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Principauté de Monaco ( French )
Principatu de Mu̍negu ( Monegasque )
Principality of Monaco
Flag of Monaco
Coat of arms of Monaco
flag coat of arms
Motto : Deo Juvante
( Latin for "With God's help")
Official language French
Capital Monaco
Form of government Hereditary monarchy
Government system Constitutional monarchy
Head of state Prince Albert II.
Head of government Minister of State Serge Telle
surface 2.026976 km²
population 37,300 (2018)
Population density 18,406 inhabitants per km²
Population development   + 5.5% (2008-2016)
gross domestic product 4.94 billion euros (2013)
Human Development Index not considered
currency Euro (EUR)
independence February 25, 1489 (of France )
National anthem Anthem Monégasque
National holiday November 19th
Time zone UTC + 1 CET
UTC + 2 CEST (March to October)
License Plate MC
ISO 3166 MC , MCO, 492
Internet TLD .mc
Telephone code +377
1Monaco is a city-state . Monaco-Ville ("Monaco-City") is not a city, but merely the district in which the palace is located.
Monaco Frankreich Frankreich Italien Mittelmeer Österreich Belgien Bulgarien Republik Zypern Tschechien Deutschland Dänemark Dänemark Estland Spanien Finnland Frankreich Frankreich Vereinigtes Königreich Vereinigtes Königreich Griechenland Griechenland Ungarn Irland Italien Italien Italien Litauen Luxemburg Lettland Niederlande Polen Portugal Rumänien Schweden Slowenien Slowakei Island Montenegro Nordmazedonien Kroatien Türkei Türkei Malta Serbien Dänemark Dänemark Norwegen Norwegen Isle of Man Guernsey Jersey Andorra Monaco Schweiz Liechtenstein Vatikanstadt San Marino Albanien Kosovo Bosnien und Herzegowina Moldau Weißrussland Russland Ukraine Kasachstan Abchasien Südossetien Georgien Aserbaidschan Aserbaidschan Armenien Iran Libanon Syrien Israel Jordanien Saudi-Arabien Irak Russland Tunesien Algerien MarokkoLocation of the Principality of Monaco in Europe
About this picture
Location of the Principality of Monaco in Europe
Fontvieille (Monaco) La Colle Monaco-Ville La Condamine (Monaco) Les Révoires Moneghetti Saint Michel (Monaco) Monte-Carlo Larvotto La Rousse/Saint-Roman FrankreichThe nine boroughs of Monaco
About this picture
The nine boroughs of Monaco

Aerial view of Monaco
View of the harbor and Monte-Carlo

The Principality of Monaco [ monako ] ( French Principauté de Monaco , Monegasque Principatu de Mu̍negu , Italian Principato di Monaco ) is a southern European city-state and the second smallest state in the world after Vatican City . The extremely densely populated state is located on the French Mediterranean coast ( Côte d'Azur ) near the border with Italy .

Monaco was an ancient trading post of the Phoenicians and later the Greeks , who built a Hercules temple here on the north coast of the western Mediterranean , which was soon given the nickname Monoikos, "single house". When the place became a Roman port, it was named Herculis Monoeci Portus , from which Monaco was shortened .

Today Monaco is popular with the world's wealthy as a place of residence, as the city-state does not levy income or inheritance tax and does not prosecute tax offenses committed abroad . Companies in Monaco, on the other hand, pay taxes. The state is not a member of the European Union . In 2015, the principality had 38,400 inhabitants on an area of ​​2.026976 square kilometers (almost 203 hectares) and, with 18,944 inhabitants per square kilometer, has the highest population density of all states (followed by Singapore and Bahrain ). In 2008, 78.5 percent of the total population were foreigners without citizenship of Monaco .


The principality lies on the French Mediterranean coast , at latitude 43 ° 44 'north and longitude 7 ° 25' east between the French city of Nice in the west (13 km away) and the French-Italian border (a good ten kilometers away) in the east. The coastline of the principality is 4.1 kilometers. In the past few decades, land reclamation has increased the national territory by more than 40 hectares to 203 hectares (2.03 square kilometers). Monaco has a narrow coastal marine area. The entire area of ​​the country lies on the edge of the Maritime Alps .

The neighboring communities that border the city-state of Monaco are all in France and are (clockwise): Cap-d'Ail , La Turbie , Beausoleil , Roquebrune-Cap-Martin . The length of the state border is 5469 meters (almost 5.5 kilometers). Monaco borders Cap-d'Ail at 1,341 meters, La Turbie at 390 meters, Beausoleil at 3,274 meters and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin at 464 meters.

