 the city's self-government was contractually established. In 1341, the construction of a strong tower between Libra and City Hall began, which served to safely house the city's privileges until 1835.
During excavations on the market square from mid-2004 to mid-2006, among other things, the foundations of St. Marien with parts of the associated cemetery, as well as a smaller area of the churchyard of St. Gertruden were uncovered. Over 300 graves from the High and Late Middle Ages were examined. The anthropologist Bettina Jungklaus examined 334 skeletons, most of them from St. Marien and a small part from St. Gertruden. The graves could be dated from the 12th to the 16th century. The peak of death was in advanced age. The proportion of very old people was high at 13%. Child mortality was rather low at 20%. An established significant surplus of men was probably related to increased immigration from rural areas. In Halle, working in salt production may have drawn male workers in particular. Women had an increased risk of death in the first few years of life and in fertile age. All of this suggested rather favorable living conditions. A heavy burden of degenerative changes in the vertebrae and large body joints and frequent arm fractures were found, which was possibly related to the salt economy. Two histologically proven cases of syphilis are early evidence of the spread of this disease in central Germany.
In 1418 construction began on the Red Tower , a bell tower "for the glory of God and for the city of Halle as well as the whole area as an ornament". It later became the symbol of the city. In 1478, the 200-year-old urban independence ended. In 1484 Archbishop Ernst had the Moritzburg built as a fortified residential palace in the north-west corner of the city, and in 1503 he ceremoniously moved in. It was actually supposed to be a fortress against Halle's self-confident citizens, the salt workers. Until 1680, Halle was the capital and residence of the Archdiocese of Magdeburg.
Halle was the favorite residence of Cardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg . When the Reformation moved into Halle, he left Halle with his court and all movable art objects in the cathedral for Mainz and Aschaffenburg. His favorite Hans von Schönitz , who lived in the “Kühler Brunnen” near the market, initiated the merging of the two churches on the market square . From 1530 to 1554 the Romanesque basilicas of St. Gertraud and St. Marien were demolished and the four- tower market church was built between the remaining towers (“Blue Towers” and “Hausmannstürme”) . This reflects the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. Hans von Schönitz later fell out of favor and was imprisoned in Giebichenstein Castle for several years before his execution . There was outrage among the citizens about this murder, but also about Albrecht's dissolute life. At the forefront of the protests was Martin Luther , who morally and religiously accused Albrecht of excessive extravagance and ostentatiousness.
Due to the opulence and the building activity of Albrecht von Brandenburg, Halle received certain Renaissance structures . The New Residence was built , and he continued to build the Moritzburg and the cathedral. The structure of the city was changed significantly. Several buildings were demolished, such as the Neuwerk Monastery , the Lamberti Chapel and the Cyriakshospital. As a result, he was constantly short of money, so that he was forced to sell parts of Hallesches Heilums and valuable relics. His financial and moral bankruptcy accidentally accelerated the arrival of the Reformation in 1541.
“After coffee, we can see the city and the interior of the market church until 5 o'clock. One is very impressed by the picturesque of the different corners of the city, […] especially one where the water rushes out of the mills; above the ruins of Moritzburg, the Moritzburg church with its round gables and underneath it many secret gardens with arbors and direct lilac bushes on and around the old walls "
Halle as part of the Hanseatic League
As with other Hanseatic cities , there was no official declaration of membership of the Hanseatic League of Cities in Halle . It was first mentioned in connection with the Hanseatic League in a letter dated March 4, 1281, in which a transfer of the pile of German traders from Bruges to Aardenburg from 1280 to 1282 was established. Presumably, however, there was already contact with the Hanseatic trade a few decades before, since the city also had an important long-distance trade connection with Flanders , the most important economic area at the time . In 1294, Halle, along with 24 other Hanseatic cities, were advocates for the transfer of important functions of the Hanseatic League from Visby , on the Baltic island of Gotland , to Lübeck .
With the enactment of a new regimental order by Archbishop Ernst von Wettin on March 18, 1479, the city's membership of the Hanseatic League de facto ended . However, in 1506 Halle was once again mentioned as a Hanseatic city. It was not until 1518 that Halle, like numerous other cities, was finally referred to as "abdicated and cut off".
Halle was not one of the most important cities in the Hanseatic League. The city regularly received invitations to Hanseatic days , but these were rarely followed. The political decisions were left to Magdeburg and Braunschweig , the largest cities in the Saxon Association of Cities . There is no evidence that the city's most important export item, salt, was sold on Hanseatic merchant ships. The contacts to Flanders, which have been documented since the 13th century, indicate, among other things, that Halle merchants participated in the Hanseatic cloth trade.
In 2001 Halle became a member of the New Hanseatic League, newly founded in 1980 .
From the Reformation to the Weimar Republic
In 1541 the Reformation was introduced in the royal seat of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg , mainly under the leadership of Justus Jonas the Elder . Martin Luther himself preached several times in Halle in the market church. During the transfer from Eisleben to Wittenberg in 1546, his body was laid out here.
From then on, the archbishopric was administered by an archiepiscopal administrator . During the Thirty Years' War in 1625, imperial troops under Wallenstein occupied the city. In 1637 the Moritzburg burned down. After the death of the last archiepiscopal administrator, Duke August von Sachsen in 1680, Halle and the entire archbishopric of Magdeburg fell to the Electorate of Brandenburg and with this became part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1701 . From that time until 1714, Halle was the capital of the Prussian Duchy of Magdeburg . The city was in what was then the Saalkreis , but as an immediate city it was directly under the government of the duchy.
On July 12, 1694, the University of Halle (alma mater halensis) with initially four faculties was founded in the Ratswaage on Halle's market square as its future main building . The alma mater halensis developed together with the Francke Foundations founded in 1698 into a center of early civic enlightenment . There, in 1710, the 1st Canstein Bible Institute was founded by Baron von Canstein together with August Hermann Francke . In 1708, Christoph Semler founded the first German secondary school in Halle .
During the Napoleonic Wars , the Dupont division of Bernadotte's corps stormed the city on October 17, 1806 and then defeated the Prussian reserve army. Prussia had declared war on France on October 9th ( Fourth Coalition War ); on October 14, 1806 it lost the battle near Jena and Auerstedt . A few days later, Emperor Napoleon visited Halle and ordered the university to be dissolved. Its main building, the Ratswaage, became a hospital and then temporarily a slaughterhouse.
In July 1807 the Peace of Tilsit was concluded; he ended the Fourth Coalition War. Halle became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Westphalia . After the victory over Napoleon in 1813/14 the university was re-established.
As a result of the Congress of Vienna , Halle fell back to Prussia in 1815 , which incorporated the city into the Merseburg administrative district of the newly formed province of Saxony . As part of the subdivision of the administrative district of Merseburg, the urban district of Halle was established on October 1, 1816 , which included the cities of Halle, Glaucha and Neumarkt as well as a number of surrounding villages. On October 13, 1817, the cities of Glaucha and Neumarkt were incorporated into the city of Halle. The urban district of Halle was dissolved again in 1828. The villages belonging to it came to the Saalkreis as well as to the district of Merseburg and from then on the city was directly subordinate to the government in Merseburg . On October 1, 1833, the district office of the Saalkreis was relocated from Wettin to Halle.
In 1882 the first horse-drawn trams ran as the forerunners of the trams . From then on Halle was, so to speak, an independent city, which in 1890 exceeded the limit of 100,000 inhabitants and thus became a large city . In October 1890 the renamed Socialist Workers Party of Germany (SAP) of the range-12 years valid repressive at their party in Halle after the end of Socialist Laws in Social Democratic Party (SPD) to; It still exists today under this name. In April 1891 the first electric tram of the " Stadtbahn Halle" ran in Halle . Three more lines had been added by June 1891. Halle thus had the first electric tram network in Europe.
At the beginning of March 1919, the Freikorps Maercker moved into Halle on the orders of the Reich government to overthrow the Halle workers' council , which was controlled by the USPD , and to put down the strike movement that had started in Halle on February 24th and had spread across the entire Central German industrial area. In clashes between workers and soldiers, 36 people were killed in the following days. The Kapp Putsch in March 1920 resulted in an even bloodier outbreak of violence. City dignitaries, as well as the local organizations of DNVP and DVP, openly welcomed the coup, and Lord Mayor Richard Robert Rive also played an at least "opaque role". The commander of the garrison, Colonel Hermann Czettritz, confessed to the putschists on March 14th and - supported by the resident army and student volunteers - had the city occupied by the military. The troops, equipped with several tank automobiles, heavy mine throwers and artillery, fought real battles with the USPD and KPD on the initiative of the USPD and KPD in Ammendorf , Glaucha , Trotha , on the Galgenberg , in the Herrenstraße, on the Rosengarten and on the Rannischer Platz from March 19 to 22 mobilized workers' militias. The latter suffered heavy losses, some of which can be attributed to the systematic murder of prisoners, particularly by volunteers. On March 29, 115 dead, including 12 women, were buried in the Gertraudenfriedhof cemetery with great sympathy from the population. The actual death toll was likely significantly higher. A plaque installed in 1958 commemorates 20 members of the Free Socialist Youth who were killed in the storming of the Galgenberg or who were murdered there after their capture . Garrison, rescuer and temporary volunteers reported their losses as 27 dead. The local civil war of March 1920 turned out to be a momentous turning point in the history of the city; it deepened the division of urban society and accelerated the development of two mutually closed political camps. On January 11, 1923, the “ Wehrwolf. Association of German Men and Front Warriors ”was founded.
During the time of National Socialism
The city's prison, the Red Ox, was converted by the Nazi administration into a place of execution in 1939, where 549 political opponents, including 170 people of foreign nationality, were murdered. From 1942 until the end of the war, it was the official central execution site .
Instead of the planned 600, over 1250 prisoners were crammed together towards the end of the Second World War , which resulted in high mortality. Part of the extensive complex is now designed as a memorial, the other part is still used as a prison today. During the war, prisoners from Poland, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, France, the Netherlands and other nations were brought to the Siebel Flugzeugwerke for forced labor in the Birkhahn subcamp , a subcamp of the Buchenwald concentration camp , where fighter planes were built dismantled. In Ammendorf, Orgacid GmbH was a large factory for mustard gas production.
As one of the few major German cities, Halle was not a target for area bombing during World War II. However, seven air raids were carried out by a total of 1024 American long-range bombers with a bomb load of 2,600 tons: the first on July 7, 1944, the last on April 6, 1945. There was destruction particularly between the main train station and the center and in the city center itself, as well as in the southern part of the city. Over 1284 people died. 3,600 buildings with 13,600 apartments (of 66,000) and 400 commercial establishments, hotels and department stores as well as cultural buildings were destroyed. The market church of Our Lady , the Georgenkirche , the old town hall , the Ratswaage , the city theater , valuable town houses (historical buildings in the Brüderstraße and the Große Steinstraße) and the Stadtgottesacker were badly damaged by the bombing .
