Grace Patricia Kelly (born November 12, 1929 in Germantown , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , † September 14, 1982 in Monaco ) was an American film actress and Oscar winner. As a result of the wedding with Prince Rainier III. of Monaco in 1956, her name changed with the new title in Princesse Grace de Monaco or Grace Patricia Grimaldi . In the German-speaking world, the name Fürstin Gracia Patricia von Monaco or Gracia Patricia for short is common.
From August 1950 to March 1956 Grace Kelly took part in a total of eleven feature films after she had already gained acting experience at the theater. She celebrated her first successes in 1952 alongside Gary Cooper in the western Twelve Noon and in 1953 with Clark Gable in Mogambo , for which she received the Golden Globe for best supporting actress a year later . The character role of Georgie Elgin in the film drama A Country Girl earned her the Oscar for best actress in 1955 . At the height of her career she also had leading roles in three feature films directed by Alfred Hitchcock , of which the 1954 thriller Das Fenster zum Hof with James Stewart is one of the most important works in film history. In addition, she appeared in more than 40 television productions between 1948 and 1954.
In 1956, Grace Kelly ended her work as a film actress with the musical film The Top Ten Thousand and married Prince Rainier III. from Monaco, whom she had met the year before at the Cannes Film Festival . The children Caroline , Albert and Stéphanie emerged from the marriage. As part of her duties as mother of the country , she then devoted herself to representative and charitable tasks. Princess Gracia Patricia died two months before her 53rd birthday as a result of a car accident that occurred near Monaco in the presence of her youngest daughter Stéphanie.
Grace Kelly was known for her stylish appearance and set fashion trends worldwide. Their presence in the principality helped Monaco to regain its reputation and economic growth. The American Film Institute ranked her 13th among the 25 greatest American female movie stars of all time.
Grace Patricia Kelly was the third of four children of the American contractor John Brendan Kelly sr. (1889-1960), known as Jack, and his wife Margaret Katherine Majer (1898-1990) in the Hahnemann Medical College in the district of German Town in Philadelphia born. On December 1st, the baptism took place at St. Bridget's Roman Catholic Church in the East Falls neighborhood . The parents chose the first name Grace in memory of an aunt of the same name who died early. Grace Kelly herself later provided a supplementary explanation by referring to the Mother Goose nursery rhyme A Week of Birthdays , which is popular in the USA , according to which all children born on a Tuesday are “ full of grace ”. are.
Jack Kelly's ancestors were of Irish descent ; his father John Henry Kelly emigrated from the Irish county Mayo to Rutland in the US state Vermont in the middle of the 19th century . As the second youngest of ten children, Jack Kelly worked his way up from a bricklayer to an entrepreneur and made millions in sales with his company Kelly for Brickwork in the 1920s. He was also successful as a rower since his youth . After several national titles, he won a total of three gold medals at the Summer Olympics in 1920 and 1924 . His political career peaked in 1935 as a Democratic candidate for the election of Philadelphia mayor. Despite Republican dominance in previous years, he narrowly failed. Kelly was also denied advancement into the elite circles of Philadelphia's society. His possessions and outstanding sporting achievements could not equalize the class difference, which at the time was essentially based on different origins and denominations.
Grace Kelly's mother Margaret Majer comes from a Württemberg family. Her father Carl Majer lived in Helmsdorf Castle in Immenstaad on Lake Constance before he emigrated to Philadelphia and in 1896 married Margaretha Berg, who was born on July 10, 1870 in Heppenheim . Jack Kelly met Margaret Majer in 1914 in a swimming club, for which she started successfully at the time. In the early 1920s, she graduated from Temple University with a degree in physical education and taught as the first teacher of physical exercise at the University of Pennsylvania . In addition, she was temporarily in front of the camera as a model . After converting to Catholicism, she became the wife of Jack Kelly on January 30, 1924.
Grace's older brother John Brendan Kelly Jr. (1927–1985), known as Kell, succeeded his father as a rower. He took part in four Summer Olympics in 1948 , 1952 , 1956 and 1960 and won a bronze medal in 1956. The sisters Margaret Katherine Kelly (1925–1991), called Peggy, and Elizabeth Anne Kelly (1933–2009), called Lizanne, emulated their parents and were among the best athletes in school.
Grace's two uncles were well known artists. Stage and film actor Walter C. Kelly (1873-1939) made a name for himself especially in the entertainment theater known as vaudeville . George Kelly (1887-1974) published satirical comedies such as The Torch Bearers and The Show-off as a writer and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for the drama Craig's Wife in 1926 .
Childhood and youth
In 1927, shortly after the birth of their son, the family moved to a 17-room villa on Henry Avenue ( 40 ° 1 ′ 5.7 ″ N , 75 ° 11 ′ 21 ″ W ) built by Kelly's contractors . Although Grace Kelly was born just a few days after Black Thursday - it sparked what was known as the Great Depression in the United States - the social decline of many compatriots hardly affected the Kellys. Jack had invested his fortune conservatively, keeping both the East Falls mansion and the Ocean City vacation home free of mortgages. In addition to a tennis court, other facilities for active leisure activities were available on the property. Servants took care of the household and the garden, the children wore elegant clothes.
Grace was raised strictly by her parents. Discipline, ambition and determination were considered virtues in the sports-loving family, to which the sensitive and introverted second youngest daughter had to submit. Their mother called the children a "Prussian general" because of their German parents. Their loyalty to principles was reflected in their detachment and was sometimes expressed in a cold feeling towards their children. In early childhood, Grace was prone to illness and showed little interest in her father's ambitions, although as she grew older she performed well in sports such as tennis, swimming, and hockey, and also took ballet lessons . It was only in later years that Grace developed an ambition, both privately and professionally, based on the constant need to gain her father's approval.
“My father was very gentle, never one to spank or scold. My mother did that. But when my father spoke, boy, you moved. I believe the father teaches authority, and the mother sees that it's done. "
“My father was very gentle, he never hit us or scolded us. My mother did. But no sooner did my father say a word than did we jump. I believe the father embodies authority and the mother enforces it. "
Because of myopia, she had to wear glasses from around the age of twelve. The shyness was initially misinterpreted as arrogance by the people around her, although her true character revealed strength of will paired with diplomatic skill. Fighting with her siblings for the hierarchy in the family, Grace withdrew into a fantasy world and began to live out her artistic inclinations first in domestic puppet shows and in writing poetic verses.
"I hate to see the sun go down / And squeeze itself into the ground / Since some warm night it might get stuck / And in the morning not get up."
"I don't like to see the sun go down / How it squeezes into the ground / On some warm nights it may get stuck / To not rise again the next morning."
The preference for acting was also expressed in youth. At the age of twelve she and her older sister Peggy played at the Old Academy Players theater near East Falls. Years later she took on a role in a performance of the play The Torch-Bearers, written by her uncle George in 1922 . Alluding to the name of the work, the reviewer of a local newspaper wrote: “ It appeared as if Grace Kelly should become the theatrical torch-bearer for her family. "(German:" It gives the impression that Grace Kelly would be the torchbearer of her family in the theater. ")
From 1934 to 1943, Grace attended the nun-run Ravenhill School, where she demonstrated her acting talent at the annual nativity play. She then moved to the state-owned Stevens High School in Germantown . During this time, as a teenager, she developed a close friendship with Harper Davis, two years her senior, who went to a neighboring school with her brother and fell seriously ill in 1946. Grace graduated from high school in May 1947; her photo in the yearbook bears the prophetic signature: “ She is very likely to become a stage or screen star. "(German:" She will most likely become a stage or film star. ")
Acting training and theater
After graduation, Grace Kelly applied to the prestigious Drama Faculty at Bennington College in Vermont, but was not admitted due to tightened admission requirements. Against the wishes of her parents, she then tried to be admitted to the renowned American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City . The relationship to George Kelly helped her to get an audition date despite the enrollment deadline. With an excerpt from the work of her uncle The Torch-Bearers , she convinced the secretary of the board of directors Emile Diestel, who particularly emphasized her stage presence and her sense of drama. On the other hand, the nasal way of speaking as a result of the recurring sinusitis from childhood represented an obstacle to her career aspirations. With the help of intensive voice exercises, she worked on improving pronunciation as part of her training. Kelly moved into the Barbizon Hotel for Women in New York ( 40 ° 45 ′ 55.2 ″ N , 73 ° 57 ′ 58.7 ″ W ), which was exclusively for women and was characterized by conservative rules of conduct, where Candice Bergen and Liza Minnelli lived.