The highest point in the French hinterland not far from Monaco is the 1148 meter high Mont Agel , from which Radio Monte Carlo used to broadcast. The highest point in the Monegasque national territory is 164.4 meters above sea level in the Jardin Exotique district , while the square in front of the princely palace is 62.2 meters above sea level.

Administrative division

The distinction between the state and the city ​​of Monaco is purely theoretical, the state actually only consists of the city ( municipality ). According to the constitution of 1911, the principality was divided into three communities:

The accusation against the princely power of proceeding according to the rule divide and rule led to the fact that in 1917 the three communities were combined into one community. The original communities were henceforth considered to be urban districts (quarters) .

  • Fontvieille was added as the fourth district , which was created in the southwest from around 1970 through reclamation of land from the sea. On the French side opposite is the ZAC ( Zone d'aménagement concerté , about a district development plan ) of Saint-Antoine.
  • As the fifth district, Les Moneghetti was created by spinning off from La Condamine.
  • Larvotto became the sixth district by hiving off from Monte-Carlo.
  • The seventh district was La Rousse / Saint Roman (with Le Ténao), also by hiving off from Monte-Carlo.

As a result, three more city districts were created:

Currently (2014) a new urban district called Le Portier is being created with an area of ​​0.275 square kilometers through further reclamation off the Monte-Carlos coast.

The territory of the principality was reorganized by a sovereign ordinance on September 13, 2013 and has since comprised nine city districts. In general, all demarcations within the principality were changed, sometimes slightly, sometimes significantly. In addition, the Jardin Exotique and Ravin de Sainte-Dévote districts were newly created. The districts of Monaco-Ville and Ravin de Sainte-Dévote are considered "reserved sectors" (Secteur réservé) .

City districts of Monaco (since 2013)
Borough Area
in m²
Larvotto 217.932
Jardin Exotique 234.865
Monaco-Ville 196.491
Les Moneghetti 115.196
La Rousse 176,888
Ravin de Sainte-Dévote 23,485
La Condamine 295.843
Fontvieille 329,516
Monte Carlo 436.760
Principality of Monaco (total) 2,026,976

The city districts are subdivided into 173 blocks (îlots) for statistical purposes  .

They are only identified by a four-digit sequence of digits (a two-digit extension of the city district numbers) and do not have any names.


Monaco has a Mediterranean climate with mild winters and warm summers, an average rainfall of 796 millimeters and an average duration of sunshine of 2,583 hours per year. The average temperatures in January / February are around 10 degrees Celsius, in July / August around 23 degrees Celsius.

Monthly precipitation and rainy days for Monaco 2014
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Precipitation ( mm ) 348.5 198.1 105.6 15.7 10.0 25.8 58.8 28.4 8.5 125.3 471.5 88.9 Σ 1,485.1
Rainy days ( d ) 12 14th 4th 4th 3 7th 8th 3 2 5 16 8th Σ 86
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: Institut Monégasque de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (IMSEE)


In 2016, 37,308 residents were officially registered in Monaco. The inhabitants of Monaco are called Monegasse . The fertility rate is 2.5. In 2014 the birth rate was 11.7  per mille , the mortality rate 8.2 per mille. The life expectancy at birth in 2016 was generally given as 89.5 years (men 85.6 years, women 93.1 years). Monaco was thus the state with the world's highest life expectancy. A woman gives birth to a child at an average age of 32.1 years.

Monaco is the only country in the world to divide its population into three categories: native Monegasque, country children (enfants du pays) and wealthy foreigners. The former group has the right to adequate government housing (with the possibility of inheritance). The second category, the children of the country, do not have Monegasque citizenship , have lived in the principality for generations and have the right to an appropriate apartment from non-government property.


Saint-Dévote church
Panorama view of Monaco

The native population of Monaco is of Ligurian-Provencal origin. It represents just under a quarter of the resident population. Monaco is therefore a country of immigration and has one of the highest proportions of foreigners of any country. In 2008, 6,687 people (21.5 percent of the total population) were citizens of Monaco . In 2008, French nationals made up the largest proportion of the population at 28.2 percent , followed by citizens of Italy (18.6 percent), the United Kingdom (7.5 percent), Belgium (2.7 percent), Switzerland and Germany (each 2.5 percent), Portugal (1.5 percent), the Netherlands (1.3 percent) and the United States (1.0 percent). The proportion of the French in the population is constantly falling, as French citizens living in Monaco are subject to tax in France due to an agreement between France and Monaco, so that they cannot compensate for the extremely high cost of living (especially real estate prices) with tax savings.