On April 17, 1945, Halle was occupied by US troops. Before that, the Red Tower was set on fire by artillery and largely destroyed. The Marktkirche and the Georgenkirche also received hits. The fact that the city did not suffer any major damage is attributed in particular to the former corvette captain of the First World War Felix Graf von Luckner, who lived in Halle at the time, and the chemist and later mayor of Halle Theodor Lieser and his so-called anti-fascist “Lieser Group”, who together with the Lord Mayor and a Wehrmacht officer handed the city over to the American troops without a fight. At the beginning of July 1945 the Americans withdrew again, and the Soviet Union followed as the occupying power in accordance with the definition of the occupation zones .
Urban development during the Soviet Zone and GDR
Halle became the capital of the Prussian province of Saxony , which became part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt in 1947. The Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) became the territory of the GDR in October 1949 . With the dissolution of the states in the GDR in 1952, Halle became the district capital of the Halle district .
Since Halle was less badly damaged than other cities in the GDR after the Second World War, little was initially invested in urban development ( town planning , town planning ). The old town hall , which was badly damaged in the air raid of March 31, 1945, but could be rebuilt, and the council scales next to it were demolished at the end of the 1940s. In 1965, the recently renovated hotel "Zur Börse" on the market square was removed. The first major city expansion, Wohnstadt-Süd, began in 1959. This was followed later by the residential town north and the Silberhöhe - with a total of over 20,000 residential units for more than 50,000 people. The largest building area was built in the 1960s with the construction of the “chemical workers town of Halle-West”, initially for around 70,000 people. The residential area Halle-West was founded in 1967 for the independent city of Halle-Neustadt , who until the reunification remained 1990th Considerable building resources in the district were tied up in Halle-Neustadt for a long time. When the old town became increasingly dilapidated, there was great pressure to act to renew the city . In the 1980s, the old town lost some valuable historical building fabric through extensive demolitions. During this time, examples of inner city renewal in industrial prefabricated construction were created . The Halle (Saale) civil rights movement was also founded in the 1980s .
In 1990 the Halle district was dissolved and Halle (Saale), united with Halle-Neustadt since 1990, has since been part of the newly founded state of Saxony-Anhalt .
On Sunday, October 28, 1990, the constituent meeting of the new state parliament of Saxony-Anhalt took place in Dessau in the hall of the Johann-Philipp-Becker-Bundeswehr barracks . The 106 freely elected representatives of the re-established central German state had to vote on whether Magdeburg or Halle (Saale) should become the capital of Saxony-Anhalt. The result was 57 to 49 votes in Magdeburg's favor. Magdeburg became the state capital as well as the seat of parliament and a serious, month-long dispute ended.
In July 1991 Halle's Lord Mayor Klaus Peter Rauen said goodbye to the Soviet troops from the garrison of the former Army and Air Force News School . Previously, Soviet nuclear warheads were withdrawn from Halle, which had presumably been stored not far from Halle-Neustadt since the mid-1960s .
Between 1990 and 2005 the city lost about 80,000 residents. This development was particularly thematized during the exhibition of the Federal Cultural Foundation Shrinking Cities and the IBA Urban Redevelopment 2010 .
At the beginning of June 2013, Halle experienced the worst flood since 1890 . The highest level in the Saale was measured in Halle-Trotha UP on the morning of June 5th at 8.10 m. Disaster alert was triggered. The Gimritzer Damm, which threatened to break, was particularly endangered. The evacuation of parts of Halle-Neustadt was strongly recommended. Power cuts took place there and in the Klaustorvorstadt. The Handel Festival was canceled due to the disaster alarm .
On October 9, 2019, a right-wing extremist attack was carried out on the synagogue , in which two people were murdered.
- 1817: Glaucha and Neumarkt
- 1891: Freiimfelde manor district
- 1900: Giebichenstein , Trotha , Kröllwitz and Gut Gimritz (on the Peißnitzinsel )
- July 1, 1950: City of Ammendorf (with the districts of Beesen, Burg in der Aue, Osendorf, Planena and Radewell ), Bruckdorf, Büschdorf , Diemitz , Dölau , Kanena, Lettin , Mötzig, Nietleben , Passendorf, Reideburg , Seeben , Tornau and Wörmlitz -Böllberg
- 1967: Outsourcing of the new development area Halle-West north of Passendorf, which became an independent town under the name Halle-Neustadt , later a city without a district
- 1990: Reintegration of Halle-Neustadt
The population of the city of Halle rose to over 50,000 in 1871 and doubled to 100,000 by 1890, making it a major city . To the west of the Saale, the residential suburb of Halle-Neustadt was built in the 1960s, which was run as an independent urban district from 1967, but was united with Halle before the reunification of Germany . A short time later, the population of Halle had reached its historical high of 316,776 on June 30, 1990. From 1990 to 2009, the city lost around a quarter of its residents due to emigration, suburbanization and the decline in the birth rate. A comparatively high level of unemployment favored emigration. After a slowdown in population shrinkage in the 2000s, the number of inhabitants reached its preliminary low since the Second World War on December 31, 2009, according to figures from the city of Halle, at around 230,000 (only main residences ). Since then, the city's population has been rising again, although forecasts predict a further decline. The State Statistical Office published the fourth regionalized population forecast for Saxony-Anhalt in 2007 and the fifth in 2010. It was calculated for Halle between 2005 and 2025 with a decrease in population of 13.1 percent (31,078 people). As of December 31, 2017, the forecast published in 2010 predicted the population size by around 18,000 people. Because, according to the State Statistical Office, the population should be 222,921 in 2017. However, as of December 31, 2017, according to the city of Halle, 241,093 people were registered with their main residence in the city.
The population growth in 2013 and 2014 and the sharp rise in 2015 were mainly due to an increase in the proportion of foreigners. The proportion of foreigners, which had been 3.1% in 2000 and has remained relatively constant at around four percent since 2003, increased to 5.2% in 2014 and 7.3% in 2015, thus doubling within a few years.
Hallenser, Halloren and Hallunken
The ironic categorization of the residents of Halle in Halle, Halloren and Hallunken (not to be confused with the rascal, because of this double “L”) is attributed by many to Heinrich Heine . A corresponding passage is missing in Heine's writings, but this does not rule out an oral statement. This classification can be grasped for the first time in the third volume of Robert Moritz's Halloren stories , 1904, where it says on page 40:
"Lover! This is where all the people who serve the Lord come together, beloved ones! And also those who pretend to serve him. And everyone feels one! But they are not one! Sintemalen there are Halle residents, scoundrels and Hallors. "
Halloren were the salt workers who originally lived in the "Thale zu Halle", today's Hallmarkt , and who won the "white gold" in the saline . In contrast, the traders and citizens who lived around the higher Altes Markt, today's market square, and traded in salt were referred to as Halle residents. Finally, Hallunken had to be called the residents of the run-down suburb of Glaucha .
Nowadays, Hallors are those who are members of the brotherhood of salt workers in the valley of Halle. Hallenser refers to the people born in Halle, while those who move here are jokingly called "Hallunken". A Hallunke can never become a Hallore, but a male Haller can if he can prove that a member of his family was once active in salt production.
Hallish dialect and dialect
Inside the city and in the immediate vicinity, an East Central German -influenced urban colloquial language with typical linguistic peculiarities is spoken. The Hallische dialect is on the one hand due to the limit position the upper Saxon Nordosterländischen , on the other hand the Nordostthüringischen allocated.
Currently (as of December 31, 2018) of the 241,333 inhabitants, 21,505 (8.9%) are Protestant, 9,642 (4.0%) Roman Catholic and 210,186 (87.1%) are non-denominational or belong to another religious community.
The great majority of the urban population is non-denominational. Since the 1970s, the number of non-denominational residents has increased roughly tenfold.
The city of Halle belonged to the ore monastery of Magdeburg in the diocese of Merseburg from the beginning . From 1194 there were arch priestly seats in Halle, but the city had probably only had its systematic classification in the church structure of the diocese since the 12th century. From 1518 the Reformation moved step by step into the citizenship of the city. This process was completed in 1541, from then on Halle was a Protestant city for several centuries. The Lutheran creed was predominant , but a Reformed congregation was also founded in the 17th century .
In 1698 August Hermann Francke founded the Francke Foundations named after him in Halle , a social institution that still exists today. Twelve years later, in 1710, Francke and the lawyer Carl Hildebrand Freiherr von Canstein (1667–1719) co-founded the Canstein Bible Institute , which is still based in Halle today and is dedicated to the printing and distribution of Bibles .
As a result of the Peace of Westphalia , Halle fell to Brandenburg in 1680. The city belonged to the Duchy of Magdeburg and shared the ecclesiastical fortunes with the entire Duchy, that is, in 1817, Lutheran and Reformed parishes were united throughout Prussia to form a single regional church ( Uniate Church ). All Protestant parishes in Halle belonged to the Evangelical Church in Prussia or its provincial church in Saxony, the head of which was the respective King of Prussia as summus episcopus .
The Evangelical Lutheran (Old Lutheran) Church in Prussia was created as a reaction to the union between the Lutheran Church and the Reformed tradition, which was compulsorily ordered by the Prussian state . The Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. Maria Magdalena was founded in Halle and is now part of the Saxony-Thuringia church district of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church . She celebrates her Lutheran masses in the St. Maria Magdalena Chapel on the Moritzburg.
After elimination of the country's glorious church government in 1918, the Provincial Church of Saxony was a founding member of the "Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union" and was from 1947 to 2008 an independent national church ( Evangelical Church of the Church Province of Saxony ) with a bishop at the top. The Protestant churches Halles belong - if it is not free churches is - to parish of Halle-Saale district within the provost Halle-Naumburg the Evangelical Church in Central Germany , whose registered office is located in Hall.
In addition to the parishes and institutions of the regional church, there are a large number of other Protestant churches, the majority of which are counted among the free churches . This includes a Baptist church (services in the Friedenskirche).
Roman Catholic Church
In the 19th century the number of Catholics in Halle rose again. From 1821 they belonged to the diocese and from 1929 to the archdiocese of Paderborn . After the Second World War , it became increasingly difficult for the archbishop to exercise his official duties in the eastern part of his archbishopric. For this reason, a vicar general was installed in Magdeburg in 1946, who was appointed auxiliary bishop in 1949 and whose district also included the parishes in Halle. With the reorganization of the Catholic Church in the GDR , the areas were formally separated in 1972 and made the Magdeburg Episcopal Office . This office was headed by an apostolic administrator with the title of bishop. On July 8, 1994, the previous episcopal office of Magdeburg was elevated to a diocese and (again) subordinated to the archdiocese of Paderborn as a suffragan diocese. The parishes of Halles today belong to the dean's office of Halle within the diocese of Magdeburg .
There are two Jewish communities in Halle : the Jewish community in Halle belongs to the state association of Jewish communities in Saxony-Anhalt , the synagogue community in Halle is independent.
At the head of the city of Halle stood the mayor or Salzgraf, appointed by the archbishop under the suzerainty of the burgrave . The council appears for the first time in 1258 . But it was not constitutionally recognized by the sovereign, the Archbishop of Magdeburg , until 1310. After that, the bourgeoisie could also gain a say in the city administration. After the transition to Prussia, the Prussian king appointed a lord mayor in 1780 . From 1807 Halle was part of the Kingdom of Westphalia and was run by a mayor . After the renewed transition to Prussia in 1815, a mayor was again at the head of the city and in 1831 the Prussian town order was introduced. After that, the mayor or mayor was at the head of the city.
