Le Corbusier

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Le Corbusier (1964) Le Corbusier's signature

Le Corbusier (born October 6, 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds , Switzerland ; † August 27, 1965 in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin , France ; actually Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris ) was a Swiss-French architect , architectural theorist , urban planner , Painter , draftsman , sculptor and furniture designer. He was one of the most influential architects of the 20th century, but his new ideas also sparked controversy and are sometimes controversial to this day. 17 of his buildings have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2016 .

He first adopted his pseudonym Le Corbusier , based on the name of his great-grandmother Lecorbésier and von corbeau, in the magazine L'Esprit nouveau in 1920.



Villa Fallet (1905)

Charles Jeanneret came from a long-established and widely ramified family, which traces its - although not proven - origins back to the Albigensians . The addition Gris distinguishes his family branch from the Jeanneret-Grieurin and the Jeanneret-Compas. His father Georges-Édouard (1855–1926) was an enameller of watch cases with his own workshop in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the then center of the Swiss watch industry. His mother Marie-Charlotte-Amelie (1860–1960; nee Perret ) was a musician.

In 1900 he began an apprenticeship as an engraver and chaser at the School of Applied Arts in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Under the influence of his teacher Charles L'Éplattenier, he turned to painting and architecture, initially leaning more towards the former. Artistically he was heavily influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement and Art nouveau at this time .

In 1905 he carried out his first architectural work in La Chaux-de-Fonds: the Villa Fallet , a house for a teacher at the arts and crafts school. Other buildings followed by 1916 that did not yet bear the signature of Le Corbusier and were later not included in the list of his works.

In 1907 he went on his first study trip with the sculptor Léon Perrin . On these trips he studied and drew the architecture of the cities and regions he visited. In northern Italy he visited Milan , Florence , the Ema Charterhouse in Galluzzo, Siena , Bologna , Padua and Venice , then Budapest and Vienna . This was followed by a six-month stay in Vienna with the architect and spokesman for the Vienna Secession , Josef Hoffmann . There he got to know the theories of Adolf Loos .

He traveled to Paris for the first time in March 1908, visited the city's most important new architects such as Frantz Jourdain , Charles Plumet , Henri Sauvage and Eugène Grasset , and worked for 15 months in the office of Auguste Perret , the pioneer of reinforced concrete construction , until the end of 1909 . Another influence at this time was the architect and city planner Tony Garnier , whom he visited in Lyon.

The Elektra boathouse in Berlin (1910)

On behalf of his school École d'Art , he traveled to Germany in 1910 to study the arts and crafts movement there ( Deutscher Werkbund , Deutsche Werkstätten ). First he traveled to Stuttgart, then he drove via Ulm and Karlsruhe to Munich, where he initially lived with Octave Matthey . He visited Heinrich Tessenow and the music teacher Émile Jaques-Dalcroze in Hellerau and from November 1, 1910 to April 1, 1911 there was a five-month stay in Peter Behrens' studio in Potsdam- Neubabelsberg near Berlin. During this stay he probably also got to know the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright , which was becoming known in Europe at the time. During his stay in Berlin, he was invited to the 3rd annual meeting of the German Werkbund, which took place from June 10th to 12th, 1910. In the studio near Behrens he worked on a project for AEG : the Elektra boathouse, which was to serve as a rowing club for employees and civil servants.

In 1911 he went on a second study trip with his friend, the art historian August Klipstein , which took him from Vienna down the Danube to Budapest and from there to Romania, Turkey (including Constantinople ), Greece (including Mount Athos , Athens , where he was particularly impressed by the Acropolis ) and on to the Italian cities of Naples , Pompeii , Rome and Florence.

In 1912/1913 he taught architecture and interior design at the “New Department” of the École d'Art, founded a year earlier by his teacher L'Eplattenier, and at the same time established himself as an independent architect and interior designer. In Paris, some watercolors with impressions of his travels were exhibited at the Salon d'Automne . In 1914 he became head of a department at the École d'Art .

He received a patent for the “Dom-ino” construction system developed together with engineer Max du Bois for the industrial series production of houses in reinforced concrete skeleton construction from prefabricated parts which, according to the principle of the free floor plan , were to dispense with load-bearing walls on the individual floors .

His last building in La Chaux-de-Fonds is the Villa Schwob (also Villa Turque ), which he built in 1916 for the watch manufacturer Auguste Schwob. The exterior of this house is still conventionally designed with a classicist facade, but the reinforced concrete construction already has many of the features of the principles he first formulated in the 1920s in the five points of a new architecture , with which he then shaped modern architecture.


In 1917, Charles Jeanneret finally relocated to Paris. There he met the painter Amédée Ozenfant , with whom an artistic and journalistic collaboration arose in the following years. In the beginning he received only a few commissions as an architect, he was increasingly concerned with contemporary painting, in particular there was an intensive examination of Cubism . In 1918 he created his first oil paintings - mainly still lifes - and he exhibited together with Ozenfant. For their first exhibition, Après le Cubisme (After Cubism), both published their manifesto for a new art, purism , the principles of which also flowed into Le Corbusier's architecture: the rational composition of the image / building from elementary geometric shapes while avoiding purely decorative effects .

