|Community association||Riviera Française|
|surface||9.33 km 2|
|Residents||12,639 (January 1, 2017)|
|Population density||1,355 inhabitants / km 2|
View from the medieval castle to Roquebrune and the Cap Martin peninsula
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin is located on the French Côte d'Azur in the foothills of the French Maritime Alps . The actual village is located at an altitude of , in front of a mountain backdrop that is dominated by Mont Agel. Part of the city limits is also the state border with the Principality of Monaco . As in neighboring Menton, the local dialect is Monegasque .
Roquebrune was founded in 970 by the Count of Ventimiglia , Conrad I, to protect the western border of his territory on the only connection to the west (the ancient Roman Via Julia Augusta ). Its original name was Roccabruna (on Mentonnais: Roucabruna ) and means "brown rock". As in neighboring Monaco, the population was originally Ligurian, even if, over time, Occitan- speaking immigrants increasingly influenced and mixed the local dialect (a variant of the mentonasque ).
At that time, the fortress surrounded the entire settlement. In 1355 the Vento family sold Roquebrune and the village became the property of the Grimaldi family for five centuries . During this time the fortifications were expanded. In 1793 Roquebrune became French. In 1804, under Napoleon I, a new road was built closer to the coast (today's Moyenne Corniche ). In 1814 Roquebrune came back into Monegasque ownership. On March 21, 1848, Roquebrune and Menton proclaimed the independent republic of the Free Cities of Menton and Roquebrune and placed themselves under the protection of the King of Sardinia . With Sardinia they came to reunified Italy in 1859 . The first Italian king, Victor Emmanuel I , finally transferred the county of Nice together with Savoy to the French state in 1860 (which was approved by the people of Nice in a plebiscite with around 25,000 votes against just 200). In 1861 the Monegasque Prince Charles III also renounced . in a treaty with Napoléon III. for four million francs on his claims to Roquebrune and Menton.
The Cap-Martin , on which an early church is located, was initially sparsely populated, but was first mentioned in writing in the 11th century. It initially belonged to Menton to the east, the border town to Italy.
From the middle of the 19th century, with the establishment of the Marseille – Ventimiglia railway line , this stretch of coast also became a holiday destination for well-known personalities. Elisabeth of Austria spent several months of the last years of her life at the Hôtel du Cap Martin. Eugénie , widow of Napoléon III, owned a villa here. In the 20th century, Le Corbusier built a Cabanon, a minimalist architectural design. On August 27, 1965, he drowned there in the sea and was buried in the local cemetery. Coco Chanel bought the Villa La Pausa, in which u. a. Winston Churchill was a regular guest. Today the Belgian royal family owns a villa on Cap Martin.
The change of the name from Roquebrune to Roquebrune-Cap-Martin reflected the increasing urbanization of the Côte d'Azur in the 20th century.
Every spring, a men's tennis masters event is held in the municipality in the Monte Carlo Country Club . The prestigious clay court event has a Monegasque management and is also officially marketed under the name Monte Carlo Masters , although the ATP tournament takes place on French territory.
- The Roquebrune-Cap-Martin Castle was built at the end of the 10th century by Count Conrad I of Ventimiglia. Your donjon is probably the oldest in France.
- The olivier millénaire (millennial olive tree), probably one of the oldest olive trees in the world
- The church from the 12th century, rebuilt and restored several times, most recently in the 19th century
- E.1027 , home and architectural icon by Eileen Gray
sons and daughters of the town
- Gilles Panizzi (* 1965), French rally driver
- Le Patrimoine des Communes des Alpes-Maritimes . Flohic Editions, Volume 2, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-84234-071-X , pp. 562-568.
- Official website of the municipality of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin (French)
- Website of an environmental organization for the Roquebrune Cap Martin / Menton region (French)
- Danielle Perret: Le Corbusier. In: Sikart (as of 2015) , accessed January 24, 2016.
- Rolex Monte-Carlo Masters. Retrieved April 24, 2018 (fr-fr).
- Roquebrune-Cap-Martin Une histoire de jumelage. September 26, 2008, accessed October 2, 2013 .