During the Nazi era , the mayor was appointed by the NSDAP , and after the Second World War , the Soviet occupation zone formed the city council with a mayor. The council was "elected" by the people. After the reunification of Germany, the body, now known as the city council , later called the city council, was freely elected again. The chairman of this body is the city council chairman. The committee also initially elected the mayor . Since 1993, the mayor has been elected directly by the city's citizens.
Bernd Wiegand (independent) has been Lord Mayor since December 1, 2012 . Wiegand was able to prevail on July 15, 2012 in the runoff election against his rival Bönisch from the CDU. Nine candidates had applied to succeed the previous mayor Dagmar Szabados (SPD), who no longer ran for reasons of age, with the candidates from the CDU and SPD, Bernhard Bönisch and Kay Senius and the non-party Bernd Wiegand being given the greatest opportunities. On October 27, 2019 Wiegand was elected for another term of office with 61.42% against the candidate of the left, Hendrik Lange .
In the previous election for mayor, Dagmar Szabados was elected as the new mayor in the runoff election on November 26, 2006 with 54.47% of the votes cast.
In addition to the mayor, the city council of the city of Halle has been composed as follows since the last local election on May 26, 2019 (for comparison also the results of the local elections of 2004, 2009 and 2014):
|Parties and constituencies||%
|THE LEFT.||THE LEFT.||17.78||10||25.08||14th||24.3||14th||25.0||14th|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||17.42||10||25.12||14th||24.7||14th||24.3||14th|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||16.28||9||10.05||6th||8.7||5||5.9||3|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||13.99||8th||4.58||3||-||-||-||-|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||11.27||6th||19.10||11||19.2||11||17.9||10|
|Mainly hall||Mainly hall||6.87||4th||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||5.37||3||4.23||2||8.8||5||5.7||3|
|MitBürger for Halle||MitBürger for Halle||4.46||3||5.60||3||7.7||4th||5.3||3|
|The party||Party for work, the rule of law, animal welfare, elite support and grassroots initiative||3.42||2||0.87||1||-||-||-||-|
|FREE VOTERS||FREE VOTERS||2.09||1||0.68||-||-||-||-||-|
|NPD||National Democratic Party of Germany||0.23||1.22||1||2.0||1||1.8||1|
|NEW FORUM||New forum||-||-||1.78||1||2.1||1||1.7||1|
|Flat share gray / VS||Community of voters Die Grauen / Volkssolidarität 1990 Halle (Saale)||-||-||-||-||2.6||1||1.6||1|
|WE. FOR HALL.||WE. FOR HALL.||-||-||-||-||-||-||5.8||3|
|GRAY||The grays - gray panthers||-||-||-||-||-||-||2.7||2|
|UBL||Independent citizen list Halle||-||-||-||-||-||-||2.0||1|
|Turnout in percent||56.6||40.4||37.5||38.7|
- The Left took up the position of PDS until 2004 .
- WG Graue / VS started in 2004 as VS '90 eV Halle .
- EB: Individual applicants 2014: Olaf Sieber (0.80%), Beate Gellert (0.49%), Roman Ladig (0.25%) and Markus Hünniger (0.10%); 2004: Sylvana Uhlig.
In the city council elected in 2019, the following parliamentary groups had formed by April 2020: DIE LINKE. (10 members), CDU (10 members), GRÜNE (9 members), AfD (7 members), MitBürger-Die PARTEI (6 members, incl. 1 ex-SPD member), SPD (5 members), main thing Halle ( 4 members) and FDP (3 members). There were also two non-attached city council members (FREE VOTERS 1, Ex-AfD 1).
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In silver a rising red moon between two six-pointed red stars , the inflated star shown a little larger."|
Coats of arms: Augustinian canon monastery . The oldest surviving illustration of the coat of arms comes from the year 1327, on which it is depicted as a sign of the Talschöffengericht on a seal imprint. For the subsequent years, multiple representations of the arms, of which the above Moritz Gate at the particular find Moritzburg as oldest surviving and the presentation Lucas Fürttenagels on the bookplate is to be called the Council library that shows the coat of arms for the first time in red on a white background. It is likely that it was used as a city coat of arms from around the middle of the 15th century. There is no evidence of the importance of the coat of arms. It can be assumed, however, that the colors red and silver (white) can be traced back to the ore monastery of Magdeburg and the Hanseatic League . In contrast, the symbolic content of the coat of arms elements moon and stars is controversial because of their ambiguity. One of the oldest interpretations states that it is a stylized salt pan and salt crystals. Further assumptions make references to Byzantium or the Middle East or see a sun in one of the stars and thus the coat of arms as a symbol for day or the presence of God. More recent considerations, however, see symbols of justice in the coat of arms elements. Today, a connection between the symbols and the veneration of Mary is mostly favored, as the coat of arms was added to the council seal in the 14th century, which showed a Madonna.
A legend reports that the Halloren asked the bishop to be allowed to build a city on the wooded bank of the Saale. Alluding to their poor circumstances, the bishop asked if they had found a good buyer for their rags that they could use to build cities. But they replied: "Han we guard Water and Holt, then we han morne silver and gold." To which the bishop replied: "Build with water and wood, and let the sun, moon and stars shine for you!"
The city's flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal size - red at the top and white at the bottom - with the city's coat of arms on top. The city coat of arms used here differs from the official national emblem in that a semicircular coat of arms is used instead of a pointed coat of arms. In addition, the frame of the coat of arms is black instead of red.
Halle (Saale) maintains the following seven cities a twinning :
- Oulu ( Finland ), since 1972
- Linz ( Austria ), since 1975
- Grenoble ( France ), since 1976
- Karlsruhe (Germany), since 1987
- Ufa ( Bashkortostan , Russia ), since 1997
- Jiaxing ( People's Republic of China ), since 2009
- Savannah ( Georgia , United States ), since 2011
The city of Halle also maintains the following two city friendships:
Culture and sights
Opera, theater, orchestra, stages
Halle describes itself as the "cultural capital" of Saxony-Anhalt and is also known nationwide as this. An application for the European Capital of Culture 2010 was unsuccessful after the second round.
Amongst the city's stages, the Halle Opera House and the Halle / Neues Theater cultural island (spoken theater) with several stages, located on the cultural island developed by the former director Peter Sodann , should be mentioned. The city of Halle's puppet theater for adults and children is also located on the Kulturinsel.
In November 2008 the opera, the Staatskapelle, the Kulturinsel and the Thalia-Theater were merged under the umbrella organization Theater, Oper und Orchester GmbH Halle (TOOH) .
In addition to the Staatskapelle Halle , an orchestra with a nominal strength of 152 musicians (the second largest in Germany), the musical institution is also the Stadtsingechor zu Halle - the oldest boys 'choir in Central Germany and one of the oldest boys' choirs in Germany.
The cultural landscape of Halle also includes:
- Thalia Theater - Children's and youth theater
- Fairytale carpet - puppet theater for children and adults
- Puppet theater hall
- Steintor-Varieté - Germany's oldest variety theater
- Stadtsingechor zu Halle - one of the oldest secular and spiritual boys' choirs in Germany
- Theater Mandroschke - venue for the independent theater and off-theater scene
- WUK Theater Quartier - workshops and culture at the Holzplatz (free theater)
- schillerBühne hall eV - Free theater in Club 188
Museums and collections
With the museum facilities of the Francke Foundations , the Landeskunstmuseum Moritzburg and the music museum in the Handel House , the city of Halle has three so-called cultural lighthouses among the 20 important museums and institutions of the national cultural heritage of the east German federal states that have been included in the blue book of the federal government. There are also plans to add another facility, the State Museum of Prehistory .
In 2008 the Moritzburg Gallery (Moritzburg Foundation - Art Museum of the State of Saxony-Anhalt) was opened after several years of construction. The renovation of the west wing of Moritzburg, which had been vacant for centuries, is one of the most spectacular buildings in the city. Today the permanent exhibition on Lyonel Feininger is one of the most important expressionist exhibition locations in Germany.
The Geiseltalmuseum with palaeontological finds from open-cast lignite mining, including the ancient horse Propalaeotherium , and the Museum of Pet Studies Julius Kühn with the largest collection of pet skeletons in the world should be highlighted among the museums with a scientific focus . This includes the skeleton of the trademark stallion of the German thoroughbred breed, Dark Ronald . The Meckelsche Sammlung , a collection of anatomical specimens in the Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology at the Martin Luther University, is famous .
The State Museum of Prehistory as the exhibition site for the Nebra Sky Disc , the Robertinum Archaeological Museum , the Halle City Museum in the Christian-Wolff-Haus and in the Oberburg Giebichenstein and the memorial for the victims of political persecution with an exhibition in the Red Ox and the Genscher- House with an exhibition that has, among other things, the division and unity of Germany.
The Halloren and Saline Museum shows the technology and history of salt extraction in Halle. There is also the Deutsche Bahn Museum Halle and the historic tram museum of the Hallesche Verkehrs AG with old trams that are still working. There is also the Halloren and Chocolate Museum and the historical technology center of the Stadtwerke Halle .
The city's museum landscape is supplemented by the Beatles Museum , the Music Museum in the Wilhelm Friedemann Bach House and the oldest and largest collection of Protestant church music in the Marienbibliothek .
The computer and technology museum in Halle is under construction. In the extensive exhibition, technical exhibits are linked to local industrial history. It is the only computer museum in Saxony-Anhalt.
Castles and other fortifications
Halle's extraordinary features include two mighty castles, both of which are located in the built-up urban area, which is a situation that is seldom encountered in Germany. These are the older Giebichenstein Castle , north of the city center on the banks of the Saale, and the Moritzburg on the north-western edge of the old town. However, little remains of the medieval city fortifications, as these were largely demolished during the expansion of the city at the end of the 19th century. One of the still visible remains is the Leipzig Tower , a free-standing watch tower from the mid-15th century. Parts of the former city wall are also preserved on the southwestern edge of the old town near the Moritzkirche (corner Moritzzwinger / Hallorenring) and on the Waisenhausring, where there is still a section about 80 meters long and 7 meters high.
Churches and synagogues
With the exception of the four-tower market church, which forms the well-known five-tower ensemble of the market square with the red tower, the churches in the old town have a special feature: St. Moritz, St. Ulrich, the cathedral and the chapels of Moritzburg and the Neue Residenz do not have or no longer a complete tower.
The churches in the old town include the Hallesche Dom , a former Dominican monastery church and the oldest church building in the old town, the four-tower market church of Our Lady , the Moritz Church with the historic Sauer organ and works of art by Conrad von Einbeck, and the now secularized concert hall of St. Ulrich Church , a former Servite monastery church. August Hermann Francke preached in St. Ulrich and St. Georgen .
In other parts of the city that are now incorporated, there are former village churches and other sacred buildings that have a number of special features. These include St. Laurentius with an old cemetery, the village church Böllberg St. Nikolaus , a church from the 12th century that is part of the Romanesque Road, the neo-Gothic institutional church of the Diakonie, one of the earliest churches according to the Wiesbaden program , St. Bartholomäus , St. Elisabeth , the Georgenkirche , which played an essential role for the ecclesiastical opposition in the time of reunification, the dominant Pauluskirche in the Paulusviertel and the church ruins Granau , since 1923 memorial for the fallen of the First World War.