In order to spread their ideas about painting and architecture to the public, they founded the magazine L'Esprit Nouveau in 1920 together with the poet and publicist Paul Dermée . Here he began to use the pseudonym Le Corbusier to sign his articles, which were published as a book in 1923 under the title Vers une Architecture . From then on he did not limit his work to the design of buildings, but tried to spread his ideas through exhibitions, magazines, books and lectures. In 1920 he developed the first plans for the Maison Citrohan . It is consciously based on the functionality of the automotive industry and the name of the brand name Citroën . This type of house provides for series production with a cuboid structure and load-bearing side walls and has already fulfilled a large part of the five points of a new architecture (see below). In the 1920s, mainly residential buildings were built according to the “Dom-ino” system. As an urban planner, he went public in 1922 with a concept for a "contemporary city for three million inhabitants" (Ville Contemporaine) in the autumn salon .

In 1922, Le Corbusier and his cousin Pierre Jeanneret (1896–1967) founded an architecture office at 29 Rue d'Astorg ; In 1924 he also set up a studio in a corridor of a former Jesuit monastery at 35 rue de Sèvres . From 1927 to 1937 they worked as a trio with the architect and designer Charlotte Perriand and founded the Union des artistes modern in 1930 in opposition to the Société des Artistes Décorateurs .

At the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs 1925 in Paris, Le Corbusier / Jeanneret presented the pavilion L'Esprit Nouveau, an avant - garde alternative to the mainstream of the exhibition, which is all about Art Deco . This pavilion consisted of a two-storey villa unit, which appears repeatedly as a basic building block in his architectural designs at the time, either stacked to form a block of flats (immeuble villas) or grouped into a "closed settlement in the form of a honeycomb". The pavilion was furnished with modern, functional furniture, on the walls hung purist and cubist paintings by Le Corbusier, Fernand Léger , Jacques Lipchitz , Juan Gris and Ozenfant, and a sculpture by Lipchitz stood in front of the building. In an attached diorama , he showed his urban planning visions for Paris ( Ville contemporaine , Plan Voisin ), which aimed to demolish the area of ​​the historic center while retaining a few monuments and replacing it with regularly arranged high-rise buildings . Soon after the exhibition, L'Esprit Nouveau magazine was discontinued. Differences led to the separation from Ozenfant.

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret took part in the competition for the League of Nations Palace in Geneva in 1927 . Her design received first prize with eight others (out of 377) and received the most votes from the jury. However, the jury could not agree on the question of whether a modern or a historicizing design should be preferred. For this reason too, Le Corbusier and Jeanneret's draft was rejected for a formal reason - they had not submitted the required ink drawings, but copies - even though their plan was the only one that kept to the budget set by the jury.

Le Corbusier's and Pierre Jeanneret's houses were built for the “ Weissenhof ” model estate built in 1927 as part of the Werkbund exhibition “The Apartment” in Stuttgart . They were designed according to the programmatic five points for a new architecture . One of the houses represents the first construction of the Citrohan type . During the exhibition, various rooms in the houses were furnished with works by Willi Baumeister , who also provided the graphic design for Alfred Roth's publication Two Houses by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret .

In 1928 he traveled to Moscow , where, after winning an international competition, he was commissioned to build the building for the Central Association of Consumer Cooperatives of the Soviet Union ( Zentrosojus ) . In La Sarraz , Switzerland , he and other architects founded the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne . The founding of this architectural association was also a reaction to the often scandalous events in the competition for the Palace of the League of Nations.

In 1929 he went on his first trip to South America, where he gave lectures on architecture. In São Paulo he had seen Josephine Baker perform and followed her on board the ship Giulio Cesare . She sang in the cabin of Le Corbusier, who drew her naked. Thereupon he demanded new buildings from the spirit of their dance. Based on this encounter, he designed the " Villa Savoye ".

In the autumn salon he, Pierre Jeanneret and Charlotte Perriand (1903–1999) exhibited joint furniture designs. These are manufactured as designer furniture to this day and sold under the names LC1 to LC7 . The most distinctive and best-known model in this series is probably the LC4 chaise longue .

In September 1930, Le Corbusier took French citizenship, in December he married the Monaco- born mannequin Yvonne Gallis (1892–1957).

In 1931 he took part in the international competition for the Soviet Palace in Moscow, the design was rejected the following year. In February of that year he made his first trip to Algiers , which was followed by more. In the following years, extensive urban planning and architectural designs such as the trolleybus project for building over the old town were developed for this city, but this was not implemented.

In 1933 he played a leading role in the adoption of the Athens Charter at the IV CIAM Congress in Athens . In 1935, at the invitation of the Museum of Modern Art , he traveled to the USA for the first time , attended congresses and gave lectures, but there were no commissions. He developed another urban planning concept under the title La Ville Radieuse .

On his second trip to Latin America in 1936, he designed the Ministry of Education and Health for Rio de Janeiro together with the local architects Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer . At the 1937 World Exhibition in Paris, he was represented with the Temps nouveaux exhibition pavilion . Another draft for the world exhibition was rejected by the jury.


With the beginning of the Second World War , construction activity almost came to a standstill. An order to plan an ammunition factory could no longer be carried out due to the rapid defeat of France in 1940. Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret closed the joint architecture office, he fled with his wife to the Pyrenees .

Vichy years

On July 3, 1940, two days after Marshal Pétain had installed himself in Vichy , Le Corbusier moved there and established contacts with the Pétain government , from which he also received and carried out orders. His political stance at this time was not clear for a long time, but in the late 1930s he showed sympathy for the political right, which led to employees distancing themselves from him. It has now been proven that he sympathized with the Vichy government, Hitler and the fascists. In a résumé written for the Vichy authorities, he did not mention that he was born Swiss.