In 1948, a fellow student arranged an appointment for her with a photographer who designed covers for Redbook magazine . For her first job as a model, Kelly was paid $ 7.50 an hour, which soon rose to $ 25 and made her more independent of her parents' support in financing her studies. She was later featured on the covers of other magazines such as Cosmopolitan and Ladies' Home Journal . The image as a “neat girl next door” gave her advertising appearances for household and consumer items such as typewriters, detergents, cigarettes and beer, but on the other hand did not meet the standards of that time for a career as a mannequin in haute couture . After a year, Kelly became one of the highest paid models in New York City, with a weekly salary of about $ 400.
In the second semester, Kelly met the acting teacher and theater director Don Richardson know. He later directed the comedy The Philadelphia Story , in which she argued their 1949 audit and the 1956 new with you in the lead role as a musical filmed was. The relationship with the nine-year-old Richardson, who was about to divorce, she had to end under pressure from her parents. Both remained friends for life afterwards. After completing her training, she temporarily left New York and appeared on stage at the amateur theater Bucks County Playhouse in New Hope . On November 16, 1949, she made her debut alongside Raymond Massey and Mady Christians on Broadway in The Father of August Strindberg . After 69 performances and moderate success with audiences and critics, the piece was canceled. During this time Kelly had several affairs, including with the Pakistani Prince Aly Khan . After two years of no theater engagement, Kelly appeared in several live television productions for NBC and CBS in the early 1950s , including Kraft Television Theater , The Philco Television Playhouse , Westinghouse Studio One , Lights Out , Robert Montgomery Presents and Lux Video Theater .
Through the mediation of the theater agent Edith Van Cleve, who had represented Grace Kelly in business matters since the early 1950s, the Hollywood film industry became aware of the young actress. Test shots with director Gregory Ratoff initially earned her no role in the later film Taxi , but aroused the interest of other filmmakers in the following years. In August 1950, she first appeared in a small role in the drama Fourteen Hours , directed by Henry Hathaway , after her performance in the Broadway play The Father impressed producer Sol C. Siegel . Kelly played Louise Ann Fuller, a young woman who hangs out in a law firm and who, in the face of nerve-wracking events in the skyscraper opposite, is considering divorce from her husband. The short appearance earned her a fee of US $ 500 and lasted a little more than two minutes with a two-day shooting period in the less commercially successful production. On the film set on the 20th Century Fox studio lot in Los Angeles, she met Gary Cooper , who a few months later would become her film partner. In the summer of 1951, Kelly bridged the waiting time at the Elitch Gardens repertory theater in Denver, among other places . In the ensemble there, she met the Irish-born actor Gene Lyons and had a relationship with him for about a year and a half, until his alcohol problems put an end to the affair. Lyons gained popularity in the early 1970s through his participation in the US crime series The Boss as Commissioner Dennis Randall.
In June 1951, the MCA Acting Agency signed Kelly. The company had previously hired one of Van Cleves' previous clients, Marlon Brando . MCA agent Jay Kanter contacted producer Stanley Kramer , who was constantly looking for young actors due to many ongoing projects. Kramer and screenwriter Carl Foreman were working on the preparations for the film Twelve Noon at the same time and had to fill the second leading female role alongside Katy Jurado . After an interview with director Fred Zinnemann , Kelly was hired despite her inexperience and initial concerns about the age difference to lead actor Gary Cooper. In the western classic , Kelly played the newly wed wife Amy Fowler Kane of the marshal Will Kane. Frank Miller, convicted of murder years ago by Kane, returns to the small town of Hadleyville after his pardon. Left in the lurch by the residents, Kane has to assert himself against Miller and his three companions. As a Quaker, Amy rejects violence out of religious conviction and leaves her husband after an argument. When the first shot is fired, she jumps worriedly from the departing train. At the end of the showdown, she overcomes her pacifist principles, shoots one of the bandits and thus saves the life of her cornered husband. Filming in California in the fall of 1951 lasted just under five weeks. Kelly spent 22 days filming on the set and received a weekly salary of $ 750. During the rehearsal she was self-critical about the result of her work, even though Zinnemann had consciously adapted her restrained style of play to the role of the Quaker bride. For Kelly, the critically acclaimed and four Academy Award-winning film meant, in retrospect, her breakthrough as a film actress, despite the chilled screen presence.
In late 1951 Kelly returned to New York City and took acting lessons from Sanford Meisner to refine her technique. In addition, other appearances on television and at the theater followed at short intervals before a new offer thwarted her future plans in autumn 1952. After the success of the adventure film King Solomon's Diamonds , the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio and director John Ford planned the remake of the 1932 film drama Jungle in the Storm under the title Mogambo . Clark Gable was again scheduled for the male lead , this time alongside Ava Gardner . While searching for another actress, MGM board member Dore Schary and producer Sam Zimbalist came across the test shots of Taxi . Those responsible negotiated a contract with MCA over a term of seven years, which obliged Kelly to participate in three films per year and provided the possibility of a loan to other studios. Before signing, MGM had to make a few concessions. Kelly insisted, in deviation from the customs at the time, that she should regularly take a year off and keep her residence in New York City. On the other hand, the prospect of a collaboration with Gable and Ford and the exotic locations in Africa kept them from negotiating the unattractive weekly salary of initially 750 US dollars compared to a full-time job as a mannequin. Filming in Uganda , Tanganyika and Kenya was completed in February 1953. The team traveled to Europe for the interior shots and worked in the British Borehamwood studios until the end of 1953 . Kelly played Linda Nordley, the demure wife of an anthropologist ( Donald Sinden ) who enlisted the services of the big game hunter Victor Marswell (Clark Gable) for his studies. On the journey to the far-away area of the mountain gorillas , they are accompanied by the spirited Ellinor Kelly (Ava Gardner), who was previously stranded in Marswell's animal trapping station. A love triangle of concealment and jealousy develops between Marswell and the two women . In the end, Linda remains loyal to her husband while Marswell and Kelly find each other. Similar to Zinnemann, Ford was economical with stage directions and left the actors largely to their own devices with his unpolished manner. Kelly and Gable, who was about to divorce his fourth wife and also had to deal with physical complaints, often left during their stay in Africa common ways. Whether the flirtation ended in a romance is controversial among contemporary witnesses and biographers. The film was well received by the audience and grossed a respectable five million US dollars after its initial release. Kelly received a Golden Globe and an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress.
The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio then repeatedly loaned them to other film studios such as Warner Bros. and Paramount Pictures for up to $ 50,000 per film. On March 30, 1955, she received the Oscar for Best Actress for A Country Girl . In the George Seaton drama she played the wife of an alcoholic. In the same year she was seen again in Andrew Marton's Green Fire (1954) .