Monegasque citizenship

The Monegasque citizenship represents the affiliation of a natural person to the Principality of Monaco. The citizenship law of Monaco is very restrictive. More than 500 people apply for citizenship of Monaco every year. The decision on the allocation and rejection of the citizenship of Monaco rests exclusively with Prince Albert II. In 2007, 68 people were granted the citizenship of Monaco, in 2010 only seven people.


The only official language of Monaco is French . Monegasque and Occitan were spoken as vernacular languages. While the latter is considered to be almost extinct in Monaco, the position of Monegasque has been solidifying since the 1980s. The Monegasque (proper name: munegascu ) is a Roman dialect , the one with the on the French and Italian Riviera -based Ligurian closely related. In connection with the origin of the ruling family Grimaldi from Genoa , Monegasque was elevated to a regular subject in the Monegasque schools; the Abitur ( Matura ) can be taken in Monegasque. There are no surveys on the mother tongue distribution of the languages ​​spoken in the Principality. Due to its status as the official language, the predominant language of instruction and the mother tongue of the strong French minority, French is considered the most widely spoken language in Monaco, followed by Italian . Since the lands surrounding Monaco, namely the county of Nice and parts of Savoy , were annexed to France in 1860, French has become the predominant written and colloquial language of Monaco; in the ruling family Grimaldi, associated with the French noble house Goyon de Matignon , the linguistic and cultural ties to France had already played a role before.


The Roman Catholic Church is a state church . Monaco is the seat of an archbishop who reports directly to the Holy See . The episcopal church is the Notre-Dame-Immaculée cathedral . The freedoms of other religions and denominations are guaranteed by the Monegasque constitution. 90 percent of the Monegasque are Catholics, 6 percent Protestants, there are also Orthodox and Jewish minorities.


Defense systems below the Prince's Palace
Monaco, Republic of Genoa . Italy 1494
Monaco, Republic of Genoa. Italy 1796
French annexation 1860
Royal Palace of Monaco 43 ° 43 ′ 52 ″  N , 7 ° 25 ′ 11 ″  E
Monaco around 1900
View of the port and rocks of Monaco

After Emperor Heinrich VI. In 1191 the Republic of Genoa had transferred control of the coastal region around what is now Monaco, on June 10, 1215 , the construction of a Genoese border fortress began on the site where the Prince's Palace stands today . This day is considered to be the founding date of Monaco.

The civil war-like clashes in the 13th century between the Ghibellines and Guelphs in northern Italy led in 1296 to the expulsion of the Guelphs, who were loyal to the Pope, and thus also the Grimaldi family from Genoa. On January 8, 1297, soldiers of the Grimaldi and allied Guelfi families under the leadership of Francesco Grimaldi succeeded in penetrating the fortress of Monaco, which had been in Ghibelline hands until then, and conquering it in a stroke of a hand. From now on, the history of the State of Monaco is closely linked to the Grimaldi family, whose members with only brief interruptions to this day the government exercise over Monaco. The first ruler of Monaco from this house was Raniero Grimaldi in 1297 , who, however, had to cede Monaco to Genoa again in 1301. His son Carlo I succeeded in re-conquering Monaco in 1331 with the support of the French king, and in 1346 the acquisition of Menton and 1355 of Roquebrune . In 1357 Monaco was again conquered from Genoa and in 1419 finally came into the hands of the Grimaldi.

In 1489, Monaco's independence was recognized by the King of France and the Duke of Savoy. A last siege of Monaco in 1507 by the Genoese ended unsuccessfully, whereupon King Louis XII. 1512 confirmed Monegasque independence. From 1523, after Augustine I came to power , relations with France deteriorated; Monaco then concluded the Treaty of Burgos and Tordesillas with Emperor Charles V in 1525 and placed itself under Spanish protection. From 1612 Honoré II called himself Prince and Lord of Monaco; In 1633 the title of prince was officially recognized by Spain. From around 1630 there was a rapprochement with France, which was finally sealed in the Treaty of Péronne in 1641. France again became Monaco's protective power; in the same year the Spanish garrison was driven out of Monaco.

With the death of Antoine I , the Grimaldi died out in the male line. As a result, the name and rule were passed on to the married Goyon de Matignon family .