The selection of his letters Le Corbusier: Choix de lettres , published in 2002, documents Le Corbusier's sympathies for Hitler. On October 31, 1940, the day on which Marshal Pétain had issued the slogan of «collaboration» with Nazi Germany, he wrote to his mother: «If he is serious about his announcements, Hitler can live his life with a great work crown: the reshaping of Europe ». The Swiss writer Daniel de Roulet pointed out Le Corbusier's political entanglements in an essay in 2005. In the biography of Nicholas Fox Weber Le Corbusier , published in 2008, his dark sides are also presented openly.

"His rigorous large-scale urban development projects cannot be denied a totalitarian character," says Hans Kollhoff , Professor of Architecture at ETH Zurich . The Lausanne architecture historian and professor at EPFL Pierre Frey says: "Le Corbusier was a radical theorist of a kind of spatial eugenics and a rabid anti-Semite ... Le Corbusier would have built for Hitler without batting an eyelid."

During his stay in Vichy, Le Corbusier could count on his fascist friends and circles. Marcel Bucard , founder of the far-right Mouvement Franciste, lobbied for him . Corbusier's confidante, Georges Valois , founder of Le Faisceau , the first fascist party outside Italy, as well as Pierre Winter , a committed and active fascist, praised Corbusier's work - his urban planning concepts expressed “the deepest thoughts of fascism”. Valois praised the Cité radieuse with its «living machines» as «implementation of the fascist program».

Vichy's Interior Minister Marcel Peyrouton appointed Le Corbusier to be in charge of urban development in the devastated areas of France. In a document signed by Pétain on May 27, 1941, he was appointed to a committee on housing problems of the Vichy government. He should also take care of Paris, among others together with the former socialist Gaston Bergery , the writer Jean Giraudoux and the doctor and proponent of euthanasia Alexis Carrel .

In 1942, when he again had orders in occupied Paris, he began to work out his theory of proportions called Modulor , which from then on became fundamental for all of his subsequent architectural designs. He founded the Assemblée de Constructeurs pour Rénovation architecturale (ASCORAL), which dealt with reconstruction plans for the time after the war. In 1943 he published the Athens Charter , which was to have a major impact on urban planning in the 1950s and 1960s.

After the liberation

After the liberation of France in 1944, he became chairman of the urban planning committee of the French association of architects Front national des architectes and in August reopened an office on Rue de Sèvres . In 1945/1946 he worked on reconstruction plans for Saint-Dié-des-Vosges and La Rochelle- Pallice, but these were just as unrealized as his town planning for the expansion of Saint-Gaudens . At the end of 1945 he embarked on his second trip to the USA, where a traveling exhibition made his work known. He visited Albert Einstein in Princeton .

In 1947, he was member of the architectural commission for the planning of the UN headquarters was set up in New York. He provided the basic concept and the plans for the UN high-rise (Secretariat), but the executive architect was Wallace Harrison . At the beginning of the 1940s he was also interested in sculpture, together with the Breton carpenter and wood carver Joseph Savina he completed his first wooden sculptures in 1948, he also drew templates for tapestries .

Parliament building in Chandigarh
Chapelle Notre-Dame-du-Haut de Ronchamp with the southern window facade as well as the free altar facing east and the outer pulpit

The government of the Indian state of Punjab appointed him in 1951 on the recommendation of Maxwell Fry as a consultant for the planning of the new capital Chandigarh , because the initially commissioned city planner Albert Mayer could no longer carry out his assignment without Matthew Nowicki, who was killed in a plane accident . Le Corbusier was able to turn his urban planning ideas into reality here for the first time: he completed the spatial planning by 1952, after which he designed some government buildings, of which the Palace of Justice, the Secretariat and the Parliament building were built and completed by 1961. He carried out other projects on the Indian subcontinent in Ahmedabad in the 1950s .

In 1952, after six years of planning and construction, the first Unité d'Habitation was completed in Marseille . Four other versions of this house type were built in different locations in the following years. This new type of «living machine», which could be implemented independently of local conditions, reveals in a provocative way the «irrelevance of the location for the architectural decision», a building «without concessions to the respective context».

Two representative sacred buildings were built: the Notre-Dame-du-Haut de Ronchamp pilgrimage church, famous for its formal language , was completed in 1955, the Sainte-Marie de la Tourette monastery near Éveux-sur-l'Arbresle in 1960. The pilgrimage church in Ronchamp was inspired by the Dominican priest and art critic Marie-Alain Couturier . Together with Iannis Xenakis , he designed a pavilion for the 1958 World Exhibition in Brussels for the Philips company , which with its parabolic and hyperbolic curved surfaces continued the expressive design language of the church of Ronchamp, and for its interior, in collaboration with the composer Edgar Varèse, the Poème électronique , they created a kind of multimedia total work of art from image ( slide show ), music and architecture.

In the years 1960-1962 the emerged at the intersection of Grand Canal d'Alsace with the Rhone-Rhine Canal to near the German border on the Rhine lock Kembs-Niffer , for Le Corbusier a tower for the lock operation and a customs and administrative building was designed. The shaft of the tower consists of two diagonally stacked cubes with an external staircase that leads to a glazed platform. The roof of the customs building is a hypar shell . It is suspended from the vertices of different heights and «sags». At the lowest point of the construction, the rainwater is collected and drained.