“The thrill of this moment keeps me from saying what I really feel. I can only say thank you with all my heart to all who made this possible for me. Thank you."
“The current excitement is keeping me from expressing my real feelings. I thank everyone from the bottom of my heart who made this possible for me. Thank you."
Alfred Hitchcock got Grace Kelly in front of the camera three times in just two years. Their collaboration began in 1954 with Bei Call Mord . The action takes place almost exclusively in one room. The director and cameraman experimented with new 3D recording options. The director valued Kelly's qualities and considered her the ideal cast of his female lead roles. Kelly showed longing, devotion and passion behind a cool facade, always appeared stylish and elegant and became the ideal-typical Hitchcock heroine of the 1950s. In 1954, Hitchcock and Kelly worked together again for the classic Das Fenster zum Hof . Here Grace Kelly played the elegant lover of the photo reporter Jeff ( James Stewart ), who had to rely on a wheelchair because of his leg in plaster . The portrayal of the actress was highly praised by the critics. Her last work with Alfred Hitchcock was over the rooftops of Nice . There she played the millionaire Frances Stevens in 1955 , who lustfully ensnares the apparently disinterested master thief John Robie ( Cary Grant ). Since Kelly no longer worked as an actress after her marriage, Hitchcock engaged actresses such as Vera Miles , Kim Novak , Eva Marie Saint or Tippi Hedren who were similar in type for his subsequent films .
In the USA, the love comedy The Swan was made in 1956, directed by Charles Vidor . Kelly played a princess, in whom the crown prince chosen for marriage ( Alec Guinness ) is apparently not interested. The music film The Top Ten Thousand was also successful with the audience . Serene, humorous and with a sense of depth, Grace Kelly played the beautiful rich Daisy Cord , who first has to discover her true feelings. In the musical by Cole Porter , she sang the duet True Love with Bing Crosby . It was also released as a single and earned both a gold record .
Wedding with Prince Rainier III.
“Of course I consider marriage. But I've considered my career longer. If I were to quit now to get married - and I'd have to quit because marriage is a full-time job to my way of thinking - then I'm afraid that all the rest of my life I'd be fretting about what a great actress I might have been. "
“Of course I want to get married. But my career is more important to me than the thought of marriage. If I stopped now - and I had to stop because, in my opinion, marriage completely demands a woman - then I would possibly torment myself all my life with the thought of what a great actress I could have become. "
Grace Kelly met Prince Rainier III. of Monaco on May 6, 1955 on the sidelines of the Cannes Film Festival . Exhausted after six films in a year and a half, she was reluctant to accept an invitation from the festival organizers to represent the United States in the Oscar-winning film A Country Girl . On the occasion of the visit, the French magazine Paris Match, under the leadership of the film editor Pierre Galante - then husband of the actress Olivia de Havilland , who was also present in Cannes - organized a meeting between the prince and the Hollywood star in the Prince's Palace of Monaco as the cover story. The first encounter took place under difficult conditions: A nationwide power failure after a strike impaired preparations for the event, as did a traffic accident on the way and the Prince's almost one hour delay due to other obligations. In spite of all adversities, observers say that mutual sympathy developed during the subsequent tour through the private zoo and the palace gardens, accompanied by photographers. While Kelly described the prince as "so charming" after the visit, Rainier announced plans for a trip to Manhattan for the charity ball One Night in Monte Carlo in January 1956. In the months that followed, both kept in lively correspondence and Rainier began to specify his intentions. The bachelor traveled to Philadelphia after filming The Swan was finished on December 15, 1955, and paid his respects to the Kellys on Christmas Day. The formal marriage proposal followed three days later after a private dinner at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York . Around the same time, Kelly ended the loose relationship with the fashion designer Oleg Cassini . On January 5, 1956, the engagement to Prince Rainier was officially announced at a press conference in the Kelly family. The bride's dowry, negotiated after lengthy discussions, was two million US dollars, half of which was provided by Kelly and her father.
Kelly returned to Hollywood in mid-January 1956 to direct the musical film The Top Ten Thousand . In her last public appearance before leaving the United States, she presented Ernest Borgnine with the award for Best Actor at the Academy Awards on March 21, 1956. In return for this, Kelly made his obligations to the planned comedy film Why did I say yes? to release, Studio MGM received the exclusive film rights to the wedding. The documentary The Wedding in Monaco hit US cinemas shortly after the event. In addition, the film studio paid for the wedding dress made by costume designer Helen Rose from Rosalinenspitze in Brussels, which cost nearly 8,000 US dollars.
On April 4, 1956 Kelly went on board the passenger steamer Constitution in New York . In addition to family members and friends, over 100 journalists accompanied the future country mother on the eight-day sea voyage to Monaco. On arrival in Hercules Bay in front of the Principality, Kelly was met by Rainier on his yacht Deo Juvante II and later welcomed ashore by around 20,000 locals and tourists. On the morning of April 18, the civil ceremony took place in the palace's throne room in the presence of around 100 guests, including dignitaries and representatives from 25 countries. The half-hour ceremony was broadcast across Europe by a television team. After a reception for the 3000 Monegasque citizens in the main courtyard of the palace, the celebrations ended in the evening with a gala and a ballet performance in the opera house. One day after the civil marriage, Grace and Rainier were married by Bishop Gilles Barthe on April 19 at around 10:00 in the cathedral of Monaco . The 600 guests included the former Egyptian King Faruq , Aga Khan III. , Aristotle Onassis with daughter Christina , the American actresses Gloria Swanson and Ava Gardner and the British actor David Niven . One of the six bridesmaids was Kelly's longtime friend Rita Gam . Both the European nobility and high-ranking politicians stayed away from the event. More than 30 million television viewers in nine countries watched as the US film actress Grace Kelly became Princess Gracia Patricia of Monaco. On the same day, the newly wed couple embarked on a seven-week honeymoon in the Mediterranean on board the princely yacht.
Princess of Monaco
Family happiness and crises
On January 23, 1957, Princess Gracia Patricia gave birth to her daughter Caroline Louise Marguerite . According to the bilateral treaty with France from 1918 on the protectorate relationship between the two states, the sovereignty of Monaco was guaranteed by securing the succession. Five months later, the princess became pregnant again and gave birth to her son Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre on March 14, 1958 , who ousted his sister as heiress. According to the constitutional law of Monaco at the time, the eldest child succeeded the prince until the birth of a male descendant . Gracia Patricia took the upbringing of her children largely into her own hands and set up a kindergarten in the palace based on the model of the American first wife Jacqueline Kennedy . While Caroline had inherited her father's character traits in her volatility and willpower, Albert, like his mother, displayed calm and determination. The early childhood years of the future heir to the throne were already marked by the prospect of taking Rainier's place as head of state in later years.
Despite the birth of children, life in the palace turned out to be difficult for the princess in the early years. The new role as wife after the end of her career as an actress resulted in a loss of orientation, which could hardly be compensated for by tasks such as the modernization of the hospital, the retirement home, the palace rooms and the Roc Agel holiday home. In addition, she was initially unable to cope with the compulsion to observe court etiquette and Rainier's authority. The prince was not used to compromises in his role as monarch and was no exception to disagreements with his wife. Since Gracia Patricia had a poor understanding and speaking of the French language, she held back at events such as audiences and receptions. Observers interpreted this behavior as haughty and harsh. In addition, there were financial and political problems that had threatened the existence of the principality since the early 1950s. Major casino revenue declined due to increased competition on the French Riviera . Conflicts with the Monegasque National Council and the shipowner Aristotle Onassis created uncertainty. The Greek businessman acquired a majority stake in Société des bains de mer (SBM), the state-run hotel and casino group, through stock purchases in 1955 , and later saved the country's largest bank from bankruptcy. With control of the SBM as the most powerful organization in Monaco, Onassis initiated the economic boom in the principality, but on the other hand he fought incessantly with Rainier, who feared losing power, in order to make strategically important decisions. It was not until 1966 that the prince succeeded in ousting Onassis again by increasing the capital of SBM in order to be able to shape the future of Monaco according to his wishes. He had previously threatened Onassis to nationalize his property. Nevertheless, the extent of the renewal programs occasionally caused resentment among his wife, who viewed the change in the principality with suspicion from an aesthetic point of view.