French revolutionary troops conquered Monaco in 1793. The National Convention declared the Grimaldi to be deposed and proclaimed the Republic of Monaco. On February 14, 1793, Monaco was annexed by France and the members of the royal family were imprisoned. Only on April 6, 1814 and then finally on November 20, 1815, the independence of Monaco was restored in the two treaties of Paris, but now under the protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia . Economic difficulties and political unrest in the wake of the February Revolution in 1848 led to the separation of Menton and Roquebrune in 1848, which on February 2, 1861 by the treaty with Napoleon III. was finally sealed. At the same time, however, France recognized the full independence of Monaco under the sole sovereignty of the prince.

Monaco's economic rise also took place during this period. With the establishment of the Monte-Carlo casino in 1853, the customs union with France in 1865 and the connection to the railway network in 1868, the basis for fashionable tourism was laid, from which Monaco drew a large part of its state income in the following decades. Prince Albert I , who had worked as an oceanographer and paleontologist, founded the now world-famous Oceanographic Museum in 1889 . In 1911 he gave the country the first constitution.

In 1918 the first bilateral agreement was signed with France, which again guaranteed the independence of Monaco from France. During the Second World War , Monaco was temporarily occupied by German troops. The women's suffrage at the local level was introduced on May 24, 1945th Monaco joined the World Health Organization on July 8, 1948 .

The present constitution has been in force since December 17, 1962. Active and passive women's suffrage at the national level was introduced on December 17, 1962. 1981 was the elevation to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Monaco ; In 1993 he joined the United Nations . On January 7, 2000, a permanent representative was posted to the European Union in Brussels. In 2002 the euro was introduced ( replacing the French franc ) in Monaco as an associated euro user (book money from 1999). Monaco was admitted to the Council of Europe on October 5, 2004 after a six-year waiting period . In 2005 the second bilateral agreement was signed with France.

Monaco gained international attention in 1956 when Prince Rainier and the famous American actress Grace Kelly married, and again in 2011 when their son Albert and Charlène Wittstock married.


The Princely Court of Monaco

Constitutional law

Monaco has been a constitutional monarchy since 1911, in which the ruling prince is the head of state. In the principality he is usually called the patron ("protector") or monseigneur ("my lord "). The executive consists of the government council, which consists of four members who make up the cabinet; The Minister of State is the Chairman of the Government Council. Since the constitutional amendment in 1962, the prince has shared his governmental power with the parliament ( Conseil National ) . This consists of 24 members who are elected in free and secret elections for five years. The Parliament was last elected on February 11, 2018 . Regional matters that only affect the territory of Monaco are decided by the municipal council, which has 15 elected members and is chaired by the Mayor of Monaco, Georges Marsan .

The independence of Monaco, which has existed since February 25, 1489, was previously in the existence of the Grimaldi tied dynasty. A treaty with France regulated until 2002 that if the Grimaldi died out, Monaco would go to France. A so-called protectorate relationship under international law exists between France and Monaco , which was laid down in a "Protection Treaty with France" of July 17, 1918. In it, France guaranteed the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, and a consultation requirement was laid down for important individual decisions on Monegasque foreign policy . Regarding the succession of the prince, it says: "In the event of a vacancy of the crown, for example due to the lack of a direct or adopted heir, the territory of Monaco would form an autonomous state under the protectorate of France". According to the agreement, the French government proposed officials for several key positions in the principality (head of government, public prosecutor and chief of police). The Minister of State was chosen by the Prince from a list of three proposed by the French government and always had to be French. A new version of the treaty was signed in October 2002, which extends Monaco's foreign policy scope, but still provides for consultation on important issues. The Prince is now free to choose the Minister of State, but requires the approval of France.

Monaco has been a member of the United Nations since May 28, 1993 , applied to join the Council of Europe on October 21, 1998, and was admitted on October 5, 2004. Due to its proximity to France, Monaco also has close ties to the European Union and is part of the Schengen Agreement . Since January 7, 2000, the city-state has had a representation at the European Union in Brussels.

Monaco's affairs of state have been exercised by Prince Albert II since April 2005 , after his father, Prince Rainier, died on April 6, 2005. After a usual period of mourning, Albert II was officially introduced to his new office on July 12, 2005. In doing so, he demonstratively renounced the usual court ceremony in favor of a popular celebration.

In 2008 a European Union commission criticized the Principality's poor understanding of democracy (in particular the weak position of Parliament). The government has countered the earlier criticisms of the inadequate fight against money laundering and inadequate banking supervision with a large number of measures introduced since 2008. In addition to tightening laws with a large number of countries, including Germany in 2011, agreements on the exchange of information were concluded. Monaco is a member of the global forum for transparency and information exchange at the OECD. Today, Monaco's willingness to cooperate in the fight against money laundering is explicitly praised.

