Urban planning

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The town planning is concerned with the design of buildings Group , settlements , districts and especially public spaces . Urban planning can be understood as a term for the visible and design aspects of urban planning . According to a broader understanding, the term urban planning encompasses the "totality of planning, ordering and structural measures for spatial design in town and country, which are aimed at creating the prerequisites for human coexistence in an environment appropriate to them in the implementation of socio-political goals ".


The construction of a city includes the following aspects that the "city planner" must consider:

  • the suitable location of a city (in the territory, on rivers, on borders, to neighboring cities)
  • the classification in the topography
  • the nature and availability of the soil
  • the basic form of settlement, d. H. the shape and arrangement of the streets, building plots (the urban morphology )
  • the division of the city into construction areas, zones to be kept clear (parks, green spaces, air corridors, cemeteries, sports areas)
  • the three-dimensional shape of the city (open / closed development, staggered heights, points of view, city silhouette, urban spatial formation through streets and squares)
  • Hierarchy of rooms (space systems or a main space)
  • Number and hierarchy of the inner-city centers (main center, secondary centers, district centers, local supply centers)
  • urban infrastructure such as: the supply options with water, heating material, protection against wind, overheating, the disposal of sewage, waste.

In accordance with the differences in terms listed above, different fields of study have also developed at the universities. There are courses in town planning , urban and regional planning , urban design , urban studies and spatial planning as independent bachelor and master courses, as well as town planning and urban planning as part of the architecture course. Since 1964, the public administration has initially only offered traineeships for prospective civil servants . Nowadays, this traineeship is also offered as a management qualification for the next generation in the private sector.

historical development

Urban planning has existed since planning processes for the construction of cities existed. The oldest known cities were laid out according to regular arrangements. This is because it was only through careful planning that a spatially close allocation of the individual sub-areas was possible while at the same time using little land. This, in turn, was necessary in order not to have too large a fortification system. The oldest planned cities include cities in China , India , Mesopotamia and Egypt , some of which are more than 5000 years old.

In the then dominion of the Roman Empire , numerous new cities were built in Europe from around 100 BC to around 400 AD (late period of the Republic and Roman Empire ). The oriental city of the Middle Ages with its labyrinthine -like structures often developed on the basis of a regularly laid out ancient plan city , in which, delimited by old main arteries ( Cardo , Decumanus ), ethnically specific districts emerged and public buildings became functionally obsolete (e.g. conversion from theaters to fortresses) and side streets were closed. In the European Middle Ages , cities were founded by the Carolingians , Zähringer and Heinrich the Lion, among others , as well as planned urbanization during the German East Settlement by princes, merchants and the Teutonic Knight Order , who sent locators across the country as recruiters.

During the Renaissance and Baroque periods , new cities emerged as royal residences ( Mannheim , Karlsruhe ) and for the development of princely territories (e.g. manufacturing cities for porcelain production, mining cities, administrative cities).

In the 19th century the focus was on urban expansion; these became necessary through industrialization , through rural-urban migration, through the construction of railways (combined with the development of the large-scale division of labor ) and through the strong population growth in large parts of Europe (e.g. in Germany ). Significantly, Reinhard Baumeister's first German city planning book in 1876 ​​was therefore also called City Extensions . From 1902 Cornelius Gurlitt was one of the first to give lectures on urban planning at a technical university - namely at the TH Dresden .

In the beginning of the 20th century, the garden city was an important issue. Further tasks were city expansion. The urban planning concepts of the Charter of Athens , which aimed at a fundamental redesign of the existing urban structures, remained essentially utopian for the city centers , as they required a demolition of areas in the sense of Le Corbusier's Plan Voisin . However, based on the model of the British New Towns around London, the French conception of the Ville nouvelle emerged . When planning the new Frankfurt , Ernst May made the transition from closed block construction to open row construction. New cities for industrial production emerged in Germany, for example. B. Salzgitter and Wolfsburg , in the former GDR Eisenhüttenstadt and new industrial cities in the former Soviet Union . Numerous firestorms , systematically caused by bombers of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War during air raids on German cities (e.g. in Hamburg in 1943 and the Dresden firestorm ), city planners and the military confirmed in their knowledge that there is enough green space around rows of houses in order to avoid conflagrations or skyscrapers around. After the Second World War, large settlements emerged in Germany. With the instrument of the satellite town an attempt was made to concentrate the lack of living space outside the traditional cities. In 1959 the book was published The car-fair city - A way out of traffic chaos ; the concept was implemented during the reconstruction of many West German cities, for example in Hanover, Cologne and Kassel, but also in smaller cities such as Minden. Some things were also torn down (see also urban redevelopment ) and urban structures were cut up.