In the summer of 1960, John B. Kelly developed stomach cancer and passed away shortly afterwards. The death of her father and two miscarriages left Gracia Patricia in a depression that led Rainier to allow his wife a temporary return to the film business. After she had made a guest appearance four years earlier in the production Glück und Liebe in Monaco under the direction of Hermann Leitner , Alfred Hitchcock planned a film project called Marnie for the summer of 1962 . The script about a kleptomaniac , whose pathological behavior is accompanied by a fear of intimacy and based on formative experiences in her childhood, was considered delicate. The official announcement about the princess's upcoming comeback also left unanswered questions and provoked resistance from the local press. Even subsequent clarifications did not change the fact that the people of Monaco were of the opinion that acting was fundamentally incompatible with the tasks of a national mother. Under pressure from public opinion, Gracia Patricia was forced to give up her plans. The resignation finally gave way to the realization that her recurring hopes for a continuation of the career were unfounded.
“Dear Hitch, It was heartbreaking for me to have to leave the picture. I was so excited about doing it and particularly about working with you again. When we meet I would like to explain to you myself all of the reasons which is difficult to do by letter or through a third party. It is unfortunate that it had to happen this way and I am deeply sorry. Thank you dear Hitch for being so understanding and helpful I hate disappointing you. I also hate the fact that there are probably many other 'cattle' who could play the part equally as well. Despite that I hope to remain one of your 'sacred cows'. "
“Dear Hitch, it breaks my heart to have to give up the film project. I was really looking forward to your participation and especially to working with you again. At the next meeting I will personally explain to you the many reasons that make things difficult in a letter or through third parties. It's a shame it had to turn out like this, I'm very sorry. Dear Hitch, thank you for your understanding and support, I hate to disappoint you. I also hate the fact that many other 'cattle' can probably play the role as well. Nevertheless, I hope to remain one of your 'sacred cows'. "
At the same time, Rainier had to face a new crisis in the form of a tax dispute with the neighboring country. Numerous French companies had relocated their headquarters to the Monaco tax haven . President Charles de Gaulle ultimately called for the introduction of income and corporate taxes and stationed customs officers at the country's borders. Since Monaco was economically dependent on tourism and supply technology on France, the prince averted the attack on tax exemption and the impending loss of autonomy with a compromise.
Recognition as the mother of the country
“I don't look for happiness. So perhaps I am very content in life, in a way. [...] I suppose being at peace with yourself. Not anxiously seeking for something, not being frantic about not having something. [...] But I argue with myself all the time, so I guess I'm not really at peace. "
“I'm not looking for happiness. So in some ways I may be very happy with life. [...] I assume to be at peace with yourself, not to desire something with all your might and not to despair because you haven't achieved something. [...] I'm in constant conflict with myself, so I'm probably not at peace with myself. "
In the mid-1960s, the insight into the immutability of their living conditions began to triumph over doubts. Gracia Patricia was fluent in the French language around 1963 and gained confidence in dealing with her subjects and servants. She had also got used to the court ceremonies and the southern mentality of the Monegasque. Although it no longer reached a cinema audience, it was of central importance for the economic development of the principality. Since Monaco had no riches such as natural resources or a major seaport, the attraction for tourists and investors had to be conveyed in a different way. Due to the presence of the princess, the country, suffering from the post-war period, had achieved a high level of awareness. People from all over the world spent their holidays there, banking and real estate transactions contributed their part to a surge in income in the principality. At the end of the 1960s, the number of visitors from before the wedding increased tenfold from around 77,000 visitors a year. Gambling dependency has been reduced to less than four percent from 95 percent in 1954. The maintenance of Gracia Patricia's friendships with former colleagues from show business did the rest. Movie stars came to Monte-Carlo and drew the international jet set , the rich and famous from all over the world to Monaco. Social life culminated in the annual Red Cross Ball and over the years brought the organization a lot of donations.
On February 1, 1965, the third child, Stéphanie Marie Elisabeth, was born. The birth of the second daughter helped the princess over past and future crises. Of the three children, Stéphanie, with her obstinacy, was the greatest challenge from an educational point of view. Gracia Patricia later confessed that her leniency fueled the rebellious nature of the youngest child. In 1967, the third miscarriage during the visit to the world exhibition in Montreal caused another stroke of fate after Rainier's father Pierre de Polignac had died in November 1964.
The royal couple celebrated the 25th anniversary of Rainier's rule on May 8, 1974. The silver jubilee on the throne is considered a turning point in the relationship between the Monegasque and their mother country. Gracia Patricia, who had recently given up her US citizenship, wore the national costume for the first time and appeared more accessible than on previous occasions. Through numerous charity events for the good of Monaco, she had won over the people over the past few years. In her humanitarian work, she also orientated herself towards the British royal family . Among other things, she initiated health care programs and a voluntary service to look after the elderly in old people's homes, and intensified her work as President of the Red Cross, which she had headed since 1958. With the establishment of a symphony orchestra and a ballet school, she also laid the foundation for upgrading Monaco as a location for cultural creation.
In 1966, Monte-Carlo celebrated its centenary with a performance of the ballet Romeo and Juliet with the participation of Rudolf Nureyev and Margot Fonteyn . On November 16, 1970, Gracia Patricia gave the introductory remarks at a benefit concert by Frank Sinatra at London's Royal Festival Hall . She had a long friendship with Josephine Baker . After losing her fortune, the American-French dancer, singer and actress was given a new home on the French Riviera in 1969 with the support of the princely couple and a fund made it possible to return to the stage. Baker found her final resting place in April 1975 on the Cimetière de Monaco .
In the late summer of 1974, Princess Caroline moved into an apartment in Paris to take the French Abitur in a private school and then, like her father, to begin studying at the École libre des sciences politiques . In the autumn of 1974, Gracia Patricia followed with daughter Stéphanie to the Paris apartment on Avenue Foch, worried about the paparazzi’s revealing reporting . The French capital was to become the princess's second residence for many years, as Princess Stéphanie later went to school at an institute there. After dropping out of studies and returning to Monaco, Caroline met Philippe Junot, a financial broker who was disreputed as a Playboy, in the summer of 1976 . Because of its dubious origins, the princely couple discussed an official wedding ban for a while. Nevertheless, on June 28, 1978, Caroline married the 17-year-old businessman. The marriage was divorced two years later and annulled by the Roman Catholic Church in 1992. In retrospect, the princess admitted that the restriction of the urge for freedom and control addiction were partly responsible for the capricious behavior of her eldest daughter.
On July 29, 1981, Gracia Patricia was invited to the wedding of the British heir to the throne Prince Charles and Diana Spencer in St Paul's Cathedral and led the royal procession starting from Buckingham Palace . Rainier had to cancel due to illness and was represented by Prince Albert. The princess had met the Princess of Wales four months earlier during her first public appearance shortly after the engagement at a gala in London. On March 31, 1982 she was honored for her acting achievements at the Annenberg Institute for Communication Studies at the University of Pennsylvania in the presence of former film partners such as James Stewart and Stewart Granger .