Succession to the throne

The succession to the throne is regulated in Article 10 of the Constitution of the Principality of Monaco and was last changed in 2002. Heir to the throne is the first direct and legitimate descendant of the prince with priority for male descendants in the same relationship. If the prince has no descendants, this rule applies to the brothers and sisters or their descendants. When the heir to the throne renounces the throne, his descendants take his place. Prince Albert II's heir to the throne is Albert's son Prince Jacques (born December 10, 2014), followed by his twin sister, Princess Gabriella (born December 10, 2014). The earlier regulation that Monaco would have reverted to France if there had been no heir to the throne of the Grimaldis was abolished in the second Monaco-French agreement in 2002. Therefore Monaco would remain a sovereign state after the eventual extinction of the Grimaldi dynasty .

public safety

Soldier of the Monegasque military

Public safety is ensured by a police unit of 517 people. Based on 36,950 inhabitants, Monaco has the world's highest per capita police presence with 517 police officers and statistically there is one police officer for every 71 inhabitants. The police are divided into a criminal investigation department that works with Interpol , a city ​​police force , an administrative unit and a sea and air unit.

Monaco's external defense is largely taken over by France, but the principality maintains a small military unit, the Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers . These 135 soldiers (10 officers, 26 NCOs, 99 crew ranks) and thus the third smallest armed force in the world are mainly active as a fire brigade and are also responsible for civil protection.

There is also the 116 men (3 officers, 15 non-commissioned officers, 98 carabiniers) strong, paramilitary Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince . As a gendarmerie , she is also assigned to the military and provides personal protection for the prince and the honor guard at the palace. It also performs protocol tasks on special occasions and state receptions. The company includes the Fanfare de la Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (26 musicians under the command of a Maréchal des logis ) as well as a motorcycle squadron and a diving unit . The military and police are subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior; their tradition goes back to 1817.

Monaco's government is trying to ensure public safety and cleanliness through video surveillance, among other things. There are around 60 public security cameras in all parts of the principality that are connected to the police headquarters; In addition, there is a significantly higher number of privately installed surveillance cameras and around 500 private security staff. This is one of the reasons why the principality is often accused of being a surveillance state . Monaco has the world's lowest crime rate.

Tax and Monetary Policy

In Monaco there has been no direct tax liability for private individuals since 1869 . The large proportion of wealthy immigrants has made the principality a symbol of luxury and wealth. Most of the income is generated through corporate taxation ( e.g. income tax ), fees (e.g. stamp duty , registration fees , or taxes on alcoholic beverages and insurance contracts) and customs duties .

Monaco has neither its own currency nor a central bank . There was a kind of currency union with France, in which the Monegasque banks were subject to the same rules as the French. In December 2001 Monaco signed an agreement with France to introduce the euro. The Monegasque euro coins are derived from the French quota set by the European Central Bank .

Monaco belongs to the customs territory of the European Community in accordance with Art. 3, Paragraph 2 of the  CC , as there is a customs agreement with France.

On January 28, 2016, the EU Commission presented a package of measures to combat tax evasion , which included Monaco on the black list of tax havens . For the first time in 1962, Charles de Gaulle and Rainier III. (Monaco) agreed on the exemption of the French from the tax exemption.

Economy and Infrastructure

In 2014 there were 4,274 employees in the public sector and 47,903 in the private sector . This means that there are 52,177 employees compared to a population of 37,800. In 2013, 6 employees (0.0 percent) worked in the primary economic sector (primary production), 7,001 (14.6 percent) in the secondary sector (industry) and 40,896 employees (85.4 percent) in the tertiary sector (services). Around 40,000 people commute to work in Monaco every day.

A third of the population are millionaires . In 2017, Monaco was the city with the world's highest density of millionaires. In March 2018, there were also 4 billionaires in Monaco.

In 2016, GDP per capita was estimated at around 115,200 US dollars ( purchasing power parity ). This makes it the second richest country in the world after Qatar . However, real estate prices are very high. In 2018 the average purchase price was 53,000 euros / m², for some luxury properties 100,000 euros / m².

Agriculture / fishing

In general, agriculture in the classical sense no longer exists due to the population density. However, in the spring of 2016 Jessica Sbaraglia founded Terre de Monaco, a start-up that is dedicated to organic farming. A year later, the areas planted by the start-up in Monaco (usually house roofs) already comprised 1,400 m². Monaco is the smallest fishing nation in the world, catching around one tonne per year.