The synagogue in Halle, used today by the Jewish community, is located in the Jewish cemetery on Humboldtstrasse, which was laid out in 1864 . It was originally the cemetery ceremony hall and was converted into a synagogue in 1948 . A synagogue built in 1870 and considerably expanded in 1884/85 was located in the city center. It was destroyed during National Socialism. A memorial erected in 1985 commemorates the murdered Jewish fellow citizens , the design of which is reminiscent of the facade of the destroyed synagogue. On October 9, 2019, there was an attack on the synagogue and fire attacks on the Jewish cemetery located there .
Historical technical buildings, monuments and mills
The historical technical buildings and monuments of the city that are worth seeing include the two large water towers, the water tower north on Paracelsusstrasse ( B 6 ) and the water tower south on Lutherplatz, as well as the historic tram depot of Halleschen Verkehrs AG in Seebener Strasse, which is used as a museum for old Trams and buses (see Tram Museum Halle ) are used. With the Großgarage Süd in Liebenauer Strasse, Halle has the oldest remaining car park in Germany. The Halle observatory in the Botanical Garden of the Martin Luther University is also important. The former Halle-Saale-Runde race track is located between the western bank of the Saale and the Neustadt district.
The Saale, which flows through parts of the hall in several arms, enabled the use of water power in mills . Hence the Mühlgraben, a natural side arm, got its name. Today some structures still exist, but most of them have been ruined. These include the stone mill , the Kröllwitz paper mill and the Neumühle .
Islands in the city
The course of the Saale in the urban area as well as the geographical location and geological conditions create an almost unique situation for large cities in Germany due to the formation of inner-city river islands. The river flows through the city in four parallel branches. This creates six larger islands, to which from south to north the Rabeninsel , the Saline-Insel (with powder willows and Sandanger ), the Peißnitzinsel , the island with Ratswerder and Würfelwiese, the Ziegelwieseninsel and the Forstwerder island belong.
Forstwerder, Rabeninsel and the northern tip of the Peißnitz are nature reserves with alluvial forests. The Saline Island, Ziegelwieseninsel, the southern part of the Peißnitz and the Würfelwiese are reserved for leisure, recreation and sport. The southern part of the island with Ratswerder and Würfelwiese are built on with Wilhelminian-style residential buildings.
Bridges have had a special meaning since the city was founded ; today there are 132. The main reason for this is the Saale, which divides the city into two halves from south to north and forms the aforementioned "island world". The river therefore requires a relatively large amount of space. The two halves of the city are essentially connected by bridges at three points for road traffic: the Giebichenstein Bridge in the north, the Elisabeth Bridge with Magistralen Bridge in the middle and the Röpziger Bridge between Halle and Schkopau in the south. There are also two dozen other bridges, which are mainly reserved for pedestrians and bicycles, of which the Peißnitzbrücke , the Forstwerderbrücke and the Rabeninselbrücke are worth mentioning. In the south, Halle is bounded by the White Elster - there are therefore some river bridges here too. In addition, the main railway tracks run through the city east of the Saale, also in a north-south direction and separate again in the same direction. To overcome this division, there are other bridges, of which the Berliner Brücke is of particular importance. It replaces a bridge built between 1913 and 1916 that spanned the Halle freight yard for over 200 m. The new building was opened on January 11, 2006. Due to its 74 m high steel pylon, it is a highly visible point in the city. The historic building was demolished in 2006.
The town god's arena, built by council builder Nickel Hoffmann between 1557 and 1594, is of supraregional importance . The cemetery is a Camposanto cemetery - unique north of the Alps . Since 1989 the partially bombed and then neglected Stadtgottesacker has been restored step by step by stone sculptors and restorers and partly used again as a cemetery. Also worth mentioning are the Jewish cemetery , consecrated in 1869, and the associated mourning hall, now used as a synagogue , which were spared the destruction of the so-called Reichskristallnacht .
The city's cemeteries also include the Gertraudenfriedhof in the north of the city with its representative central building by city planner Wilhelm Jost and the New Jewish Cemetery on the site, consecrated in 1929 with a historical Jewish memorial field (tombs from the Middle Ages) and the southern cemetery from 1887 with its buildings in the style of the neo-renaissance. In addition, there are the notable burial places Nordfriedhof and Laurentiusfriedhof .
In the middle of the 19th century, the Heidefriedhof was laid out in the Dölauer Heide . It was used to bury nameless people, mainly suicides and victims of violent crimes who died in the heath. In 1929 the Dölauer Heide became the property of the city of Halle and the cemetery lost its function.
Monuments, sculptures, busts and monuments
The city has several monuments and sculptures from different epochs, an asset of art in public space that has grown over the centuries . First and foremost is the sculptural decoration of the Moritzkirche by Conrad von Einbeck (Master Conrad) from the 14th century. Ahead of his time, he also created a sandstone self-portrait there in the northern side choir.
Special features include the Halle prayer column , a Gothic wayside shrine from the pre-Reformation period (1455) on the Universitätsring, as well as the Hallesche Roland , a sandstone figure from 1854, whose history dates back to 1245. The Handel monument by Hermann Heidel (1859) on the market square and a monument in honor of August Hermann Francke , two of the most famous personalities working in Halle, should also be emphasized . The figures on the town hall by Gustav Weidanz , which were recreated by Johannes Baumgärtner in the mid-1970s, as they were destroyed by the Second World War, are creatively significant .
Some sculptures have survived from the time of the GDR, such as the flag monument on Hansering and a larger than life bust of Ernst Thälmann on Franckestrasse. There are also two Lenin monuments that are still preserved: a sculpture in Pestalozzi Park and a mural by Erich Enge in Halle-Neustadt. But not only such ideologically desired sculptures were created in GDR times, a bronze sculpture by Gerhard Geyer , who also created the so-called "science cube" in bronze for Halle-Neustadt , is reminiscent of the painter Matthias Grünewald, who died in Halle . In front of the Moritzburg another variant of Halle's sculpture is shown, the steel sculpture Maureske by Irmtraud Ohme .
In front of the Ulrichskirche is a fountain by the Halle sculptor and castle professor Gerhard Lichtenfeld , who also created a large fountain in Halle-Neustadt. Recently, in addition to a large fountain design at Hallmarkt by Bernd Göbel , three lifelike figures by his student Maya Graber have been added to the Universitätsring. The monument of the victorious working class , created by the Weimar architect Sigbert Fliegel and inaugurated in 1970, called “Die Fäuste” by local residents for its shape, shaped the entrance to the city for 35 years and was destroyed in 2005.
There are a total of 150 sculptures and sculptures, over 130 monuments and memorials and over 50 public fountains. Halle has also joined the Stolpersteine project . So far, 212 memorial stones have been placed in 101 locations in the city. Altogether there are well over 500 monuments and works of art.
Zoo, parks and gardens
Halle's mountain zoo is characterized by its location on the 130 meter high Reilsberg , which offers many beautiful views. Among the gardens and parks in the city, Reichardts Garten, known as the “Inn of Romanticism”, is noteworthy. It was created by Johann Friedrich Reichardt from 1794. This is where romantic poets such as Novalis, Tieck, Eichendorff, Brentano, Goethe and Jean Paul met at the time. There is also Lehmanns Garten, a park created by the banker Lehmann, near his city villa.
The historic Halle observatory from 1788 is located in the botanical garden of the Martin Luther University. The botanical garden is part of the Saxony-Anhalt Garden Dreams Network . Furthermore, the official garden, as part of the “Garden Dreams” network, exists in the immediate vicinity of today's Giebichenstein Castle . It is assumed that the so-called "Old Castle", the predecessor of the Giebichensteinburg, stood on this 5.5 hectare area. In addition, there is the Geological Garden at the Institute for Geosciences and Geography at Martin Luther University.
Marketplace and other places
The market square includes the Red Tower and its second largest carillon in the world with 76 bells , the four- tower market church Our Dear Lady , the neo-Gothic town house , the market castle and the "Geoskop" with a view of the so-called Hallesche Marktplatzverwerfung . Due to severe damage during the bombing on March 31, 1945 and subsequent demolition, the old town hall and the council scales on the market square were lost. Although structurally intact, the hotel "Zur Börse" was also demolished in 1965 - despite public protests.
In addition, there is the Old Market with the Eselsbrunnen (Eselsbrunnen) reminiscent of a Halle legend , the Hallmarkt , once the center of urban salt production, and its now Wilhelminian-style buildings, as well as the Domplatz with the ensemble of the Cathedral, New Residence and New Chancery. The university square redesigned by Gernot Schulz received special attention and was awarded the 2003 German Architecture Prize due to the newly created ensemble of the historic campus, Juridicum and Audimax.
With the University and State Library of Saxony-Anhalt , the Marienbibliothek founded in 1552 , the oldest and largest Protestant church library in Germany, the historical library of the Francke Foundations and the library of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , which was built from 1731 , the city has four large collections.
Current media are offered in the city library . The largest public library in Saxony-Anhalt is divided into the central library on Hallmarkt , district libraries in the south, west (Halle-Neustadt) and north of the city and a music library. A book bus supplies the population in the peripheral areas.
Halle has several important secular buildings from different eras:
- The New Residence , built in 1531, was the residence of the Magdeburg Archbishops in Halle. It is located on Domplatz in the immediate vicinity of the cathedral.
- The town house , built between 1891 and 1894, on the market square is one of the most representative buildings in the city. It is used as a municipal assembly, meeting and festival building.
- The Francke Foundations, founded in 1698 with the largest half-timbered house in Europe, were once the center of European Pietism.
- The district court (1903–1905) on Hansering, built in the style of Wilhelmine justice buildings, has a remarkable staircase with a double spiral staircase.
- The Volkspark , built 1906–1907 as a former club house of the SPD, is architecturally an example of the idea of the building as the “city crown” and played a major role in the history of the Halle workers' movement.
- The colors and shapes of Art Nouveau are almost completely preserved in the Stadtbad . It was built from 1912 to 1914 and was considered one of the largest and most modern health care facilities of its time.
- The Wittekind brine bath (1923–1925), which is now empty, is a reminder of the diverse uses of the brine springs in the city.
- The lodge house at the three swords , also known as Chernyshevsky House, was built between 1822 and 1824 and expanded and rebuilt several times. It is now the seat of the " German Academy of Natural Scientists - Leopoldina " (since 2008 the National Academy of Sciences).
- The well house of the Gesundbrunnen, which has been known since 1310 at the latest, dates from around 1900 .
- The Romanesque Road holiday route , the Saale Cycle Route and the pilgrimage route Lutherweg Sachsen-Anhalt run through Halle .