In the early 1980s, Gracia Patricia increasingly struggled with health problems. Because of menopausal symptoms , she took high-dose hormones and gained weight as a result. Some biographers attributed the external changes to excessive alcohol consumption, although there are only circumstantial evidence and hardly guaranteed statements from people around them for these rumors. In August 1982 bronchitis and migraine attacks came after a cruise in Norway.
In 1976 Jay Kanter, Kelly's former agent and then head of the studio and production department, made the princess an offer to take on a vacant position on the board of directors of the US film studio 20th Century Fox . As the first woman on the executive body, she traveled to New York and Los Angeles several times a year and took care of, among other things, shareholder affairs and budget approvals. After five years of its mandate ended with the partial sale of the studio to that of Rupert Murdoch -controlled media company News Corp . In 1976 Kanter also tried to convince Gracia Patricia to make a comeback in the film drama At the Turning Point by Herbert Ross . She was supposed to play the role of Deedee Rodgers, a former ballet dancer who has given up her career in favor of private life and struggles with her fate. Despite or because of obvious parallels to her own biography, the princess showed interest. Six years earlier she had refused to participate in the period film Nikolaus und Alexandra because the script did not suit her. Other projects failed in the early phase for various reasons or were, like the mini-role in the anti-drug film Poppy is also a flower, of little importance. This time, the new project failed not only because of Rainier's objections, but also because of the personal insight that family concerns, in particular about the private life of their daughter Caroline, had to be given full attention. Shirley MacLaine later played the role of Deedee Rodgers.
After the disappointments in trying to return to her acting roots, the princess was offered another opportunity for artistic activity in the same year. After mediation through her friend and later biographer Gwen Robyns, Gracia Patricia accepted an engagement at the Edinburgh International Festival on the occasion of the bicentenary of the United States. In September 1976, together with actors Richard Kiley and Richard Pasco, she gave four poetry readings to an audience of around 200 and won the BBC's award for one of the best poetic performances of the year for her recitation of the work Wild Peaches by the American poet Elinor Wylie . In 1977 she appeared in the birthplace of William Shakespeare in the Holy Trinity Church with scenes from the comedy What You Want and a selection of Shakespeare's sonnets . In the following years she continued the series of performances with changing programs at other festivals in Europe and the United States, including in 1978 at St James's Palace in front of the British Queen Mother and in 1980 at Vienna's English Theater in Vienna.
At the end of the 1970s, Gracia Patricia discovered a new passion as a nature lover and began making collages from dried and pressed flowers. Her arrangements were exhibited in the Parisian Galerie Drouant in the same year and served in 1978 as a sample series for duvet covers for a US textile manufacturer. Although the princess left the fee to her foundation, newspapers such as The Village Voice criticized the commercial marketing and described flower presses as "the most depressing art form that the human race has ever invented". In 1980, she and Gwen Robyns published a collection of their creations called My Book of Flowers and promoted the book on a subsequent promotional tour of the United States.
In 1976, the Princess met the Austrian director Robert Dornhelm , who had made a documentary entitled The Children of Theater Street about the Waganowa Ballet Academy in the former Leningrad . Dornhelm was looking for a well-known personality as a narrator and found Gracia Patricia as the ideal cast, not least because of the longstanding cooperation between the Monegasque and Russian ballet schools. The film received good reviews and an Oscar nomination for best documentary the following year, but was only moderately successful commercially. Afterwards, Dornhelm and the Princess remained close friends and worked together on other projects. In 1981, the annual flower-binding competition in Monaco in May was to be used as a framework for a film comedy and the foundation for the continuation of Gracia Patricia's film career. The French novelist Jacqueline Monsigny came up with a storyline in which an astrophysicist played by Edward Meeks missed a scientific conference due to a series of misunderstandings and ended up in the flower-tying competition instead. The 33-minute short film Rearranged was shown to a selected group of people in a rough version and never made it to the cinemas. Before the work could be expanded to include additional scenes to a length of one hour the following year, the princess died. As a result, the planned film adaptation of Gore Vidal's 1950 novel A Search for the King under Dornhelm's direction with Gracia Patricia in the lead role failed . The original film negative from Rearranged was stored in the palace's vaults at Rainier's instigation. In 2007 the English-language fragment was restored by the Archives Audiovisuelles de Monaco , provided with French subtitles and has only been shown once in the Garden Club in Monaco since then. Short excerpts were also shown in the ARD documentary The Grimaldis - Nobility committed in 2010.
Accident and death
On the morning of September 13, 1982, Gracia Patricia and her daughter Stéphanie came home from the Roc Agel summer residence with their ten-year-old Rover 3500 on the Route de La Turbie at the entrance to Cap-d'Ail in a hairpin bend for reasons that are not clear the road and fell 40 meters down a slope ( 43 ° 43 ′ 35 ″ N , 7 ° 24 ′ 10 ″ E ). This area was also where the chase in the Hitchcock film Above the Roofs of Nice took place, in which Grace Kelly drove a sapphire blue Sunbeam Alpine Mark III convertible.
Together with her daughter, the princess was taken to the Center Hospitalier Princesse Grace named after her . In addition to cuts, the medical examinations initially revealed a broken collarbone, a leg fracture and bruises in the chest. Princess Stéphanie suffered a concussion and a fractured vertebra. After an operation lasting several hours, the princess fell into a coma . Further diagnostic investigations using a computer tomograph outside the hospital revealed two brain injuries . Doctors concluded that the smaller of the two bleeding areas in the temporal lobe was the result of a minor stroke that occurred shortly before the accident and reduced consciousness, while the major inoperable injury only occurred on impact on the slope. On the evening of the following day, Princess Gracia Patricia succumbed to her serious injuries at the age of 52 after close relatives gave her consent to switch off the life-support devices.
For three days, the people of Monaco were able to bid farewell to their mother in the palace chapel, before Gracia Patricia on September 18, 1982 in the presence of around 800 invited mourners - including her siblings, former film colleagues and representatives of most of the aristocratic houses - in Notre Cathedral -Dame-Immaculée was buried. Around 100 million viewers followed the worldwide television broadcast of the funeral service.
Several speculations emerged about the exact course of the accident, including the often-cited theory that Princess Stéphanie, who was still a minor at the time, was behind the wheel of the car. This claim has been repeatedly denied by her and refuted by other people. It was based on the statements of landowners and alleged eyewitnesses who were in the immediate vicinity at the time of the accident and reported that the princess had got out of the driver's side of the badly damaged vehicle. Further speculations put into circulation by the press about the circumstances of death such as a previous quarrel between mother and daughter, suicidal intentions of the princess, politically motivated involvement of the southern French mafia or medical errors by the doctors could not be proven either.
Effect and aftermath
“I would like to be remembered as trying to do my job well, of being understanding and kind. [...] I'd like to be remembered as a decent human being and a caring one. "
“May I be remembered as a woman who tried to do her job faithfully, who was understanding and kind. [...] I want me to be remembered as a decent and caring person. "
Princess Gracia Patricia was known for her diverse philanthropic and charitable commitment. She launched a series of charity events and chaired various organizations whose support was continued by her children after her death.
In 1958 she took over the presidency of the Monegasque Red Cross from Prince Rainier. She developed preventive care programs for expectant mothers and was involved in planning the construction of day-care centers and orphanages. The gala held annually at the Sporting Club Monte Carlo has attracted many celebrities since 1948 and secured the facility with financial means.