With the National Museum of Western Art , he was also represented in Ueno Park in Tokyo from 1959 . The contract to build the Carpenter Center for Visual Arts at Harvard University enabled him to carry out his first and only project in the USA under his own name between 1959 and 1962. In 1959 Le Corbusier took part in the documenta II in Kassel in the graphics department .

At the age of 77, Le Corbusier died in Cap-Martin in 1965 when he suffered a heart attack and drowned while bathing in the sea near his holiday home Le Cabanon . On September 1, culture minister André Malraux honored the dead with an official memorial service in the Carrée courtyard of the Louvre . He was buried in the Roquebrune-Cap-Martin cemetery.

Awards and honors

Awards and honors awarded

lili rere
10-franc note, eighth series

Le Corbusier received an honorary doctorate from the University of Zurich in 1934 for the application of mathematical principles of order. He received further honorary doctorates in 1955 from the ETH Zurich , in 1959 from the University of Cambridge , in 1961 from the National University of Colombia and in 1963 from the University of Geneva . In 1953 he was elected an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and in 1956 of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . In 1968 he became an Honorary Member of the AIA American Institute of Architects . In 1937 he became a knight, in 1952 a commander and in 1963 a major officer of the French Legion of Honor . The asteroid (52271) Lecorbusier is named after him.

The eighth series of Swiss 10-franc notes from 1997 features his portrait on the front, and the floor plan of the government district of Chandigarh on the back.

Le Corbusier's work as a world heritage site

View from the “Petite Maison” over Lake Geneva

In July 2016, 17 buildings from seven countries were named World Heritage Sites under the title “ The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier ”, including two houses in the Stuttgart Weißenhofsiedlung as well as the “ Clarté ” apartment building in Geneva and the “ Villa Le Lac ”, also known as “Petite Maison” »Called in Corseaux (VD).

The list of recorded Corbusier buildings:

  1. 1923: Maisons La Roche et Jeanneret / Paris, France
  2. 1923: Petite villa au bord du lac Léman / Corseaux , Switzerland
  3. 1924: Cité Frugès / Pessac, France
  4. 1926: Maison Guiette / Antwerp , Belgium
  5. 1927: Houses of the Weissenhof settlement / Stuttgart , Germany
  6. 1928: Villa Savoye et loge du jardinier / Poissy, France
  7. 1930: Immeuble Clarté / Geneva , Switzerland
  8. 1931: Immeuble locatif à la Porte Molitor / Boulogne-Billancourt, France
  9. 1945: Unité d'habitation / Marseille, France
  10. 1946: Manufacture à Saint-Dié / Saint-Dié-des-Vosges , France
  11. 1949: Maison du Docteur Curutchet / La Plata, Argentina
  12. 1950: Chapelle Notre-Dame-du-Haut / Ronchamp , France
  13. 1951: Cabanon du Corbusier / Roquebrune – Cap-Martin, France
  14. 1952: Complexe du Capitole / Chandigarh , India
  15. 1953: Couvent Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette / Éveux , France
  16. 1955: Musée National des Beaux-Arts de l'Occident / Tokyo , Japan
  17. 1953: Maison de la Culture de Firminy / Firminy , France

Architectural theory

Le Corbusier demands a radical change in architecture as a logical consequence of the rapid technical development and the associated change in lifestyle at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

“We deliberately throw off traditional conventions in the way of life and living. It shows a new will to live, which seeks expression in home, state and art. Without this collective will, the indicative work of great men and architects would be pointless. Your task is to summarize the pulsating forces of broad masses and give them a direction. This direction is called the style of our time. We are interested in the motor of our time and not in the philosophy of its style. Playing with aesthetic views of historical times no longer satisfies us. We create our own design language and our own aesthetics. We train our sense of form on the purely functional forms of technology and industry. These are the children of our minds. If we recognize them, new beauties open up to us. Ennobling beauties. "

Le Corbusier sees the task of the architect in creating functional, functional and economical designs. He is fully committed to the technical possibilities of the time. This means the use of reinforced concrete , steel and prefabricated parts to create a completely new, previously impossible architecture. Traditional ornaments are thrown overboard, such as ornaments that place an end in itself above function. The architecture theory founded by Le Corbusier takes the pure functionality of the machine as a model for building design. This results in clear and simple bodies that are composed of the basic geometric shapes of rectangles, circles and cuboids. With this, Corbusier sets the framework for brutalism .

Le Corbusier's commitment to reinforced concrete goes so far that he even uses it to make furnishings such as boxes and desks. For the rest of the furniture, he consistently uses inexpensive industrial mass-produced goods, which are never seen as inferior, but as a sensible use of the new technical possibilities.

Five points about a new architecture

Semi-detached house (Weißenhofmuseum) and House Citrohan by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret in the Weißenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart as a prime example for the implementation of the five points in a new architecture

In the 1920s, Le Corbusier formulated five points as central features of the new architecture. These were implemented particularly vividly from 1927 in the semi-detached house in the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart and from 1928 in the Villa Savoye near Paris.

“The theoretical considerations presented below are based on many years of practical experience on the construction site. Theory requires a concise formulation. It is by no means a matter of aesthetic fantasies or costumes for fashionable effects, but of architectural facts that mean an absolutely new building, from residential buildings to palaces. The five basic points shown represent a fundamentally new aesthetic. Nothing remains of the architecture of earlier epochs, any more than the literary-historical lessons in schools can give us anything. "

- Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret : Two houses by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret

The pillars

Le Corbusier consistently separates load-bearing and non-load-bearing, space-enclosing elements. He dismantles the massive wall into a framework made of reinforced concrete posts that are filled with thin membranes. The posts are statically optimized, the membranes also reduced to the necessary minimum. As a result, the building "floats", it is protected from moisture, and the otherwise built-up area under the building can be used. The separation of the components according to their function sometimes goes so far that the roof is also separated from the rest of the building. The cube below is located under a more or less freely floating umbrella structure. However, this separation is only carried out in its pure form at the Center Le Corbusier .