- Jahnhöhle in the Klausberge on the Saale
- Stone sculptures in Heinrich-Heine-Park
- Great Märkerstrasse
- Fountain in Halle on the Ziegelwiese (80 m), has been in operation again since August 15, 2009 following renovation by the “Friends of the Fountain” association
In the urban area there are a total of nine nature reserves ( Bischofswiese , Burgholz, Peißnitz Nordspitze, Lunzberge , Brandberge , Rabeninsel and Saale-Elster-Aue , Döllnitzer Auenlandschaft, Forstwerder ) with a total of around 696 hectares, which protect the nature (floodplain landscapes) that characterize the cityscape.
- January: Beginning of the annual theme year of the Francke Foundation
- February: Women in Jazz - International Jazz Festival
- February: Happy Birthday Handel (February 23)
- March: German cracking world championship, organizer: Kulturreederei
- Before Easter: spring market (hype) at the ice rink
- May: International Children's Choir Festival "Be happy and sing"
- May: Hallesche Museum Night
- May: Marathon of the authorities of the Stadtsportbund Halle e. V.
- On Wednesday after Pentecost: Garlic Wednesday
- June: Handel Open (before the Handel Festival)
- June: Handel Festival
- June / July: Children's town "Halle an Salle"
- June: Linden Blossom Festival (every 2 years in June in the Francke Foundations)
- July: Long Night of Science
- July / August: Cinema summer, organized by the Luchs Cinema
- August: Night of the Churches (mid-August)
- August: Hallesches Lantern Festival on the Peißnitzinsel, with boat parade on the Saale, concerts of pop and rock music, fireworks, jousting of Halloren
- September: Salt festival around the saltworks
- September: Fountain festival on the Ziegelwiese
- September: Central German marathon from Spergau to Halle
- September / October: Akkordeon Akut - International jazz and world music festival with a focus on the accordion
- October: Werkleitz Festival - Media Art Festival (Werkleitz Gesellschaft eV since 2004 in Halle)
- October / November: Film Music Days Saxony-Anhalt - specialist congress and public gala concert (since 2008)
- October / November: Autumn fair at the ice rink
- October / November: Jewish Culture Days
- November: Halle Music Days at various venues
- November / December: Impronale - International Festival for Improvisational Theater
- December: Christmas market
In Halle there are numerous smaller and larger shopping streets as well as some shopping centers.
- Leipziger Street
- City center escalator
- old market
- Great Ulrichstrasse
- Great stone road
- Neustadt Centrum (shopping center in Halle-Neustadt )
- Südstadt-Center (Kaufland-Center)
- Hallescher Shopping Park HEP
There are hardly any specialties typical of a city. Originally, the cuisine of the Saale-Stadt was probably characterized by fish dishes, which one hardly notices today. Solei , slag sausage and Halloric salt, which are given to the respective sovereign by the Hallors at New Year's receptions , can be considered special features . Traditional home cooking in Halle includes farmer's cheese, aspic, bratwurst with sauerkraut, beef brisket in horseradish sauce and Halle’s Fettbemme with lard and sometimes plum jam.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Halle had a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 6.891 billion, making it 53rd in the list of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 29,013 (Saxony-Anhalt: € 26,364 / Germany € 38,180). There were around 126,600 employed people in the city in 2017.
Industry and innovation
Halle is a network region and a member of the European metropolitan region of Central Germany. The focus is on renewable energies, (electric) mobility, (special) mechanical engineering, sensor technology, biotechnology and the media and creative industries. Companies from the service industry, the food and beverage industry, logistics, design and IT are also located in Halle. With the technology park Weinberg Campus and the industrial area Star Park A14 - Halle (Saale) there are two large developed investment areas in Halle.
Star Park industrial area
The Star Park industrial area , with a size of 230 hectares, is located on the site of the city of Halle, as well as on areas belonging to Dölbau ( Kabelsketal ) and Queis (Landsberg) near the Halle-Ost motorway exit of the federal motorway 14 and about 12 kilometers away from Leipzig / Halle Airport . International companies such as Relaxdays, Greatview, eBay enterprise and Deutsche Post are based here.
Weinberg Campus Technology Park
The second largest technology park in Eastern Germany, Weinberg Campus , relies on developments from the solar, organic and nano industries. To date, a billion euros have been invested here. More than 100 companies and institutes with around 5,600 employees have settled here. 7,600 prospective scientists study in the university institutes on campus.
Halle has an above-average unemployment rate. In January 2016 it was 11.6% both above the state average of Saxony-Anhalt (10.9%), as well as that of the eastern federal states (9.6%) and above all of Germany (6.7%), and not recently also higher than in the Saalekreis surrounding the city (9.5%). Nevertheless, the unemployment rate in Halle, as in the rest of the country, has been falling recently. In January 2013 it was still 12.8%. By December 2018, it had dropped to 8.0%.
Every day 39,750 employees subject to social insurance commute from the surrounding area to Halle and 26,542 from Halle to the surrounding area, resulting in a commuter balance of 13,208 (as of June 30, 2012).
With the inauguration of the Köthen –Halle section of the Magdeburg – Leipzig railway line , the city on the Saale was connected to the emerging German railway network on July 22, 1840; only a few weeks later the connection to Leipzig was opened. From 1841 there was a first connection to Berlin ( Anhalter Bahn; 1859 commissioning of a shorter route via Bitterfeld to Wittenberg ). With the leg by Weissenfels the first section of the was established in June 1846 Thuringian railway company projected Thuringian Railway put into operation. This was followed by connections to Sangerhausen (part of the Halle-Kasseler Bahn ; September 1865) and Halberstadt (today part of the Halle – Vienenburg railway ) and the Halle – Cottbus railway (both 1872).
The first station - initiated by the then city councilor Matthäus Ludwig Wucherer - was built in mid-1840. With the connection to the Thuringian train station , which had been in operation since 1841, the first expansion took place a few years later. As a result of further connections and the associated increase in passenger traffic, the station quickly reached its capacity limit. Although it was decided to build a new building, the implementation failed for years due to divergent ideas of the various railway companies whose routes started from Halle. So it was not until October 1890 that the main station could be put into operation as a "Central Personenbahnhof".
The main station is an island station with 13 platforms. The station facade has undergone multiple changes over the past few decades. During the renovation in 2002, it was enlarged slightly, the use of glass instead of metal and light-colored stones have shaped its appearance ever since. In October 2005 the connection to the urban tram network took place . In addition to the main station, there are the Trotha , Wohnstadt Nord, Zoo, Dessauer Brücke, Steintorbrücke, Messe, Ammendorf, Rosengarten, Silberhöhe, Südstadt, Zscherbener Straße, Neustadt and Nietleben stations in the urban area.
Halle is the most important hub in rail traffic in Saxony-Anhalt. There Intercity-Express trains from and towards Munich and Berlin stop every two hours. Intercity trains also run on the Leipzig - Magdeburg - Braunschweig - Hanover - Bremen - Oldenburg - Emden or Leipzig - Magdeburg - Rostock - Warnemünde line and the Dresden - Leipzig - Halle - Magdeburg - Braunschweig - Hanover - Bielefeld - Dortmund - Cologne line, respectively every two hours, creating an hourly service between Leipzig and Hanover. Individual trains run on the Berlin - Kassel - Cologne route. A City Night Line runs daily in the direction of Zurich. Since the completion of the Saale-Elster valley bridge and the new line to Erfurt , the travel time to Erfurt has been reduced by 45 minutes. An ICE Sprinter runs on the route from Berlin to Frankfurt am Main every two hours.
Halle has had an S-Bahn since 1969 . Today the city is connected to the network of the S-Bahn Central Germany . The S7 line (Halle Hbf - Halle-Nietleben) opens up the districts in the south and west and runs through the Halle-Neustadt S-Bahn tunnel . Since the completion of the Leipzig City Tunnel, the new lines S3 (Halle-Trotha - Halle Hbf - Schkeuditz - Leipzig Hbf - Markkleeberg-Gaschwitz) and S5 / S5X (Halle Hbf - Halle / Leipzig Airport - Leipzig Hbf - Zwickau Hbf) have been running in the direction of Leipzig ). In December 2017, the new S-Bahn line S8 (Halle Hbf - Landsberg - Bitterfeld - Dessau Hbf / Wittenberg) was integrated into the network.
Halle is an important hub in rail freight transport. The Halle freight yard is located east of the main railway station's tracks . This was comprehensively modernized as the Halle-Nord train formation facility by mid-2018 . With the Container Terminal Halle (Saale) (CTHS) at the Saale port in Trotha and its connection with the Halle port railway to the Halle – Vienenburg railway line , the city has a traffic interface for multimodal traffic (rail / road / ship).
Halle is surrounded on three sides by a motorway ring, which is part of the Central German Loop that also encloses Leipzig. The federal autobahn and the are by far the most heavily used part of the ring. This is also shown in the fact that those are continuous and those from the Halle / Peißen junction are three-lane. This leads from Magdeburg past Halle and Leipzig towards Dresden. It connects Berlin and Munich. In the course of the German transport project unit built represents the southern part of the Central German loop is referred to as "South Harz motorway"., It forms an east-west link between Göttingen and Halle-Leipzig. The completion of the , in the section through the Saale valley west of Halle, is suspended due to a class action brought by the Naturschutzbundes (NABU) Halle, which was confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court on January 17, 2007.
The federal road runs through Halle's urban area
Three federal highways start and end in Halle:
- (Halle - Sangerhausen - Nordhausen - Bad Karlshafen ),
- (Halle - Weißenfels - Zeitz ) and the
- (Halle - Bitterfeld - Lutherstadt Wittenberg ).
Due to the low level of destruction during the Second World War, Halle still has a small road network that often does not meet today's requirements. In the course of the construction of Halle-Neustadt, it was therefore decided to build new expressways into the grown old town. A four-lane elevated road was built from Halle-Neustadt towards the main train station. It divides the city south of the historic center along the Francke Foundations and ends in Riebeckplatz , one of the largest urban roundabouts in Germany. This was extensively refurbished in 2005 and 2006 so that trams and cars can drive on the square separately on two levels. In addition to this large east-west connection, there is also a four-lane north-south tangent east of the city center, which also runs as an elevated road over Riebeckplatz and is connected to the motorway feeder towards Bitterfeld in the north . On the one hand, these two streets form the backbone of Halle's daily traffic management, but at the same time represent a corset that unfavorably divides the city.
In December 2018 the so-called "Osttangente" was opened to traffic after 20 years of construction. It combines the in Ammendorf with and to the east and the northeast where it eventually ends up on the latter state road of the city. The city of Halle expects the new bypass to relieve the city center and improve the quality of the environment.
Halle has several bridges over the Saale, but only the Kröllwitzer Bridge, built in 1928/1929, and the main road represent a complete crossing of the Saale that can be used by car. Although it is possible to get to the western bank of the Saale via the Schiefer and Elisabeth Bridge, since there is no car-friendly connection to Halle-Neustadt, the construction of a third Saale crossing has been a much-discussed topic for decades.
The public transport is in Hall of the HAVAG (, corporate image 1918-1951 Urban Trams in Halle, 1951-1990 Public Transportation Hall today SWH.HAVAG) provided. It operates a total of 14 tram and 20 bus routes , including four night lines (two bus and two tram lines) . In addition, Halle is integrated into the network of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland , a cross-regional transport system.