In 1962, Princess Gracia Patricia campaigned for women's suffrage in Monaco. A year later, as one of the founding members of the Association Mondiale des Amis de l'Enfance (AMADE), she began promoting humanitarian aid projects for children around the world. The politically independent non-profit organization , which has been granted consultative status by UNESCO, has expanded into an international network over the years and currently has local representations in Europe, Asia, South America and Africa. On May 14, 1993, Princess Caroline was elected President.
The Princesse Grace de Monaco Foundation was established in 1964 with the aim of setting up a fund for local artisans to enable the sale of regional products. The foundation later expanded to include social welfare and cultural activities. With the renaming of the international ballet school to Académie de danse classique Princesse Grace , Monte Carlo was to be established as one of the leading ballet centers in Europe. In 1982, Princess Caroline took over the chairmanship of the board of trustees and focused on caring for disabled children. In 1982 the Princess Grace Foundation-USA was created as a counterpart in the United States with headquarters in New York. Around 500 theater, dance and film artists have since benefited from grants for training and partnerships totaling around five million US dollars.
As honorary president of the Monegasque section of the La Leche League , Princess Gracia Patricia was an advocate of natural infant nutrition through breastfeeding . In 1971 she gave a lecture on the benefits for the physical and mental development of the child at the general assembly in Chicago. At the beginning of August 1976, accompanied by her husband and their two children Caroline and Albert, she appeared as a speaker at the 41st World Eucharistic Congress in her hometown of Philadelphia and emphasized the importance of Christian values for the development of society and the upbringing of children.
Fashion, art and music
Throughout her life, Grace Kelly was a style icon and fashion role model for women of her generation. As a result of the coverage of the princely couple's visit to the United States in autumn 1956, during which the princess is said to have tried to hide the pregnancy from photographers with the help of her handbag, the French leather goods company Hermès named the model in question after Grace Kelly. Even during her film career and when she was engaged to Prince Rainier, she wore handbags of similar designs. The Kelly Bag appeared in its original form in the 1930s under the French name petit sac haut à courroies (German: small bag with shoulder strap, also sac à dépêches pour dames ) and became a handbag classic . The products are currently available in stores as a standard model starting at EUR 4000. Crocodile leather from the early 1960s fetched between $ 3,000 and $ 6,000 at auctions. Kelly also gave its name to a special way of wearing a headscarf , whereby the ends of the scarf are crossed under the chin and knotted in the neck. This is still known today as Kelly Style , as she often wore the scarves in this form both in her films and later in her role as princess.
The American Pop Art artist Andy Warhol designed a limited edition portrait of Grace Kelly for the Institute of Contemporary Art in Philadelphia as a screen print. Other Pop Art artists also have various depictions of the former actress, such as James Gill's portrait as a side profile. On the occasion of her 80th birthday, the Flemish painter Peter Engels created a “vintage portrait” that was auctioned on May 9, 2009 by Prince Albert II . For promotional purposes, a French champagne producer used a picture of Kelly wearing a black evening dress and gloves behind a sparkling wine glass on a 1988 advertising poster.
The German punk rock band Die Ärzte released in 1983 on their EP single Too beautiful to be true! a song called Grace Kelly , which is about a fictional affair with a band member. Other artists such as the US rock banks Piebald ( Grace Kelly With Wings , 1999) and Eels ( Grace Kelly Blues , 2000) as well as the British musician Mika ( Grace Kelly , 2007) set a musical monument to Kelly. Her name was also mentioned in the pop songs We Didn't Start the Fire (1989) by Billy Joel and Vogue (1990) by Madonna . Princess Stéphanie dedicated the song Words upon the Wind (1991) from her mother's second album Winds of Chance .
On October 22, 2009, Grace Kelly posthumously received the Rodeo Drive Walk of Style Award . The award, introduced in 2003, was accepted by Prince Albert and honors personalities for their services to the world of fashion and entertainment. Past winners include Giorgio Armani , Tom Ford and Valentino Garavani .
The stationery manufacturer Montblanc launched the exclusive jewelry, watch and stationery collection Princess Grace de Monaco - A tribute to grace and elegance in 2011 . The company also supported the Princess Grace Foundation with a donation of one million US dollars. The presentation of the collection took place on September 8th, 2011 in the presence of the princely couple and Princess Carolines.
In January 2012 the French director Olivier Dahan took over the staging of the biopic Grace of Monaco . The content of the project is limited to the national crisis in 1962, which was triggered by a tax dispute between the Principality and France. The American-Australian actress Nicole Kidman and the British actor Tim Roth took on the two leading roles. The film opened the 67th Cannes International Film Festival on May 14, 2014 out of competition. The Princely House already distanced itself from being classified as a film biography and described the production as an “unnecessarily glamorous” story and “pure fiction”.
At the beginning of October 2011, film producer Jan Mojto announced another adaptation of the life story of Grace Kelly at the MIPCOM program fair in Cannes. A budget of twelve million euros is available for international production. The Austrian Robert Dornhelm , who had worked artistically with the princess from 1977 to 1982, is to direct. The focus is on Kelly's acting career from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s.
On June 18, 1984, Prince Rainier III. the Roseraie Princesse Grace in the borough of Fontvieille open to the public ( 43 ° 43 ′ 38 ″ N , 7 ° 25 ′ 9.2 ″ E ). The rose garden, laid out in memory of his wife's fondness for flowers, with around 150 different species is one of several sights in Monaco that bear the name of the princess. The life-size bronze statue was created in 1983 by the Dutch sculptor Kees Verkade . Another statue by the artists Livia Canestraro and Stephaan Depuydt donated by the Belgian community in Monaco in 2004 is located in a small garden near the Grimaldi Forum .
In 1993 the United States and Monaco simultaneously issued a commemorative stamp designed by the Polish engraver Czesław Słania based on a publicity photo from the film A Country Girl . Since it was forbidden under US federal law to depict foreign heads of state on postage stamps, the name Grace Kelly was printed in the USA and the title Princess Grace in Monaco . Kelly was the first actress whose picture appeared on a U.S. postage stamp.
From April 1 to May 21, 2006, the Philadelphia Museum of Art hosted an exhibition on the 50th anniversary of the princely couple's wedding. The collection in her hometown called Fit for a Princess: Grace Kelly's Wedding Dress included the princess's wedding dress and other accessories.
On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of her death, Monaco's first 2 euro commemorative coin with a portrait of the princess was published on July 12, 2007 . With a minting of only 20,001 pieces, this coin has one of the smallest editions of all 2 euro commemorative coins. Due to the rarity, the collector's value increased continuously within a short time and reached peak values of up to 2000 euros at the beginning of 2014.
Since 2007, the Princesse Grace course has led over 25 stages to places in Monaco that played a role in the life of the princess and shaped the development of the principality.
Against the same time, Prince Albert II opened an extensive exhibition entitled Les années Grace Kelly - Princesse de Monaco as a tribute to his mother. From July 12 to September 23, 2007, personal items and written documents from the archives of the Prince's Palace were shown for the first time in the Grimaldi Forum Monaco. After more than 135,000 visitors, the event appeared in several cities around the world in the following years, including Sotheby’s in New York, the City Hall of Paris , the Ekaterina Cultural Foundation building in Moscow , the Palazzo Ruspoli in Rome and the Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado cultural center in São Paulo . Charlène von Monaco was a guest of honor at the opening of the Grace Kelly: Style Icon exhibition in the Australian Bendigo Art Gallery in spring 2012. Prince Albert last visited the Netherlands at the beginning of June 2014 to continue the series of exhibitions at Paleis Het Loo .
Since the end of October 2012 there has been a so-called historical marker in front of the former home of the Kellys on Henry Avenue in Philadelphia , which indicates the historical significance of the place. In September 2016 the house was bought by Prince Albert after the previous owner had passed away.