The roof garden

Villa Savoye , photo from 2015

Instead of a conventional pitched roof, Le Corbusier almost exclusively uses flat roofs. This means that the roof can be used as an additional storey or as a green roof garden. Together with the erection of the building, no space is used, but on the contrary is preserved under the structure and gained again on the roof.

The free floor plan

By using the post system, there are hardly any limits to the design of the floor plan, as the walls are not load-bearing and therefore no longer have to be on top of each other.

The long window

The use of reinforced concrete and the post system allow long, previously impossible openings in the facade. Instead of the high windows that were customary up to that time, Le Corbusier used wide windows and thus achieved significantly better and more even exposure. An extreme example is Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret's design for the League of Nations building in Geneva with a 200 m wide window.

Le Corbusier uses the horizontal sliding window he has patented, in which two 1.25 m wide sashes can be pushed over one another on horizontal rails and thus opened. The window element can be manufactured in series and joined together to form window areas of any size by arranging them horizontally and vertically.

The free facade design

If the facade is not formed by lining the space between the reinforced concrete posts, but rather the ceiling is made protruding and the facade is bricked up in front of the posts, a free facade is created that can be designed independently of the position of the vertical support elements.

Color theory

In architecture , Le Corbusier also dealt particularly intensively with interior design. For him, the color of a building was just as important as the layout and shape. In the 1920s, Le Corbusier experimented with colors and the architectural effect. The basis of his color palette were proven artist pigments, from which he derived his color tones. Le Corbusier used nature as a model for his use of colors. Blue created space, red solidified itself in the surface, gray brought calm, white made visible, etc.

Among other things, Le Corbusier developed the Architectural Polychromy , which consists of 63 harmonious and combinable colors. To make color selection easy, Le Corbusier arranged the 63 architectural colors of his Architectural Polychromy in different harmonies. These color keyboards enable perfect and at the same time surprising color combinations. The first collection of the Architectural Polychromy by Le Corbusier was created as part of an order for the Salubra wallpaper company .


The Corbusierhaus Berlin, partial view


(Years indicate the period from the start of planning to completion; villa = country house, maison = urban residential building)

Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (realized projects until 1916)

  • Villa Fallet . 1, Chemin de Pouillerel in La Chaux-de-Fonds , 1905
  • Villa Stotzer . 6, Chemin de Pouillerel in La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1908.
  • Villa Jacquemet . 8, Chemin de Pouillerel in La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1908.
  • Villa Jeanneret-Perret (known as "Maison Blanche"). 12, Chemin de Pouillerel in La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1912 (house for the parents)
  • Villa Favre . 6, Côte de Billodes in Le Locle , 1912
  • La Scala cinema . 52, Rue de la Serre in La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1916.
  • Villa Schwob (also Villa Turque ). 167, rue du Doubs in La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1916.

Le Corbusier (realized projects after 1916)

  • Villa Vismara (today Hotel Punta Tragara), Capri, 1920 [?] (Collaboration on the project of the engineer Emilio Enrico Vismara)
  • Maison Ozenfant . House and studio at 53 avenue Reille in Paris , 1922
  • Villa Besnus (Ker-Ka-Ré) . Boulevard de la République 85 in Vaucresson , 1922
  • Maisons La Roche-Jeanneret . (Semi-detached house) Square du Docteur-Blanche in Paris, 1923.
  • Ateliers Lipchitz-Miestchaninoff . Studio houses, Allée des Pins / Rue des Arts in Boulogne-Billancourt , 1924
  • Villa Le Lac . Route de Lavaux in Corseaux, 1923–1924 (second house for the parents)
  • L'Esprit nouveau pavilion for the international arts and crafts exhibition in Paris, 1925 (canceled after the end of the exhibition)
  • Quartiers Modernes Frugès . Housing estate, Rue Le Corbusier / Rue Henri Frugès / Rue des Arcades in Pessac , 1924–1926
  • Maison Guiette . Populationslaan 32 in Antwerp , 1926
  • Maisons Ternisia . House with artist studios, Allée des Pins / Rue Denfert in Boulogne-sur-Seine, 1926 (demolished again shortly after completion)
  • Maison Cook . Rue Denfert-Rochereau 6 in Boulogne-sur-Seine , 1926
  • Maison Planeix . Boulevard Masséna in Paris, 1927.
  • Two houses for the "Siedlung am Weißenhof" , Bruckmannweg 2 and Rathenaustrasse 1–3 in Stuttgart , 1927
  • Villa stone . 15 Rue du Professeur Victor-Pauchet in Vaucresson , 1926–1928
  • Reconstruction / extension of the Villa Church . in Ville-d'Avray , 1927 (destroyed in World War II)
  • Villa Baizeau . Saint Monique / Carthage in Tunisia , 1928/1929
  • Villa Savoye . 82 Rue de Villiers in Poissy , 1929-1931
  • Villa de Mandrot . Route de l'Artaude at Le Pradet near Toulon , 1930/1931
  • Apartment Beistegui . Attic apartment on avenue des Champs-Élysées in Paris , 1930/1931
  • Clarté tenement house . 2-4 Rue Saint-Laurent in Geneva , 1930-1932
  • Homeless shelter (Cité de refuge) of the Salvation Army , Rue du Chevaleret in Paris, 1931-1933
  • Fondation Suisse, Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris . Swiss student residence, Boulevard Jourdan in Paris, 1931–1933
  • Tenement at Porte Molitor . 24, rue Nungesser et Coli in Paris, 1933
    • Le Corbusier used the 7th and 8th floors of this house as an apartment and studio from 1933 until his death
  • Villa Le Sextant . Holiday house, avenue de l'ocean in Les Mathes near La Rochelle , 1935
  • Henfel weekend home. Avenue du Chesnay 49 in La Celle-Saint-Cloud near Paris, 1935
  • Zentrosojus office building . Ulitsa Mjasnitskaya, 39, in Moscow , 1928–1936
  • Temps nouveaux pavilion for the Paris World's Fair, 1937.
  • Brazilian Ministry of Education and Health in Rio de Janeiro , 1938–1943 (with Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and others)
  • Casa (or Maison) Dr. Pedro Domingo Curutchet . La Plata , Argentina , 1948/1949
  • Unité d'Habitation . Boulevard Michelet in Marseille , 1946–1952
  • Duval factory . Avenue de Robache in Saint-Dié-des-Vosges , 1946–1952
  • Kindergarten, wooden pavilion near the Centennial Hall in Breslau , 1948 every day of the Int. Peace congress
  • Le Cabanon . Log cabin, Le Corbusier's holiday home, Le Corbusier promenade in Roquebrune Cap-Martin, 1952
  • Buildings in Chandigarh , India, 1952–1965
    • Palace of Justice, 1952–1956.
    • Museum and Art Gallery, 1952.
    • Secretariat building of the ministries, 1952–1958.
    • Yacht Club, 1953.
    • Parliament building, 1952–1963.
    • Art Academy, 1959.
  • Headquarters of the Textile Manufacturers Association in Ahmedabad, 1954.
Center Le Corbusier, Zurich-Seefeld