The first commercially used electric trams in Germany ran in Halle from 1891. After the Second World War, large parts of the tram network, which was already expanded above average, were preserved. With the development of the Neustadt district and the connection with the main station as well as the development of the Kröllwitz and Heide-Süd districts, the tram network was expanded after the fall of the Wall.
The Halle-Bad Dürrenberg regional tram is a special feature. This tram connects Halle (from Kröllwitz) via Schkopau, Merseburg and Leuna to Bad Dürrenberg. Line 5, which runs on it, is one of the longest tram lines in Europe at over 30 kilometers.
Halle and the municipal HAVAG have been (founding) members of the Central German Transport Association (MDV) since 2001 . The network creates a uniform tariff area and coordinated transports for a transnational Central German region (in the states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia) from the two independent cities of Halle and Leipzig and currently five districts.
The trams play the most important role in Halle (Saale) public transport. They connect all populous parts of the city. The tram network of Halle is one of the most extensive route networks in Germany. Buses play a subordinate role in city traffic. HAVAG only uses buses to develop parts of the city that do not have a tram connection.
The transport company OBS operates intercity bus connections to surrounding villages. These buses also stop at more important stops within the city area.
The Leipzig / Halle Airport acts as an international commercial airport for the same region. It is located at the Schkeuditzer Kreuz, southeast of Halle, halfway between the two major cities and has a direct motorway connection. The easternmost section of the new Erfurt – Leipzig / Halle line under construction will give the airport a long-distance train station, which will be integrated into the ICE network when the railway line is completed in 2015. In addition, there are two S-Bahn stops and a freight station at the DHL hub in Leipzig in the southern area of the airport .
In the passenger area, the major German hub airports, European metropolises, holiday destinations especially in the Mediterranean and North Africa as well as some intercontinental destinations are served.
To the north of Halle is the Halle-Oppin airfield, used for transport and sporting purposes, near Oppin in the Saale district. It was built between 1968 and 1971 to replace the airfield in Halle-Nietleben that was no longer available. During the GDR era, the main focus was on parachute training. After the reunification, the airfield was able to further expand its importance as a sports airfield. Today it has a 1,100 m long runway and records almost 30,000 aircraft movements a year.
The Saale is navigable for pleasure craft and excursion boats downriver to the mouth at Barby and upriver to Bad Kösen . There are four mooring points for pleasure craft in Halle between river kilometers 88.5 and 97, some with boat rentals. Excursion boats run from the pier at the Giebichensteinbrücke in the city area and to Wettin . The Saale is regulated in Halle by five weirs with locks.
Halle has two docks: The northern port of Halle-Trotha has quays, weighing equipment and loading technology for multimodal freight transports rail / road / ship, as well as modern siding with the Halle-Trotha port railway. The older Sophienhafen is unused today. Its facilities have largely fallen into disrepair. The city is currently pursuing concepts for use as a sports boat harbor. As a first step, the city harbor with berths for pleasure boats opened in April 2010 not far from the harbor basin on the other bank of the Saline Island. The renovation of the Sophienhafen is one of seven Halle projects at the International Building Exhibition.
The Saale is not navigable all year round for cargo ships ; river regulation in the area where it flows into the Elbe was started before the Second World War, but has not yet been completed. In the future, a lock canal at Groß Rosenburg (near Barby) will help.
The Mitteldeutsche Multimediazentrum (MMZ) is located in Halle and is home to companies with a focus on audiovisual production. The local television station “TV Halle” and the internet-based “Bürgerforum HalleForum” have a purely local focus.
Several radio programs are produced in Halle. The MDR apart from the respective regional programs produced all broadcast in the transmission area MDR programs in radio broadcasting center in Halle. In addition to the mass program MDR Jump , this includes the information program MDR Aktuell and the division programs MDR Sputnik , MDR Culture and MDR Klassik . In addition to these national channels, there is a regional studio for MDR Saxony-Anhalt in Halle.
In addition to the public broadcasters, there are several private radio stations in Halle. These are the private programs 89.0 RTL and Radio Brocken , both of which are partly owned by the RTL Group. While 89.0 RTL is limited to a very young audience, Radio Brocken relies more on a regionally oriented program for a target group up to 49 years of age. In Halle there is also the free and non-commercial local radio Radio Corax , which is characterized above all by its alternative program content, which is created by volunteer editors and therefore has a wide variety of topics. The radio station radio SAW operates a regional studio in Halle.
- Mitteldeutsches Druck- und Verlagshaus GmbH & Co. KG - high-tech printing company whose most important print medium is the Mitteldeutsche Zeitung daily , which has several local editions and publishes the two city magazines aha - all Halle and Zachow , which are distributed free of charge .
- Regional edition of the Bild newspaper for Halle
- Sunday News - a Sunday news advertisement that is distributed free of charge
- Super Sunday - a Sunday advertising paper with news that is distributed free of charge
- Regional edition of Frizz magazine
- Regional edition of Blitz magazine !
There are several websites in Halle that distribute local news reports on a daily basis, including: dubisthalle, HalleON, HalleSpektrum, hallelife and H @ llAnzeiger.
- largest employer
- of the state of Saxony-Anhalt based in Halle, measured by the number of employees (as of 2012)
- Deutsche Post DHL (5,100)
- Stadtwerke Halle including the subsidiaries Hallesche Verkehrs-AG , Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH and EVH GmbH (4,593)
- Mitteldeutsche Druck- und Verlagshaus GmbH and Co. KG (1,947)
- Walter Services Holding GmbH (1,588)
- GP Günter Papenburg AG (1,360)
- Envia Mitteldeutsche Energie and subsidiary GISA GmbH (923)
- Saalesparkasse (837)
- Gegenbauer Holding SA & Co. KG GmbH (813)
- Finsterwalder Transport and Logistics GmbH (799)
- Convergys GmbH (786)
- Marseille-Kliniken AG (644)
- GISA GmbH (560)
- KSB Aktiengesellschaft (496)
- Herrmann & Tallig Objektdienste GmbH (463)
- other important companies
- Maschinenbau und Service GmbH Ammendorf
- ABB transformer plant
- Halloren Chocolate Factory - Germany's oldest chocolate factory
- Kathi baking mixes
- Coca-Cola Erfrischungsgetränke AG Halle branch - production of soft drinks
- Dell Halle GmbH (service and sales center)
- eBay Enterprise
- Innotech Solar
- Enka Technica GmbH
- Promet Safe
- Hallesche Lackfabrik novatic GmbH
- KaerServer UG (limited liability)
- numerous call centers , for example for ADAC , Transcom and regiocom as well as the Sparkasse marketing agency S Direkt, which emerged from a call center
The city of Halle is a nationally important place of jurisdiction . In addition to the State Labor Court of Saxony-Anhalt and the State Social Court of Saxony-Anhalt , a regional court , a district court , a labor court , an administrative court and a social court are located here.
- Federal Police Office Halle
- Federal Agency for Real Estate Tasks in Halle
- Federal Agency for Technical Relief, Local Association Halle (Saale)
- Musterungszentrum Halle of the district military replacement office Magdeburg
- Kulturstiftung des Bundes - Foundation for the promotion of art and culture within the scope of federal competence
- State administrative office of Saxony-Anhalt (former regional council)
- State Office for Environmental Protection of the State of Saxony-Anhalt
- Branch office of the German Youth Institute (Munich) in the Francke Foundations
- Deutsche Rentenversicherung Mitteldeutschland (since September 1, 2005, formerly LVA, state insurance company )
- State Statistical Office
- State Office for Consumer Protection
- State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt (with attached State Museum for Prehistory )
- State computer center (LRZ) of the state of Saxony-Anhalt (main location Halle, branch Magdeburg )
- Media Authority Saxony-Anhalt ( State Media Authority )
- Branch of the district office Saalekreis
Education and Research
Halle's development as an educational location is closely linked to the last years of the 17th century, when the University of Halle (1694) and the Francke Foundations (1698) were founded. With Christian Thomasius and Christian Wolff , who were both rectors of the same, the university formed a main point of the German Enlightenment . Tensions quickly arose between the conservative Pietist representatives and the more enlightened contemporaries. With scholars such as Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten , Johann Christian Reil and Friedrich Schleiermacher , the university achieved a high reputation throughout Germany, especially in the 18th century. Dorothea Christiane Erxleben, for example, was the first woman in Germany to obtain a doctorate from the University of Halle in 1754 .
After a brief closure by Napoleon, the University of Halle was merged with the University of Wittenberg. It has had its current name since 1933, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg . In 1993, the Halle-Köthen University of Education and parts of the Leuna-Merseburg Technical University were integrated into the university. After 1989 many buildings were rebuilt. The university concentrates on the inner-city campus around Universitätsplatz (with the main building, AudiMax, Melanchtonianum and Juridicum) and the technology park weinberg campus . Around 20,700 students were enrolled in the 2012/2013 winter semester.
The University and State Library of Saxony-Anhalt is affiliated with the university . With 5.3 million holdings, it is the largest scientific general library in the state of Saxony-Anhalt and, with the library of the Oriental Society , the Ponickaue library and the Hungarian library, it has valuable collections.
The second important university in Halle is the Burg Giebichenstein Art University Halle . It has existed in its current form since 1915. It goes back to a commercial drawing and craft school from 1879. The mayor Rive, who is very important for Halle, appointed Paul Thiersch as the new director in 1915 , which is now regarded as the founding year of the Burg Giebichenstein art school. Thiersch tried with other teachers, some of whom came from the Bauhaus like Gerhard Marcks and Marguerite Friedlaender, to implement the topics of the German Werkbund in this school. The current structure of the University of Art and Design Burg Giebichenstein was determined at that time. The art school lost important teachers in 1933, but was able to save itself through the Nazi era. Its existence was endangered in the course of the " formalism dispute " in the GDR in the 1950s. From 1963 to 1970 there was only training in handicrafts and design (today design). After 1970 the university was able to resume the structure of the 1920s and design, arts and crafts are taught. Today the college has about 1000 students. Every year in July she opens her workshops and studios for three days so that the work of students and teachers can be viewed; a fashion show introduces these days.
The Evangelical College for Church Music in Halle goes back to the Evangelical Church Music School Aschersleben, which was founded in 1926 as the first institution of its kind. In 1939 she moved to Halle and has been officially recognized since 1993. The carrier is the Evangelical Church in Central Germany .
The school landscape in Halle is diverse and extensive. In addition to the more than 30 primary schools in all city districts, there are 15 special schools, five comprehensive schools, a number of vocational schools, nine secondary schools and nine grammar schools, including the Georg Cantor grammar school , the Elisabeth grammar school Halle (Saale) , the Latina August Hermann Francke and the Sports grammar school Halle as well as two schools of the second educational path , the adult education center Adolf Reichwein, as well as the 5 comprehensive schools including the 4 four municipal comprehensive schools such as the IGS am Steintor, the cooperative comprehensive school "Wilhelm von Humboldt", the cooperative comprehensive school Ulrich von Hutten and the Marguerite Friedlaender comprehensive school Halle and an independent comprehensive school including the Saaleschule.