Public service

In 2014, 4,274 people were employed in the public sector. The majority of the employees were divided between the government administration and the Ministry of the Interior. The public service includes the following authorities and officials :

  • palace
  • Secretariats of the commissions, assemblies and supreme administrative authorities
  • Government administration
  • State Ministry
  • Home Office
  • Ministry of Finance and Economy
  • Ministry of Social Affairs and Health
  • Ministry of Labor, Environment and Urban Planning
  • Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cooperation
  • Ministry of Justice
  • Municipality (city)
  • Officer

economic sectors

At the beginning of the economic boom there was gambling , which in turn increased tourism . Today, the focus is on financial services : In 2014, 35 credit institutions were registered and manage assets of around 108 billion euros. In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Monaco took 54th place (as of 2018). The country publishes quarterly figures like a business enterprise.


The number of tourists in 2010 was around 265,000. In 2014 the Principality had 14 hotels, two of which were 2-star, four 3-star, four 4-star and four 5-star hotels. Together they offer 4,642 beds in 2,508 rooms. In 2014, the hotel's occupancy rate averaged 65.5 percent (the highest rate was recorded in August at 88.4 and the lowest in February at 42.0 percent).

State budget

In 2014, the state budget comprised income (receipts) of 1.111 billion euros, compared with expenses (expenses) of 1.086 billion euros. Thus the budget balance is positive.

In 2006, the share of government spending (as a percentage of gross domestic product) was in the following areas:

Construction activity

Overview of the most recent construction projects

Monaco is also called " Manhattan on the Mediterranean". This refers to the constant construction activity ( high-rise buildings ). As early as the 1970s, the new Fontvieille district was wrested from the sea by filling it up. Another six-hectare district on artificial land is to be built by 2024.

At the beginning of the millennium, a floating concrete pier made of concrete, 352 meters long, 28 meters wide and weighing 160,000 tons, including a smaller counterpart on the other side of the harbor, built in Spain and then brought across the sea to Monaco, was placed in front of the port of La Condamine . This pier serves mainly as a breakwater for the harbor and as a jetty, among other things for the new generation of large cruise ships ; Inside it offers parking spaces for 360 cars and 25,000 cubic meters of storage space.

It is noticeable that there is permanent construction activity in Monaco in many parts of the principality, which in some cases leads to public disruption. This is due to the very small land area of ​​only about two square kilometers. Due to this lack of space, one is very careful to use and develop every little piece of land as efficiently as possible. At the moment, for example, after the railway has been laid underground, high-rise buildings are being built on the track areas that have become free.

The real estate market and the construction industry as well as many areas of public life (football club etc.) are dominated by the Pastor family's empire. Monaco is the most expensive place in the world for home ownership. In the fourth quarter of 2010, the square meter cost an average of around 46,200 euros and a one-room apartment with 30 square meters around 1.5 million euros. For penthouses in Monte-Carlo, one square meter costs more than 100,000 euros. With a price of just over 90,000 euros per square meter, the penthouse apartment under construction in 2014 and at the time the most expensive penthouse apartment in the world was on a national average. With 3300 square meters, spread over five floors, it should cost over 300 million euros and is part of the Tour Odeon residential complex .

Postal services

The French code Postal system is used in Monaco, so the entire principality has the postal code 98000. All other postcodes starting with 98 refer to French overseas territories.


The traffic situation in the principality is extremely tense, especially during rush hour. There are frequent traffic jams on the roads during the main season and major events. In contrast, Monaco has a large number of public parking garages, almost all of which are built underground into the rocks.

There are six bus routes in the principality operated by the Compagnie des Autobus de Monaco (CAM) serving all the districts of Monaco. The fare for a single trip is two euros (when buying on the bus) and includes the bus boat to cross the port. The administration of Monaco has declared the goal of attracting more passengers to public transport through low fares for locals. For tourists there is a day ticket, the Carte touristique journalière , which costs five euros per person aged seven and over. a. can be purchased from the drivers of the bus routes or from machines and includes unlimited use of the bus network until the end of business on the day of sale.

The underground station Monaco - Monte Carlo is located on the Marseille-Ventimiglia railway (France-Italy), which runs along the sea and places of Côte d'Azur combines. The station is operated by the French state railway SNCF and is located a little above the La Condamine harbor basin, which can be reached through a pedestrian tunnel or an open passage.

The nearest airport is Nice Airport, about 30 km away , from which helicopter connections to the Heliport de Monaco are made. The Heli Air Monaco is the national airline of Monaco.

There are also regular private bus routes between Nice Airport and the Principality.