Unrealized projects (selection)

  • Le plan voisin de Paris, 1925.
  • League of Nations Palace in Geneva , 1927
  • Chandigarh Governor's Palace , 1951
    • In 1960, this was replaced in the planning by the also not built center for electronic decisions .
  • Venice Hospital , 1964
  • Palais Ahrenberg (Museum Ahrenberg ) in Stockholm , 1961/62

Visual arts

  • More than 400 paintings on canvas or as wall paintings
  • 44 sculptures
  • 27 tapestry designs
  • Lithographs , drawings

Publications (selection)

  • Vers une architecture . Crès, Paris 1923 (German: Kommende Baukunst , edited by Hans Hildebrandt, Berlin and Leipzig 1926 and outlook on an architecture . Bauwelt Fundamente , Volume 2, Ullstein, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, Vienna 1963)
  • Urbanism . Crès, Paris 1925 (German: Städtebau . Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Berlin-Leipzig 1929)
  • L'Art décoratif d'aujurd'hui . Crès, Paris 1925.
  • Précision sur un état present de'l architecture et de l'urbanisme . Crès, Paris 1930 (German: Findings on architecture and urban development . Bauwelt Fundamente , Volume 12, Ullstein, Berlin-Frankfurt am Main-Vienna 1964)
  • La Ville radieuse . Editions de l'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, Bologne-sur-Seine 1935.
  • Quand les cathédrales étaient blanches: Voyage au pays des timides . Plon, Paris 1937.
  • Le lyrisme des temps nouveaux et urbanisme . Le Point, Colmar 1939.
  • Urbanisme d'aujourd'hui. Sequana, Paris 1941 (February 15).
  • Sur les quatre routes . NRF, Paris 1941.
  • Urbanisme de CIAM, Charte d'Athènes . (With a preface by Jean Giraudoux ) Plon, Paris 1943
  • The trois établissements humains . Denoël, Paris 1946.
  • Propos d'Urbanisme . Bourrelier & Cie, Paris 1946 (German: Basic questions of urban development . Hatje, Stuttgart)
  • Le Modulor . Editions de l'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, Bologne-sur-Seine 1948 (German: Der Modulor . JG Cotta'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart 1953)
  • Une petite maison . Girsberger, Zurich 1954.
  • Le Modulor 2-1955 (La parole est aux usagers) . Editions de l'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, Bologne-sur-Seine 1955 (German: Modulor 2: The users have the word) . German publishing house, Stuttgart 1958
  • L'urbanisme des trois établissements humains . Editions de Minuit, Paris 1959.
  • Après le Cubisme , Le Corbusier and Amedée Ozenfant, German translation (After Cubism) by Hartmut Mayer. Essay by Hartmut Mayer. Edition Staub in the Script-Verlag, Neuss 2018, ISBN 978-3-928249-78-2 .


The LC2 armchair in a new edition by Cassina SpA , 1978
Eileen Gray
side table E.1027 adjustable table by ClassiCon 1927

Designed in collaboration between Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret and Charlotte Perriand :

  • Basculant LC1 chair (tubular steel frame + leather)
  • Armchair LC2 (cubic armchair, tubular steel frame + leather)
  • LC3 sofa (3-seater, tubular steel frame + leather)
  • Chaise longue LC4 (adjustable lounger, tubular steel frame + leather) from 1928. This chaise longue was manufactured again in 2010 by Cassina SpA in Milan , which holds the exclusive rights for production (with the designation LC4CP - CP stands for Charlotte Perriand, who played a key role in the design).
  • LC5 sofa (simple sofa, unlike LC3 without side rests ; tubular steel frame and leather)
  • Dining table LC6
  • Swivel chair LC7 (tubular steel frame and leather)


Le Corbusier also created an extensive photographic work.