Some of the oldest student associations in Germany are based in Halle . While the majority of the connections returned to Halle after the political change, there were a few connections that were already active in Halle in the last years of the GDR (see Rudelsburger Allianz ). The student associations are part of the long university tradition of the city on the Saale. The color song of many Halle student associations is In den Kronen alter Linden , the melody of which is played by the carillon of the Red Tower every three quarters of an hour. The last stanza reads: “You defiantly endured the storms, you were a refuge for science. Your gates announce it loudly, carry it away from place to place: Halle, old city of the muses. Vivat, crescat, floreat ! "
Non-university scientific institutions
In addition to the universities, the National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina is an important pillar of Halle's research landscape . As the oldest German scientific academy (founded in Schweinfurt in 1652 ), it drew and continues to attract important researchers. During the time of the division of Germany, the Leopoldina was the only scientific organization that continued to exist undivided. You have several Nobel Prize winners. With the Junge Akademie , she is involved in the current interdisciplinary discourse.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, several Max Planck and Leibniz Institutes settled in Halle, some of which were able to fall back on existing structures. In 1994 the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO) was established. The Leibniz Association also includes the Leibniz Institute for Economic Research Halle (IWH) and the Leibniz Institute for Plant Biochemistry (IPB).
The Max Planck Society operates two institutes: the Institute for Social Anthropology and the Institute for Microstructure Physics . The Max Planck Research Center for Enzymology of Protein Folding was closed. The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft is present with the Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM), the Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics (CSP) and a branch of the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) . The Helmholtz Association is present with a location of the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ .
The German Youth Institute is represented with a branch in Halle. The University of Halle maintains the Institute for Music, Media and Speech Studies.
- Institute for Structural Policy and Economic Development (ISW),
- Center for Applied Medical and Human Biological Research (ZAMED).
- International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nanostructures
Weinberg campus technology park
The Weinberg Campus technology park forms an important structural hub . Alongside Berlin-Adlershof, it is the second largest science and technology park in East Germany. There are eight departments of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and six of the non-university research institutions on campus. The technology and start-up center (TGZ) and the BioZentrum offer high-quality laboratory and research facilities in a total of seven buildings. Over 100 companies and institutes are currently represented here. The “weinberg campus e. V. “was founded on March 5th, 2004 and forms a network for consulting, development and implementation of innovative, marketable projects.
In addition to the state capital Magdeburg, the regional center Halle is a member of the healthy cities network . The nationally known maximum care providers in the city are the University Clinic Halle (Saale) and the professional association clinics Bergmannstrost .
Special care is provided by the St. Elisabeth and St. Barbara Hospital . There is also a psychiatric center of the Arbeiterwohlfahrt , the Diakoniekrankenhaus and a hospital of the Diakoniewerk Martha-Maria in Halle.
All of the city's somatic hospitals are available as academic teaching hospitals for the medical faculty of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.
Leisure and sports facilities
There is still a large number of sports facilities for competitive and popular sports in Halle.
- Stadiums with different types of use are the former Kurt-Wabbel-Stadion - today: Erdgas Sportpark - (pure football stadium, home of Halleschen FC ), the stadium in the education center (traditional multi-purpose stadium), the stadium of the wagon builders in Ammendorf ( BSV Halle-Ammendorf ), the athletics stadium Robert Koch and the stadium am Zoo (football, VfL Halle 1896 ).
- Ice rink on Gimritzer Damm , formerly Saxony-Anhalt's only facility of this type. After the flood in the Saale in 2013, a new building was built approx. 1 km west of it . Ice hockey has a certain tradition in the city ( ESC Hall 04 ).
- Indoor, outdoor and natural pools: The pool landscape in Halle is diverse. In addition to the Maya Mare leisure pool, there are the Saline-Bad with indoor and outdoor swimming pool, the Neustadt indoor swimming pool with a separate jumping hall suitable for competitions (10 m jumping facility), and the Art Nouveau urban swimming pool (indoor swimming pool). The Nordbad (outdoor pool with 10 m diving board) and the managed natural pools Angersdorfer Teiche and Heidesee complete the bathing and swimming opportunities. The Robert Koch indoor swimming pool, which was newly built in 2011, is especially reserved for competitive swimming.
- For equestrian sports there is the Halle horse racing track on the Passendorfer meadows
- Canoeing and rowing are practiced on the competition facilities on Lake Osendorfer See (canoe regatta course), on the canal between Neustadt and the Saale (rowing regatta course) and on the Saale (canoe slalom, canoeing, white water canoeing).
- Halle has modern, competition-standard athletics hall , the gymnasium Brandberge , with competition also suitable outdoor facilities. Together with other facilities (wrestling, boxing and judo martial arts center) it forms the Brandberge / Kreuzvorwerk sports complex, one of three locally concentrated sports infrastructure locations in the city.
- The second of three locally concentrated sports infrastructure locations is the sports complex Bildungszentrum in Neustadt. These include the training center sports hall (handball, etc.), the Neustadt swimming pool (see indoor, outdoor and natural pools), the multi-purpose stadium in the training center and some other facilities.
- The third central sports infrastructure location is formed by the Halle sports high school , the Robert Koch athletics stadium, the Robert Koch indoor swimming pool and the natural gas sports park.
- (Club) football pitches available throughout the city.
- A modern skate park was opened in 2011 in the center of Halle-Neustadt.
Other sports facilities are:
- Railway park of the old Thuringian freight station with sports and playground facilities as well as the beginning of the port railway line as a cycle and hiking path in the city
- Tennis courts (club facilities): Sandanger, Ziegelwiese (USV Halle), TC Halle 94 e. V., Böllberger Weg
- Falkenfield ( American Football ), home of the UPS Halle Falken
- Halle-Oppin Airfield (aviation)
- Golf driving range on the racecourse
- Minigolf and beach volleyball facility : Sportparadies Halle on Böllberger Weg
- From 1886 there were three cycle racing tracks in Halle one after the other : an open cement track in the Olympiapark Merseburger Straße (1886-1919), an open wooden track on Böllberger Weg (1930-1938) and, from 1951 to the 1970s / 80s, the open cement track Albert-Richter -Fighting Track .
The most popular local recreation areas, which are connected to the Saale with the exception of the Dölauer Heide , also have some sights or other leisure facilities to offer. These include the Saaleaue with racecourse , the adjacent islands or peninsulas Würfelwiese , Ziegelwiese with fountain and Peißnitzinsel with Parkeisenbahn Peißnitzexpress Halle (Saale) and the Rabeninsel . Along the course of the river, the Klausberge , Riveufer and Trothaer Ufer as far as the Forstwerder island should be mentioned. The large and small Galgenberg as well as Lehmann's and Reichardt's gardens also invite you to take a walk . The wooded area of the Dölauer Heide with Bischofswiese (on it fortifications and barrows from the Neolithic Age) offers a larger area . In the south of the city, the Saale-Elster-Aue is the largest local recreation area. In these areas and the city itself there are several nature trails (Dölauer Heide, geological trail, drinking water trail).
Inventions, discoveries and developments from Halle
Some remarkable inventions, discoveries and developments were made in Halle.
- Hoffmann drops : The drug was developed by Friedrich Hoffmann (* 1660; † 1742).
- Chemistry: Johann Heinrich Schulze , universal scholar, discovered the sensitivity of silver salts to light between 1717 and 1719 (a prerequisite for traditional photography ).
- Medical history: With his five-volume universal history of medicine, Kurt Sprengel (* 1766; † 1833) is one of the fathers of medical historiography.
- Psychiatry: Johann Christian Reil first used the term in 1808 and is considered a co-founder of modern psychiatry .
- Teratology: Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (* 1781; † 1833) is considered the founder of modern teratology .
- Electrical engineering: Johann Schweigger invented the electromagnetic multiplier ( galvanometer ) in 1820 .
- Agriculture: Julius Kühn (* 1825; † 1910), founded the university study of agriculture in Germany at Halle University .
- Development mechanics: Wilhelm Roux (* 1850; † 1924) is considered to be the founder of development mechanics within evolutionary developmental biology .
- Set theory: Georg Cantor , professor at the university, founded and developed set theory in Halle from 1874 to 1897 .
- Lignite briquetting: Ferdinand August Schulz developed the tube dryer in lignite briquetting (first built in 1885).
- Hyperbolic concrete shell: Herbert Müller (* 1920, † 1995) developed the hyperbolic paraboloid concrete shell here .
- Heart-lung machine: Karl-Ludwig Schober (* 1912; † 1999) constructed the first heart-lung machine in the GDR.
A complete list is available under List of honorary citizens of Halle (Saale)
- Robert Franz , actually Robert Knauth (born June 28, 1815 in Halle, † October 24, 1892 in Halle), composer
- Peter Sodann (* 1936 in Meißen), actor, 1981–2005 director of the New Theater
- Hans-Dietrich Genscher (* 1927 in Reideburg; † March 31, 2016 in Wachtberg-Pech), politician ( FDP ), 1974–1992 Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Paul Raabe (* 1927 in Oldenburg; † July 5, 2013 in Wolfenbüttel), 1992–2000 director of the Francke Foundations
- Richard von Volkmann- Leander (born August 17, 1830 in Leipzig, † November 28, 1889 in Jena), physician
- Marianne Witte (* 1923 in Marburg / Lahn; † June 25, 2012 in Mülheim an der Ruhr), daughter of Nobel Prize winner Karl Ziegler , financed the renovation of the Stadtgottesackers
Sons and daughters of the city of Halle
The Baroque composer Georg Friedrich Händel and the former Federal Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher , who was born in the Reideburg district, which was incorporated in 1950, are considered to be important sons of the city .
Personalities who have worked in Halle
Personalities such as the central German Enlightenmentists Christian Thomasius and Christian Wolff , their opponent August Hermann Francke (founder of the Francke Foundations), worked in Halle . Among the many artists in Halle are the composers Johann Friedrich Reichardt ( Reichardts Garten , today part of the Garden Dreams Saxony-Anhalt project ) and Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, and in the visual arts Lyonel Feininger , Gerhard Marcks , Karl Völker , Albert Ebert and the long-time president of the Professional Association of Visual Artists in the GDR Willi Sitte . Joseph von Eichendorff , Curt Goetz and, in the second half of the 20th century, Rainer Kirsch and Heinz Czechowski worked here in the field of literature . In the field of science, Johann Christian Reil (inventor of the term psychiatry) and Georg Cantor stand out. The philosopher Hans Vaihinger , who became famous for his “philosophy of as-if”, taught here at the university.
- Frank Betker: Understanding the necessity! . Municipal urban planning in the GDR and after the fall of the Wall (1945–1994), contributions to urban history and urbanization research, Vol. 3, Steiner-Verlag Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-515-08734-6 (case study cities Halle and Rostock).
- Thomas Bienert: Halle on the Saale . Sutton, Erfurt 2002, ISBN 3-89702-459-4 .
- Ernst-Ludwig Bock: Halle in the Air War 1939–1945 . Projekt-Verlag 188. Halle, 2002. ISBN 978-3-931950-62-0 .
- Angela Dolgner (ed.): Historic places in the city of Halle on the Saale . Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2008, ISBN 978-3-89812-495-9 .