Monaco is a remarkable cultural center. In 1879, according to the project of the architect Charles Garnier (builder of the Paris Opera), the building of the Garnier room - the Opéra de Monaco  - was built.

In this opera house Enrico Caruso , Fjodor Schaljapin , Plácido Domingo and Luciano Pavarotti have sung for different years . In 1905, the opera was here Amica by Pietro Mascagni premiered. In 1911 Sergei Djagilew founded the Ballets Russes Djagilev here under the protection of the Prince of Monaco, Pierre. Anna Pawlowa , Vaslav Nijinsky , Tamara Karsawina , George Balanchine , Sergei Lifar , and later Rudolf Nureyev and Mikhail Baryshnikov danced here .


The Oceanographic Museum

Dance academy

The Academy of Classical Dance was created in Monte-Carlo. It bears the name of the late former US actress and Princess Grace .

Culture awards

The fund of Prince Pierre, the Rainier III. in honor of his father, presents the grand literary prize, the musical prize of Prince Rainier III. and the international award in the field of modern art.

public holidays

Some important holidays (excerpt):

  • January 27th: Feast of the Holy Devota , patron saint of Monaco
  • November 19: Fête du Prince , the national holiday of Monaco on the name day of Prince Rainier III. († 2005)


The port during the Monaco Grand Prix

Club Alpin Monégasque (CAM), founded in 1911, is an alpine club .

The Monaco Grand Prix took place for the first time in 1929 , and Formula 1 has been an annual guest in the Principality since 1955 . In addition, the Monte Carlo Rally leads to the city-state.

The AS Monaco is one of eight league titles the most successful football clubs of the French league. The Monegasque football club plays in the Stade Louis II in the Fontvieille district. The Principality also has its own national football team , but the Fédération Monegasque de Football is neither a member of UEFA nor FIFA .

In the spring of each one finds Tennis Tournament of the ATP Masters Series instead. The game is played on clay. The Monte Carlo Masters is one of the most important tournaments in men's tennis.

From 2005 to 2009 inclusive, the Ironman 70.3 Monaco , a triathlon over half the Ironman distance (1.9 km swimming, 90 km cycling, 21.1 km running) took place in the Principality every September .

The Monaco et des Riviera Marathon has been held in November since 1995 .

The EPT Monte Carlo, which has been held at the Monte Carlo Bay Hotel since 2005, is the most important annual poker tournament in Europe.

Monaco has been the destination of the Red Bull X-Alps since 2003 .

Monegasque cuisine

The Monegasque cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine . In addition to fish and meat dishes, Italian cuisine is widespread. Monegasque dishes are usually prepared with olives, tomatoes and onions.

A typical starter is barbajuan . This is a special type of deep-fried small ravioli. There are locally different recipes for the filling; the Monegasque original, in contrast to the barbajuan, comes from e.g. B. Menton always without rice.

At Christmas there is very often a Christmas bread (Pain de Noël) on which walnuts are arranged in the shape of a cross around an olive branch.


Media policy

Due to the small number of inhabitants in Monaco, there is no diverse media landscape. The freedom of the press in Monaco exists. On the other hand, critical reporting about the princely family is undesirable and takes place to a limited extent in the local press. Commercial film and photo recordings require prior approval from the Ministry of the Interior.


RMC (Radio Monte Carlo) and TMC Monte Carlo broadcast around the clock. The institutions are independent from the government. Monaco also operates a state channel which broadcasts important events and brings reports from the authorities into circulation. Monaco Info has broadcast several hours a week since 1995.


The Monaco daily newspaper headlines Monaco-Matin . The Monaco Hebdo is published weekly , whereas L'Observateur de Monaco is a monthly magazine. The Monaco newspaper is published once a month for the German-speaking minority . Important foreign newspapers are available.


Long-distance / long-distance hiking trails

Monaco is one of the Alpine states , has signed the Alpine Convention and has its own Alpine Club , the Club Alpin Monégasque (CAM).

The newly created Via Alpina long-distance hiking trail , on which you can hike through all eight Alpine states from Monaco to Trieste , was opened on June 21, 2002 with a hike from the Place du Palais to La Turbie .

Monte-Carlo International Circus Festival

The Monte-Carlo International Circus Festival takes place at the beginning of each year . Under the patronage of Prince Albert, the best circus artists in the world fight for the "Oscar of the circus world", the golden clown. In these days Monaco is transformed into a huge circus with clowns, artists and many different animals that perform in the big circus tent and fill the streets and squares of the principality with life, which contrasts with the otherwise rather elitist life in Monaco.