Students and staff



Le Corbusier Foundation

On January 13, 1960, Le Corbusier founded the Fondation Le Corbusier , based in Paris, from private funds with friends. Your task is to protect and preserve Le Corbusier's artistic legacy. The foundation supports research and is the publisher of numerous publications.


in alphabetical order

Complete work and parts of the work

  • Le Corbusier: Oeuvre Complète . Complete works in eight volumes. Birkhäuser, Basel 1965–1970 / 1995, ISBN 3-7643-5515-8 ( German / English / French ).
  • Naïma Jornod, Jean-Pierre Jornod: Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret), catalog raisonné de l'oeuvre peint. Skira, Milan 2005, ISBN 88-7624-203-1 ( French ).

Further secondary literature

Life and work, stages of life
To individual buildings
  • José Baltanás: Le Corbusier. Promenades . Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-421-03542-3 .
  • Bärbel Högner : Type Berlin - The Corbusierhaus in Charlottenburg . Illustrated book. Jovis, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-86859-004-3 .
  • Alfred Roth : Two houses by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret . Akad. Verlag Dr. Wedekind & Co., Stuttgart 1927, new edition 1977, ISBN 3-7828-0447-3 .
  • Richard Stockton Dunlap: Reassessing Ronchamp : the historical context, architectural discourse and design development of Le Corbusier's Chapel Notre Dame-du-Haut. Dissertation . London School of Economics and Political Science , London 2014. (online text)
  • WEG Corbusier-Haus and Förderverein Corbusierhaus Berlin e. V. (Ed.): Le Corbusier's “Typ Berlin” residential unit. Facsimile of the original edition from 1958 with an updated appendix, illustrated book. Jovis, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-86859-005-0 .
Furniture and interiors
  • Arthur Rüegg. Le Corbusier. Furniture and interiors 1905–1965 . Verlag Scheidegger & Spiess, Zurich and Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris 2012, ISBN 978-3-85881-345-9 .
Green spaces
  • Jürgen Ulpts: Comments on Le Corbusier's villa gardens . In: Die Gartenkunst 4 (1/1992), pp. 115–122.
Urban planning
  • Bärbel Högner: Chandigarh - Living with Le Corbusier. JOVIS, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86859-137-8 .
  • Christoph Schnoor (Ed.): "La construction des villes". Le Corbusier's first urban planning treatise from 1910/11 . gta Verlag, Zurich 2008, ISBN 978-3-85676-211-7 .
Self-image, influence and effect


  • 2011: Le CORBUSIER - Villa SAVOYE
  • 2015: The century of Le Corbusier. (OT: Le Siècle de Le Corbusier. ) Documentary, France, 2015, 52:52 min., Script and director: Juliette Cazanave, production: arte France, Cinétévé, Les Films du Carré, RTBF , INA , first broadcast: May 13th 2015 at arte, table of contents by arte.
  • 2019: Le Corbusier - The first tiny house? | Culture explained - Flick Flack | ARTE
  • 2019: Le Corbusier's Holiday Home at the French Riviera | UNESCO World Heritage | Le Cabanon, France
  • 2020: Le Corbusier on the Mediterranean | City country art | ARTE

See also

Web links

Commons : Le Corbusier  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
on Le Corbusier's work