- Friedrich August Eckstein : Chronicle of the city of Halle. A continuation of Dreyhaupt's description of the hall circle. 6 volumes, Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, Halle 1842/43.
- Werner Freitag , Mathias Tullner : Hall 806 to 1806. Salt, Residence and University / Hall 1806 to 2008 . Industrial center, seat of government, district town. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2006, ISBN 978-3-89812-500-0 .
- Werner Freitag, Katrin Minner, Andreas Ranft (eds.): History of the city of Halle. 2 volumes + register tape . Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2006, ISBN 978-3-89812-512-3 .
- Werner Freitag, Heiner Lück : Halle and the salt . Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2002, ISBN 3-89812-161-5 .
- Hans Joachim Kessler, Conrad Kessler: Time travel through Halle - excursions into the past . Wartberg Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2006, ISBN 3-8313-1584-1 .
- Klaus Friedrich , Manfred Frühauf : Halle and its surroundings , Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle (Saale), 2002, ISBN 3-89812-167-4 .
- Wolfgang Michaelis: Not quite complete notes on the history of the city of Halle from October 1949 to October 1990 . Hall 2005.
- Manfred Orlick: From Trotha to Ammendorf , brochure series Saale, Salz and Siedlungsorte Vol. 1 and 3, Ed. Association and sponsor of the Halle City Museum, Dr. Berthold Halle 2006.
- Michael Pantenius: Halle (Saale). City-guide. 2nd Edition. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2007, ISBN 978-3-89812-273-3 .
- Hans-Walter Schmuhl : Halle in the Weimar Republic and in National Socialism (= studies on regional history, vol. 15), Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2007, ISBN 978-3-89812-443-0 .
- Michael Schwibbe et al .: Time travel: 1200 years of life in Halle. Sunday News 2006, ISBN 978-3-00-019130-5 .
- Armin Stein : The city of Halle on the Saale (reprint of the 1924 edition). Wort & Werk, Halle 1996, ISBN 3-89557-056-7 .
- Daniel Watermann, Susanne Feldmann (Ed.): City history on photographs. Halle (Saale) in the 20th century . Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2020, ISBN 978-3963113185
- Holger Zaunstöck : Hall between 806 and 2006 . Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2001, ISBN 3-89812-105-4 .
- Ines Zimmermann: Faces of my city . Photographs from Halle 1986–1998. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2008, ISBN 978-3-89812-577-2 .
- Silvia Zöller (Red.): Our city anniversary - 1200 years of Halle an der Saale . Book and DVD, Halle 2007, ISBN 978-3-89812-458-4 .
- Holger Brülls, Thomas Dietzsch: Architectural Guide Halle on the Saale . Reimer Verlag 2000 Berlin, ISBN 3-496-01202-1 .
- Ronald Kunze (ed.): New buildings in Halle (Saale) . Exhibition catalog Kunsthalle Villa Kobe, 2002.
- Marc Mielzarjewicz: Lost Places. Beauty of decay . Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2008, ISBN 978-3-89812-575-8 (illustrated book).
- Hans-Joachim Mrusek : Halle / Saale ( art history city books ). 3rd, improved edition, Leipzig 1976.
- Official website of the city of Halle (Saale)
- Halle - topography and settlement - urban development in Saxony-Anhalt
- Link catalog on the subject of Halle, Saale at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- State Statistical Office Saxony-Anhalt, population of the municipalities - as of December 31, 2019 (PDF) (update) ( help ).
- Erik Neumann (City Museum Halle): Hall in Saxony. Was Halle ever in Saxony? www.HalleSaale.info , 1991, accessed December 30, 2012 .
- Administrative the city of Halle an der Saale, published by the city council of Halle, sixth year 1871
- Address book for Halle ad S. and the surrounding area; using official sources; Scherl, 1926
- State Statistical Office Saxony-Anhalt. Total population, Germans and foreigners by district on September 30, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2019 .
- metropolitan region of central Germany. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010 ; Retrieved December 6, 2012 .
- Hans-Joachim Mrusek: Halle / Saale . Seemann, Leipzig, 2nd, verb. Ed., 1964, p. 17.
- When Halle breathed a sigh of relief: What the city archivist says at the end of the World War 75 years ago. April 20, 2020, accessed April 20, 2020 .
- State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation Saxony-Anhalt, TK 1: 10,000
- German Weather Service: normal period 1961–1990. Retrieved December 30, 2012 .
- Study shows: In Wuppertal it rains most often. wz.de from March 12, 2008, accessed December 30, 2019
- German weather service: Climate information Halle (Saale) - weather service. wetterdienst.de, accessed on April 20, 2020 .
- An overview of the suggested explanations can be found in: Deutsches Ortnamesbuch. Edited by Manfred Niemeyer. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-018908-7 , p. 240. Jürgen Udolph: Hallstadt contains a more detailed compilation of the various suggested interpretations for Hall- in place names . In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde . Volume XIII: Birds of Prey - Hardeknut. De Gruyter, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-11-016315-2 , pp. 433-442.
- Jürgen Udolph: Hallstadt. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde . Volume XIII: Birds of Prey - Hardeknut. De Gruyter, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-11-016315-2 , pp. 433–442, also around the 20th salt festival in Halle “Scheile” theory for the anniversary ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) @ mdr.de, accessed on September 26, 2014
- Eurasisches Magazin, Issue 03-04, 2004
- Steffen Drenkelfuss: Halle - the weird city . In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung (Halle / Saalkreis), December 2, 2006, p. 3
- Latin city names ( Memento from July 14, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) (Lexicum nominum geographicorum latinorum)
- Project Halle / Saale, market square. In: anthropologie-jungklaus.de. Retrieved June 4, 2017 .
- Bettina Jungklaus : Anthropological investigations on the skeletons of the churchyard near St. Marien . In: Harald Meller (ed.): The market place of Halle. Archeology and history . State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt, Halle 2008, ISBN 978-3-939414-25-4 , p. 186-188 .
- Bettina Jungklaus : Paleodemographic and paleopathological aspects of the late medieval population of Halle / Saale . In: Norbert Benecke (Hrsg.): Contributions to archeozoology and prehistoric anthropology . tape VII . Verlag Beier & Beran , Langenweißbach 2009, ISBN 978-3-941171-18-3 , p. 171-181 .
- Bettina Jungklaus: Halle's story under the market - anthropological studies on the medieval skeletons from the St. Marien and St. Gertrudenkirchhof . In: Ralf Jacob (Hrsg.): Yearbook for Hall's City History 2010 . tape 8 . Verlag Janos Stekovics, ISBN 978-3-89923-260-8 , p. 157-169 .
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- Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Travel to Italy . Second journey 1824. Ed .: Gottfried Riemann. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin / Weimar 1994, ISBN 3-351-02269-7 , p. 8 .
- Matthias Puhle : Hanse - 16 city images from Saxony-Anhalt. Janos Stekovics, Dößel 2008; ISBN 978-3-89923-177-9 , p. 40 ff.
- Halle on the pages of the city union Die Hanse
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- See Schmuhl, Hans-Walter, Halle in the Weimar Republic and in National Socialism, Halle (Saale) 2007, p. 33 ff.
- Detlef Schmiechen-Ackermann , Steffi Kaltenborn (ed.): City history in the Nazi era. Case studies from Saxony-Anhalt and comparative perspectives , Münster 2005, p. 17 (footnote 35).
- See Schumann, Dirk, Political violence in the Weimar Republic 1918–1933. Struggle for the streets and fear of civil war, Essen 2001, p. 92 (footnote 185).
- See Schmuhl, Halle, p. 50 and Könnemann, Erwin, Krusch, Hans-Joachim, Aktioneinheit contra Kapp-Putsch, Berlin 1972, p. 407.
- See Freitag, Werner, Minner, Katrin (ed.): History of the city of Halle. Volume 2. Hall in the 19th and 20th centuries. Halle (Saale) 2006, p. 252 f.
- memorial. ( Memento from February 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: sachsen-anhalt.de.
- Udo Grashoff : The forgotten camp . A documentation on the external command of the Buchenwald concentration camp in Halle / Saale 1944/45. Hasenverlag, Halle (Saale) 2010, ISBN 978-3-939468-33-2 .
- Ernst-Ludwig Bock: Halle in the air war 1939-1945 . Halle, 2002. p. 5 ff.
- Matthias J. Maurer: Our Way to Halle . The march of the "Timber Wolves" to Halle. Fly head publishing house, Halle (Saale) 2001, ISBN 3-930195-44-5 , p. 14 .
- Andreas Rühl, Kuratorium Altes Rathaus Halle (Saale) (Ed.): Fateful Years - The Destruction of the Old Town Hall 1945 to 1950 . In: The old town hall in Halle (Saale). Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle (Saale) 2008. p. 169.
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- Theodor Lieser, by Gregor Brand, In: Eifelzeitung
- On the conflicts over urban renewal in Halle in the 1980s see Frank Betker: Insight into necessity !. Municipal town planning in the GDR and after the fall of the Wall (1945–1994). Stuttgart 2005, pp. 311-340; A brief outline of the urban history of Halle and Rostock can be found on pp. 68–80, for the organization and institutions of urban planning in the GDR using the example of Halle and Rostock see Part III (pp. 153–216); See also pp. 218–264 for the experiences of city planners during the time of the fall of the Wall.
- page 36 (PDF)
- Halle (Saale) - Händelstadt: History of the district. Retrieved March 29, 2018 .
- Sascha Gunold: The historical source: Photos of a Soviet nuclear weapons storage facility in Halle / Saale. In: Military History. Journal for Historical Education: Issue 1/2018. Center for Military History and Social Sciences of the Bundeswehr, March 28, 2018, p. 28 , archived from the original ; accessed on May 24, 2020 .
- JAM-now it starts D 1992 , traffic jam - now it starts (1992)
- Halle-Trotha water level
- hallespektrum: The crisis management team urgently recommends leaving hazardous areas on June 5, 2013
- Hallespektrum: Floods: Large-scale power cuts on June 5, 2013
- Halle (Saale) - Händelstadt: residents with main residence and proportion of foreigners. Retrieved February 23, 2018 .
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- City Guide Germany
- Over seven bridges. In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung, March 22, 2012.
- To the sculpture: https://leninisstillaround.com/2015/05/11/roter-stern-uber-halle/ To the mural: https://leninisstillaround.com/2020/01/25/er-ruehre-an-dem -sleep-of-the-world /
- Bernd Göbel, Hans-Georg Sehrt: The Göbel fountain. Origin, passage of time, turbulence. With a foreword from the mayor at the time, Klaus Rauen. Halle (Saale) 1998, without ISBN, in the holdings of the DNB
- Peter Michel: Arrival in Freedom. Essays against the loss of value over time. Berlin 2011, p. 177.
- See hall in the picture with map (accessed on December 6, 2014).
- Song for the Linden Blossom Festival in the Francke Foundations in Halle (Saale) by Frank Motzki
- cinema summer on the racetrack is canceled ( Memento from September 15, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
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- Mitteldeutscher Verkehrsverbund, Leipzig: Our network partners in Halle - MDV. Retrieved August 21, 2017 .
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- Project program "Live Democracy!" Active against right-wing extremism, violence and misanthropy
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