See also

Portal: Planning  - Overview of Wikipedia content on planning

Web links

Wikisource: Städtebau (1914)  - Sources and full texts


  • Gerd Albers : Development lines in town planning. (= Bauwelt foundations. 46). 1975.
  • Gerd Albers: urban planning. A practice-oriented introduction. Darmstadt 1992.
  • Academy for spatial research and regional planning (ed.): Ground plan of urban planning. Vincentz, Hanover 1983.
  • Frank Betker: Ecological urban renewal. A new model for urban development. Aachen 1992.
  • Frank Betker: Understanding the necessity. Municipal town planning in the GDR and after the fall of the Wall (1945–1994). Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-515-08734-6 .
  • Jörn Düwel, Niels Gutschow: Urban planning in Germany in the 20th century. Ideas - projects - actors. Stuttgart u. a. 2001.
  • Gerhard Curdes : Lectures on urban planning: periods, models and projects in urban planning from the Middle Ages to the present. Institute for Urban Development and Regional Planning, Aachen 1993.
  • Gerhard Curdes: Urban Structural Design. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1995.
  • Gerhard Curdes: Urban Structure and Urban Design. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993.
  • Ernst Egli : History of Urban Development. 3 volumes. Rentsch, Erlenbach (and Zurich) 1959–1967.
  • Matthias Hardinghaus: On the American development of the city. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2004.
  • Jürgen Hotzan: dtv atlas on the city: from the first foundation to modern urban planning. German Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-423-03231-6 .
  • Klaus Humpert : Introduction to urban planning. Kohlhammer, 1997, ISBN 3-17-013060-9 .
  • Spiro Kostof : The anatomy of the city: history of urban structures. Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1993
  • Spiro Kostof: The Face of the City: History of Urban Diversity. Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1992.
  • Ronald Kunze, Detlef Kurth: Urban development and urban planning. About a tense relationship. In: Planner. 6/2010, pp. 3-4.
  • Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani : Architecture and Urban Planning of the 20th Century.
  • Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani, Markus Tubbesing , Harald R. Stühlinger: Atlas zum Städtebau , Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2966-3 .
  • Dieter Prinz: Urban planning, Volume 1: Urban planning 7th edition. Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-17-015691-8 .
  • Dieter Prinz: Urban planning Volume 2: Urban planning 6th edition. Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-17-014470-7 .
  • Dietmar Reinborn: Urban planning in the 19th and 20th centuries. Stuttgart u. a. 1996.
  • Camillo Sitte : Urban planning according to its artistic principles. 1st edition. Vienna 1889 (new edition Birkhäuser 2002, ISBN 3-7643-6692-3 ).
  • Michael Trieb: Urban design theory and practice. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1977.


  1. ↑ Terms of the zoning plan and development plan. (No longer available online.) In: JuraMagazin.de. JuraMagazin, formerly in the original ; accessed on March 1, 2014 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.juramagazin.de
  2. Martin Korda: Urban planning: technical basics. Teubner Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-519-45001-1 .
  3. Guide for the preparatory service of trainee lawyers specializing in urban planning , on behalf of the Federal Minister for Regional Planning, Building and Urban Development, Bonn - Bad Godesberg 1973, page 13.
  4. 70 years of technical legal clerkship in Germany. In: Festschrift, page 7. Higher examination office for the technical clerkship at the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, November 2016, accessed on May 23, 2019 .
  5. ^ Gottfried Kiesow: Urban development with emergency brake. Designs for human living. In: Monuments Online. German Foundation for Monument Protection, December 2008, accessed on March 1, 2014 .