- 1951: Fourteen Hours (Fourteen Hours)
- 1952: Twelve noon (High Noon)
- 1953: Mogambo (Mogambo)
- 1954: Dial M for Murder (Dial M for Murder)
- 1954: The Rear Window
- 1954: The Country Girl (The Country Girl)
- 1954: Green Fire (Green Fire)
- 1954: The Bridges at Toko-Ri (The Bridges at Toko-Ri)
- 1955: Above the roofs of Nice (To Catch a Thief)
- 1956: The Swan (The Swan)
- 1956: The Top Ten Thousand (High Society)
- 1950–1953: The Philco Television Playhouse (6 episodes)
- 1950: Believe It or Not (1 episode)
- 1950/1952: Danger (2 episodes)
- 1950/1952: Lights Out (2 episodes)
- 1950/1952: Studio One (2 episodes)
- 1950: Actor's Studio (3 episodes)
- 1950: The Clock (1 episode)
- 1950: Somerset Maugham TV Theater (1 episode)
- 1951–1952: Armstrong Circle Theater (4 episodes)
- 1951: The Prudential Family Playhouse (1 episode)
- 1951: Nash Airflyte Theater (1 episode)
- 1952–1953: Lux Video Theater (3 episodes)
- 1952: CBS Television Workshop (1 episode)
- 1952: The Big Build Up (TV movie)
- 1952: Robert Montgomery Presents (1 episode)
- 1952: Suspense (1 episode)
- 1952: Goodyear Television Playhouse (1 episode)
- 1954 : Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress : Mogambo ( Mogambo , 1953)
- 1954 : Oscar nomination for best supporting actress : Mogambo
- 1954: NBR Award for Best Actress : Dial M for Murder ( Dial M for Murder , 1954), Rear Window ( Rear Window , 1954), The Country Girl ( The Country Girl , 1954)
- 1954: NYFCC Award for Best Actress : Murder on Call, The Window to the Courtyard, A Country Girl
- 1955 : Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Drama : A Country Girl
- 1955 : Oscar for best leading actress : A girl from the country
- 1955: BAFTA nomination for best foreign actress : Murder when called
- 1956: BAFTA nomination for Best Foreign Actress: A Country Girl
- 1956: Henrietta Award for Most Popular Actress
- 1960: Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for Film (6329 Hollywood Blvd.)
- Gwen Robyns: Gracia Patricia, Princess of Monaco. The story of an unusual woman . 1st edition. Goldmann Verlag, Munich 1981, ISBN 3-442-06367-1 .
- Gregor Ball: Grace Kelly. Your films - your life . 1st edition. Heyne-Verlag, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-453-86059-4 .
- James Spada: Grace. The secret past life of a princess . 1st edition. Ullstein Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-548-22155-6 .
- Jeffrey Robinson: Rainier and Grace: An intimate portrait . Atlantic Monthly Press, New York 1989, ISBN 0-87113-343-1 (American English).
- Jane Ellen Wayne: Grace Kelly's Men . St. Martin's Press, New York 1991, ISBN 0-312-05440-8 (American English).
- Howell Conant: Grace . HarperCollins, London 1992, ISBN 0-00-255202-7 (British English).
- Robert Lacey : Grace . GP Putnam's Sons, New York 1994, ISBN 0-399-13872-2 (American English).
- Bertrand Meyer-Stabley: La véritable Grace de Monaco . Le Grand Livre du mois, Paris 1999, ISBN 2-7028-3960-6 (French).
- J. Randy Taraborrelli: Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier: A Hollywood Tale in Monaco . Krüger Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-8105-1990-1 (American English: Once Upon a Time. Behind the Fairy Tale of Princess Grace and Prince Rainier .).
- Yann-Brice Dherbier / Pierre-Henri Verlhac (eds.): Grace Kelly. Pictures of a life . With a foreword by Tommy Hilfiger. Henschel Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-89487-570-4 .
- H. Kristina Haugland: Grace Kelly: Icon of Style to Royal Bride . Ed .: Philadelphia Museum of Art. Yale University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-300-11644-6 (American English).
- Frédéric Mitterrand : The Grace Kelly Years: Princess of Monaco . Skira Editore, Milan 2007, ISBN 978-88-6130-343-0 (American English).
- Manfred Hobsch : Grace Kelly: Hollywood Collection - A tribute in photographs . Ed .: Suzanne Lander. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-89602-935-5 .
- Donald Spoto: High Society: The Life of Grace Kelly . Harmony Books, New York 2009, ISBN 978-0-307-39561-0 (American English).
- Thilo Wydra : Grace. The biography . Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-351-02756-8 .
- Grace Kelly - Film Stills . With an introduction by Thilo Wydra . Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-8296-0667-7 .
- Literature by and about Grace Kelly in the catalog of the German National Library
- Grace Kelly in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Grace Kelly in the Internet Broadway Database (English)
- Grace Kelly in the All Movie Guide (English)
- Grace Kelly at Allmusic (English)
- Grace Kelly. In: FemBio. Women's biography research (with references and citations).
- Grace Kelly in the database of Find a Grave (English)
- ↑ AFI's 100 YEARS ... 100 STARS. American Film Institute , accessed October 4, 2013 .
- ↑ See Spoto (2009), p. 12.
- ↑ See Spada (1989), p. 19.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli (2004), p. 16.
- ↑ At the beginning of the 20th century, access to higher social classes was linked, among other things, to proof of one's own family tree up to the time before the American War of Independence . In addition, most of the residents of Philadelphia were of English origin and belonged to the Episcopal Church . See Spoto, p. 12.
- ^ Ernst Probst: Super women 7 - film and theater. Biographies of famous actresses in words and pictures . GRIN Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-638-93467-1 , pp. 59 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- ↑ See Spada, p. 25.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 28.
- ^ The Pulitzer Prizes - 1926 Winners. In: pulitzer.org. Columbia University, accessed November 29, 2009 .
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 20.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 13.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 26 ff.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 27.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 360.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 24.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 33.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 14.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 33.
- ↑ a b See Spada, p. 35.
- ↑ Various memorabilia in her scrap book indicate the importance of this relationship. See Mitterrand (2007), pp. 37–43.
- ↑ At the end of the 1940s, the women's college increased the requirements for basic training because the courses were overcrowded by those returning from war. Kelly only had a year of math instead of the required two years. See Spada, p. 39.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 26.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 41.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 42.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 39.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 47.
- ↑ According to the standards of 2009, the sum corresponds to a purchasing power of about 4,000 US dollars. See Spoto, p. 39.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 53 ff.
- ↑ See Lacey (1994), p. 104.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 36.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 48.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 69.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 109.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 52.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 52.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 55.
- ↑ See Spoto p. 65.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 67.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 71.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 68.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 83.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 96.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 98.
- ↑ See Spada, pp. 88 ff.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 96 ff.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 104.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 116.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 196.
- ↑ See Spada, pp. 95-110.
- ↑ See Lacey, p. 149.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 183.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 167.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 44.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 47-54.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 68.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 102.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 116.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 123-125.
- ↑ See Wydra, p. 228.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 165.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 215.
- ↑ See Haugland (2006), pp. 47–52.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 169.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 178.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 195.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 235.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 190/191
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 189.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 208.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 306.
- ↑ See Spada, pp. 263/264
- ↑ See Spada, p. 241 ff.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 245.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 219 ff.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 318/319.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 294.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 211.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 253.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 267-271.
- ↑ Hitchcock used the term "cattle" as a disparaging term for actors when they contradicted him in directing directions or other decisions without having what he believed to be the necessary qualifications. See Spoto, p. 116.