Individual evidence

  1. Study trip with Léon Perrin
  2. a b Ulrike Eichhorn : Le Corbusier in Berlin 1910/11 - Part 1. Edition Eichhorn, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-7375-0545-1 .
  3. Ivan Zaknic: Klip and Corb on the road . Scheidegger & Spiess, Zurich 2019, ISBN 978-3-85881-817-1 .
  4. See Alfred Werner Maurer : L'Esprit Nouveau - Le Corbusier as a publicist and editor. Edition Philologus Documents, Basel 2009.
  5. ^ Martin Meade, Charlotte Ellis: Interview with Charlotte Perriand. Retrieved October 15, 2019 .
  6. ^ René Herbst: Union des Artistes Modernes, Paris. 25 années UAM, 1930-1955 . Editons du salon des Arts Ménagers, Paris 1956.
  7. Ursula Muscheler: The uselessness of the Eiffel Tower: A slightly different architectural history. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52799-X , p. 223.
  8. ^ Wolfgang Kermer : Willi Baumeister and the Werkbund exhibition "The Apartment" Stuttgart 1927. (= Contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart. 11). State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-931485-55-2 , pp. 114–115, color illus. 17, 23 and Figs. 44–47, 60, 60a, 61, 62, 63.
  9. ^ The co-authors. Retrieved October 15, 2019 .
  10. Rainer Haubrich : What remains of Le Corbusier is epochal failure. In: Die Welt , August 27, 2015.
  11. ^ S. Spiero: A museum design by Le Corbusier. In: Das Werk: Architektur und Kunst = L'oeuvre: architecture et art, Vol. 25, 1938, pp. 24-27
  12. a b c d e Philipp Gut : Great Builder of Fascism. In: Die Weltwoche , September 30, 2009, No. 40.
  13. Daniel de Roulet: The Bad Days of Vichy. In: Der Tagesspiegel , August 15, 2009. (Slightly abridged chapter Ambition - Le Corbusier, 1887–1965 from Daniel de Roulet: After Switzerland. 27 portraits on the metamorphosis of a national feeling . Limmat Verlag , Zurich 2009, ISBN 978-3-85791 -594-9 , from the French by Maria Hoffmann-Dartevelle.)
  14. See: here .
  15. Valena, Tomáš .: relations over the location reference in architecture . 1. updated & exp. Edition Geymüller, Aachen 2014, ISBN 978-3-943164-14-5 .
  16. Hartwig Bishop: The spirit blows where it can. M.-A. Couturier 'in conversation' . Editions St. Virgil, Salzburg 1999, ISBN 3-9501034-1-4 , p. 90-91 (German).
  17. Stations: The Kembs-Niffer lock in Alsace. And on top a hyperbolic paraboloid In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , October 28, 2010, page R4.
  18. knerger.de: The grave of Le Corbusier
  19. ^ Honorary Members: Charles Edouard Le Corbusier. American Academy of Arts and Letters, accessed March 14, 2019 .
  20. Unesco: Stuttgart Corbusier houses named world cultural heritage. spiegel.de, July 17, 2016, accessed on July 17, 2016.
  21. ^ The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement. In: UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Retrieved April 12, 2019 .
  22. ^ Alfred Roth : Two houses by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. P. 25.
  23. Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret: Two houses by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. Pp. 6-7.
  24. ^ Arthur Rüegg (Ed.): Polychromie architecturale Le Corbusier. Birkhäuser Verlag, 2006.
  25. Les Couleurs Le Corbusier: The Le Corbusier colors. Retrieved April 12, 2019 .
  26. Fondation le Corbusier: Salubra, claviers de couleur, LE CORBUSIER, 1931. Retrieved on April 12, 2019 (French).
  27. Hotel Tragara | History. In: www.hoteltragara.com. Retrieved May 30, 2016 .
  28. a b c Klaus-Peter Guest: Le Corbusier: Paris - Chandigarh . Basel 2000, ISBN 3-7643-6088-7 , p. 116-145 .
  29. Stefan Simons:Elegance from strength and softness.In: Spiegel Online , November 28, 2006.
  30. Fondation Le Corbusier: Pavillon d'exposition, palais Ahrenberg, Stockholm, Sweden, 1962 , accessed on March 29, 2017
  31. ^ Urbanisme d'aujourd'hui. 95 pages, written from January 15, 1941 to February 1941. Better known in literature as Urbanisme et révolution nationale . He is in favor of the Vichy regime: Cet ouvrage… s'inscrit dans une thématique d'ensemble abordant toutes les dimensions de l'urbanisme. Ce premier volet a pour objectif de mettre en avant les idées architecturales de l'époque, à travers les articles de chercheurs et urbanistes tels que Le Corbusier. Face à laideur architecturale ambiante, ils se proposent de redonner décence et dignité à l'habitat et d'établir un statut du logis moderne en fonction des connaissances d'hygiène et de confort apportées par les nouvelles techniques. L'intérêt principal est, dans cette période de guerre, de construire la France selon une architecture de qualité qui réponde aux idéaux avancés par la politique du régime de Vichy . Source ( Memento of the original from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / crdaln.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr
  32. Roman Hollenstein: Lord of the Pictures. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . November 30, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2012 .
  33. Balkrishna Doshi: Architecture for the people. Accessed July 31, 2020 .
  34. Living in icons - The witch house of the LeCorbusier students . In: Deutschlandfunk Kultur . ( deutschlandfunkkultur.de [accessed on July 31, 2020]).
  35. Hans Demarmels house, Zurich. In the spirit of Le Corbusier. September 13, 2016, accessed on July 31, 2020 (German).
  36. Japan National Tourism Organization: The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier (UNESCO) | Travel to Japan | JNTO. Accessed July 31, 2020 (English).
  37. Japan National Tourism Organization: The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier (UNESCO) | Travel to Japan | JNTO. Accessed July 31, 2020 (English).
  38. Japan National Tourism Organization: The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier (UNESCO) | Travel to Japan | JNTO. Accessed July 31, 2020 (English).
  39. Ursula Muscheler group picture with master _ Le Corbusier and his colleagues. August 1, 2020, accessed on August 1, 2020 (German).
  40. " Je déclare en tout cas, ici, tester la totalité de ce que je possède en faveur d'un être administratif, la" Fondation Le Corbusier ", ou toute autre forme utile, qui va devenir un être spirituel, c'est- à-dire une continuation de l'effort poursuivi pendant une vie. Le Corbusier Note du 13 janvier 1960 “ cf. on this: Note du 13 janvier 1960
  41. About his Vichy years and his sympathies for fascism in the 20s and 30s.
  42. Le CORBUSIER - Villa SAVOYE. August 1, 2020, accessed on August 1, 2020 .
  43. UNITÉ D´HABITATION I LE CORBUSIER IA WALK THROUGH IN 4K. August 1, 2020, accessed on August 1, 2020 .
  44. Le Corbusier - The First Tiny House? | Culture explained - Flick Flack | ARTE. August 1, 2020, accessed on August 1, 2020 (German).
  45. Le Corbusier's Holiday Home at the French Riviera | UNESCO World Heritage | Le Cabanon, France. August 1, 2020, accessed on August 1, 2020 .
  46. Le Corbusier on the Mediterranean | City country art | ARTE. August 1, 2020, accessed on August 1, 2020 (German).