Tourist destinations

The Opéra de Monte Carlo , the entrance to the opera house

The Place du Casino (affectionately called Camembert by the locals ) is one of the tourist centers of Monaco in several ways. First, because of its very central location in the middle of the principality. Second, there is the famous Hôtel de Paris and the famous Casino of Monte-Carlo and right next to it the magnificent opera, all of which are impressive due to their historical architecture. Thirdly, the casino square with its roundabout is the first port of call for tourists visiting the principality on a cruise, as the ships dock directly below the casino. In the summer months, the Place du Casino is a meeting point for Monaco tourists from all over the world, especially on Friday and Saturday evenings.

The second central tourist magnet in Monaco is the old town Monaco-Ville , known as Rocher (French for rocks ). It is located on the so-called Prince's Rock, on which the Prince's Palace , the political and private residence of the royal family, is located. As is typical for the principality, the old town of Monaco is very densely built up; There are numerous restaurants and souvenir shops in the narrow streets of the old town. Especially in the high season, the old town is very heavily populated by Monaco tourists and can sometimes be described as overrun by tourists.

The exotic open-air garden of Monaco - Jardin Exotique  - offers herbalists a very large number of the most diverse plant and tree species to visit. The exotic garden is also characterized by its location. It is located on the border with France in the direction of Nice at a high altitude, from where there is a spectacular panoramic view of the principality.

Located on the Rock of Monaco in Monaco-Ville, the Oceanographic Museum offers visitors a wealth of oceanographic exhibits, including rare live marine animals in aquariums. It is home to around 4000 species of fish as well as species from 200 families of invertebrates. The magnificent architecture of the museum has its foundation in 1910 by Albert I go. The founder worked himself as an oceanologist, whale researcher and teuthologist. He was involved in the sensational discovery of a Lepidoteuthis grimaldii (a scaled deep-sea squid), which was named after his family Grimaldi . The museum, which was built quickly afterwards, was to present this find appropriately. The location directly 85 meters above the sea on a cliff is also impressive.

Part of the Port Hercule

The marinas of Monaco are regularly popular tourist destinations, where particularly spectacular and large private yachts from wealthy owners are anchored. The largest port, Port Hercule , is in La Condamine, along the public roads used for the annual Formula 1 Grand Prix . Further marinas can be found directly below the Fürstenfelsen in Fontvieille and on the opposite side of Fontvieille in the direction of Cap-d'Ail (France).

In Larvotto is the public beach of Monaco, which is a very popular destination for locals and tourists, especially in the warm summer months. The sand there, however, is coarse-grained and cannot be compared with fine, white sandy beaches in other Mediterranean locations, and jellyfish in the water sometimes disrupt bathing operations. Another comparatively large public bathing beach, which is quite populated in summer, is located directly behind Fontvieille, at Cap -d'Ail back and forth on French territory.

Japanese Garden on Avenue Princesse Grace

As a contrast to the countless concrete buildings in Monaco, several public gardens with partly exotic plants, palm trees as well as native and imported bird species were created. Worth mentioning here is the Japanese garden , which is located south of the Grimaldi Forum on Avenue Princesse Grace and is impressive thanks to its splendid flora, filigree Japanese huts and bridges and ponds with rare Koi carp ; as well as the gardens in Fontvieille and in the area between the Oceanographic Museum and the Prince's Palace.

Town twinning

Monaco currently has two city ​​partnerships :

See also

Portal: Monaco  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Monaco


  • Bernhard evening: Provence, Côte d'Azur. 14th edition. Baedeker, Ostfildern 2013, ISBN 978-3-8297-1442-6 , pp. 278–286.
  • Bettina Grosse de Cosnac: The Monaco Clan - Past and Present of the Grimaldis. Europa-Verlag, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-203-77520-4 .
  • Klaudia Homann, Eberhard Homann: Monaco. Reise Know-How Verlag, Bielefeld 2012, ISBN 978-3-8317-2188-7 .
  • Léon-Honoré Labande: Histoire de la Principauté de Monaco. A. Picard, Paris 1934 (reprint: Laffitte, Marseille 1980).
  • Oliver Marcel, Michel Mathis: Principality of Monaco. 3. Edition. Edition Escudo de Oro, Barcelona 1993, ISBN 84-378-1440-5 .
  • Thomas Veszelits: Monaco AG. How the Grimaldis gild their principality. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-593-37956-2 .

Web links

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Individual evidence

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Coordinates: 43 ° 44 '  N , 7 ° 25'  E