- ↑ See Mitterrand, p. 109.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 281.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 320/321
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 250.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 257.
- ↑ See Spoto, p. 249.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 313.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 312.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 361.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 322/323
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 341/342
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 311/312
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 343.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 384.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 386.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 414.
- ↑ See Spada, pp. 365-367.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 409.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 427.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 375.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 377.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 378.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 358.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 394.
- ^ Vienna's English Theater - History. INTER-THALIA Theater Betriebsgesellschaft, accessed on May 3, 2011 .
- ↑ See Spada, p. 349.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 352.
- ↑ Grace Kelly's last cameraman. (No longer available online.) Kleine Zeitung Online, February 23, 2010, archived from the original on September 23, 2014 ; accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- ↑ See Spada, p. 356.
- ↑ See Spoto, pp. 267-272.
- ↑ See Wydra, p. 291.
- ↑ Grace Kelly: 30 years ago: Horror crash into death In: Berliner Kurier , September 12, 2012
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 443.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 371.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 445.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 449.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 448.
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, p. 435 ff.
- ↑ Individual biographers contradict each other when answering the question of whose property the vehicle was landing on. According to Wydra, the real owners - an artistic director employed by the then Hotel Loews in Monte Carlo and his wife - never spoke out in public. What is undisputed, however, is the fact that a local farmer initially sold the subjective depiction of the events to the media, but later withdrew parts of his statement and thus lost credibility. See Robinson p. 367/368, Taraborrelli p. 439 and Wydra, p. 318.
- ↑ See Spada, p. 371 ff.
- ↑ See Wydra, pp. 324/325
- ↑ See Spada, pp. 376/377
- ↑ See Spada, p. 270.
- ↑ Le Gala. (No longer available online.) In: croix-rouge.mc. Croix Rouge Monégasque, archived from the original on April 24, 2010 ; Retrieved January 3, 2010 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Introduction. In: amademondiale.net. AMADE Mondiale, accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- ↑ La fondation Princesse Grace de Monaco. In: fondation-psse-grace.mc. La Fondation Princesse Grace de la Principauté de Monaco, accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- ↑ See Spada, p. 322.
- ^ Princess Grace Foundation-USA. In: pgfusa.org. Princess Grace Foundation-USA, accessed January 3, 2010 .
- ^ A Brief History of La Leche League International. (No longer available online.) In: llli.org. La Leche League International, archived from the original on June 25, 2010 ; accessed on January 3, 2010 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ See Spada, pp. 323/324
- ↑ See Taraborrelli, pp. 378/379
- ↑ See Haugland (2006), pp. 70/80
- ↑ See Lacey, p. 276.
- ↑ Ines Schipperges: Grace Kelly. The princess of glamor. In: sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung Online, April 29, 2008, accessed June 16, 2010 .
- ↑ Hermès Grace Kelly Handbag. (No longer available online.) In: theiamagazine.com. May 16, 2010, archived from the original on November 4, 2012 ; accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- ^ Andy Warhol - Grace Kelly. In: warholprints.com. DJT Fine Art Gallery, 2013, accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- ↑ Prins Albert II van Monaco co-opts Grace Kelly-portret van kunstschilder Peter Engels. (PDF: 2.3 MB) In: peterengels.eu (Press Releases May 2009). Peter Engels, May 11, 2009, accessed January 3, 2011 (Dutch).
- ^ Campagnes Publicitaires. In: taittinger.com. Champagne TAITTINGER, accessed January 2, 2010 (French).
- ^ All publications by Die Ärzte - Grace Kelly. In: bademeister.com. The Doctors - Official Homepage, accessed November 29, 2009 .
- ↑ If It Weren't For Venetian Blinds It Would Be Curtains For Us All. (No longer available online.) In: piebald.com. Piebald - alternative fuel and environmental rockers, archived from the original on December 27, 2011 ; accessed on November 5, 2010 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Eels Discography: Daisies of the Galaxy. In: eelstheband.com. Eels: Official Band Website, accessed November 29, 2009 .
- ^ Mika Sounds / MIKA - Grace Kelly. In: mikasounds.com. MikaSounds - Official Homepage, accessed December 15, 2015 .
- ^ Valentina Artsrunik: Monaco's Wild Child . Artnik, London 2004, ISBN 1-903906-34-2 , pp. 170 ff . (American English, limited preview in Google Book Search).
- ^ Princess Grace of Monaco & Cartier. (No longer available online.) In: rodeodrive-bh.com. Rodeo Drive, October 22, 2009; archived from the original on December 28, 2009 ; accessed on January 1, 2010 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Princesse Grace de Monaco. In: montblanc.com. Montblanc, accessed December 15, 2015 .
- ↑ Presentation of the special collection Princess Grace de Monaco , accessed on March 16, 2012
- ↑ Not amused ( Memento of the original from September 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: Riviera Côte d'Azur newspaper , January 16, 2013.
- ^ Dpa: Jan Mojto is planning a film about Grace Kelly . In: Der Tagesspiegel , October 4, 2011.
- ↑ Director Robert Dornhelm about his film "K2 - The Italian Mountain". (No longer available online.) Unitymedia KabelBW, archived from the original on January 13, 2013 ; Retrieved August 23, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Attractions. Princess Grace Rose Garden. In: monacoauction.com. Monaco Government Tourist Office, accessed June 16, 2010 .
- ↑ Biography Kees Verkade. In: keesverkade.com. Kees Verkade, accessed December 15, 2015 (French).
- ^ Barth Healey: US and Monaco Honor Grace Kelly. In: nytimes.com. The New York Times Online, March 21, 1993; accessed December 31, 2009 .
- ^ Biography for Grace Kelly. Trivia. In: IMDb.com. IMDb.com, Inc., accessed January 5, 2010 .
- ↑ See Haugland
- ↑ Buy 2 euro commemorative coins as an investment. (No longer available online.) In: Unternehmer.focus.de. FOCUS Online, February 26, 2014, archived from the original on March 18, 2014 ; accessed on March 18, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Sabine Glaubitz: In the footsteps of Grace Kelly through Monaco. In: welt.de. Die Welt Online, September 16, 2009, accessed January 2, 2010 .
- ↑ Grace Kelly. Nostalgia in the principality. In: FAZ.NET. FAZ Electronic Media GmbH, August 28, 2007, accessed on July 21, 2010 .
- ↑ The fairy tale world of a Hollywood diva ( memento of the original from January 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: Riviera Côte d'Azur newspaper , September 30, 2009.
- ^ Princess Charlene opens an exhibition on Grace Kelly in Bendigo, Victoria. In: dailytelegraph.com.au. The Daily Telegraph, March 10, 2012, accessed March 10, 2012 .
- ^ Prince Albert visits the Netherlands without a pregnant Charlène . In: Hamburger Abendblatt , June 3, 2014.
- ^ Amy S. Rosenberg: Grace Kelly's home gets historical marker. (No longer available online.) In: philly.com. The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 27, 2012, archived from the original on November 14, 2012 ; accessed on October 30, 2012 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Alan J. Heavens: Prince Albert of Monaco says he bought the East Falls' home of his mother, Grace Kelly. In: philly.com. The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 23, 2016, accessed October 24, 2016 .
|Ghislaine Dommanget||Princess of Monaco
|Charlène of Monaco|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Kelly, Grace Patricia (maiden name); Grimaldi, Grace Patricia; Grace Patricia, Princesse de Monaco; Gracia Patricia, Princess of Monaco|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American film actress, Princess of Monaco|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 12, 1929|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Philadelphia , Pennsylvania, USA|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 14, 1982|
|Place of death||Monaco|