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US state : new York
Administrative headquarters :
Foundation : 1624
Residents : 1,636,268  (2014)
Population density : 27,500.3 inhabitants / km 2
Total area : 87.5 km²
Water surface : 28.0 km²
Map of New York County within New York
Website :
The borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, is between the East River and the Hudson River (La Guardia in the north and JF Kennedy in the south are colored blue)
Manhattan from the air, October 2017
Manhattan satellite image

Manhattan [ mænhætn ] is an island at the mouth of the Hudson River , one of the five boroughs ( boroughs ) of the city of New York City and coincides with New York County . Manhattan Island is surrounded by the Hudson River in the west, the East River in the east and the Harlem River in the northeast.

Borough Manhattan also includes other smaller islands, including Roosevelt Island , U Thant Island (officially Belmont Island ), Governors Island , Randall's Island / Wards Island and a small piece of the mainland, Marble Hill . Marble Hill was part of Manhattan Island until the Harlem River Ship Canal was built in the 19th century.


Manhattan is 13 miles long and between 1.3 and 3.7 kilometers wide. According to the United States Census Bureau , Manhattan has an area of ​​87.5 km², of which 59.5 km² are land and 28.0 km² are water. The highest natural point is Long Hill, Fort Washington / Bennett Park (184th Street and Fort Washington Boulevard) at 80.77 m, marked by a plaque.

Manhattan is connected to the mainland and the neighboring island to the east by bridges and tunnels: in the west with New Jersey , in the east with the boroughs Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island and in the northeast with the Bronx . The only direct connection to Staten Island is the Staten Island Ferry , whose terminal is at Battery Park .

East Side and West Side

The Central Park divides the central part of Manhattan in the Upper East Side and Upper West Side . This can be found in the street names, which are divided into East streets (east of 5th Avenue) and West streets (west of 5th Avenue). Fifth Avenue meets Central Park in the north, which from there divides east and west, and Washington Square Park in the south . From Washington Square Park, Broadway serves as a dividing street until the division into east and west in the more confused street network at the southern tip of the street disappears.

In addition to the Upper East Side, there is the Lower East Side on the eastern southern tip of Manhattan . The East Village to the north also originally belonged to this . The term Lower West Side is not in use. As a counterpart to the East Village, however, there is the West Village . To the south of the Upper East and Upper West Side, there are around a dozen other neighborhoods such as SoHo , Tribeca , Financial District , Gramercy Park , etc.

Uptown and Downtown

In Manhattan, Uptown means (to) north and Downtown means (to) south. So go Uptown Trains of the subway to the north of Manhattan, whereas Downtown Trains travel to the south of Manhattan. The area between 23rd Street and 59th Street is called Midtown . In many other US cities, Downtown is the city ​​center . Midtown Manhattan is the largest inner-city business and office complex in the United States and goes south to Chambers Street.

Accordingly, the term Lower Manhattan describes the "lower" and southwestern part of the island (south of Chambers Street ). Lower Manhattan includes the areas of City Hall , the Financial District as well as the site of the destroyed World Trade Center (Ground Zero) and its immediate surroundings. Lower Manhattan is the fourth largest downtown business and office complex in the United States.

Road network

At the beginning of the 19th century the city grew faster and faster; new residential areas should be developed. In 1811, the city planners decided with the Commissioners' Plan to cover the entire island of Manhattan, of which until then almost only the southern tip was built on, with a uniform, easily memorable road network (Engl .: grid ). The design of the ingeniously simple street grid (Randel plan) came from John Randel Jr. (1787-1865). It is also known as the Manhattan street grid .

The twelve north-south oriented longitudinal streets were given names with the addition "Avenue". The east-west oriented cross streets were generally given names with numbers increasing continuously to the north and the addition "Street". They are numbered from the south from Bleecker / Houston Street with ordinal numbers from 1st to 193rd in the north at the level of the Bronx .

The 5th Avenue divides the cross-roads of East and West, each side its own, 5th from the Ave. from ascending house numbering. For example, 10 East 42nd Street and 10 West 42nd Street are two different buildings. The Central Park lies in its north-south axis between the 59th Street and 110th Street . 5th Avenue forms its eastern edge. South of Houston Street, the naming was already completed. The other exceptions in the system were the existing Broadway as the central axis up to Central Park, Times Square and the freeway-like, the island almost completely enclosing West Street (partly 10th, 11th and 12th Avenue) and South Street or respectively the FDR-Drive as the easternmost traffic axis.

In Manhattan there are also a few east-west oriented streets that serve as a connection between tunnels or bridges beyond Manhattan: 36th Street to 40th Street between the Lincoln and Queens Midtown tunnels and the streets between Canal Street (at the Holland Tunnel ) and the feeders of the Williamsburg Bridge .

The same applies in the north of the island to the George Washington Bridge and its continuation in the Cross Bronx Expressway . Manhattan is only used as a bridge pillar on this side of the Hudson.


Location of the districts on a map from 1920

The island of Manhattan is administratively one of the five boroughs of the City of New York. This Borough / county consists of several parts of the city / neighborhoods ( neighborhoods ):

Battery Park City Little Italy
Carnegie Hill Lower East Side
Chelsea Lower Manhattan
Chinatown Meatpacking District
East Harlem Murray Hill
East Village NoHo
Financial District SoHo
Flatiron District Tribeca
Garment District Turtle Bay
Gramercy Park Upper East Side
Greenwich Village Upper West Side
Harlem Washington Heights
Hell's Kitchen West Village
Inwood Yorkville


Population development

Manhattan has 1,636,268 inhabitants (2014). While the population of all other New York boroughs has risen sharply since the beginning of the 20th century, it has almost halved in Manhattan between 1910 and 1980. After 1950 in particular, the population steadily decreased as a result of suburbanization . Only since the mid-1980s has there been slight population growth again, which is currently 0.8% (annual average 2000–2008). The population density of 27,476 people per km² of land area is still the highest of all New York boroughs.

The census statistics only reflect the resident population . Due to commuters and visitors, the number of people in Manhattan increases to around 4 million on a typical working day and to 2.9 million on the weekend.

Population groups and origins

The composition of the population of Manhattan is less heterogeneous compared to the other boroughs of New York. The largest group are non-Hispanic whites at 48% (New York overall: 35%). The immigrants of European origin are mostly British , Irish , German , Italian and Russian .

Hispanics form the second largest population group with a total of 25%. At 14%, the proportion of non-Hispanic blacks or African-Americans is significantly lower than in New York as a whole (24%). The Asians are growing most group and now make up 11% of the population from Manhattan.

32% of Manhattan's residents were born outside of the United States, including 12.7% in Latin America (excluding Puerto Rico), 8.3% in Asia and 5.1% in Europe.

The following two tables show statistical data on the population groups / races and on the origin / descent of the inhabitants of Manhattan. All data are self-reported by the respondents.

Population groups / races Census 1990 Census 2000 ACS
white 58.3% 54.4% 56.7%
- Non-Hispanics 48.9% 45.8% 47.4%
- Hispanics 9.4% 8.6% 9.3%
Black / African American 22.0% 17.4% 15.1%
- Non-Hispanics 17.6% 15.3% 12.8%
- Hispanics 4.4% 2.1% 2.3%
Asians 7.4% 9.4% 11.6%
Mixed race N / A 4.1% 4.0%
American Indians and Native Americans 0.4% 0.5% 0.4%
Others 11.9% 14.2% 12.2%
- Hispanics 11.6% 13.7% 11.7%
Hispanics / Latinos overall 26.0% 27.2% 25.7%
Origin / descent
Census 1990
Census 2000
Dominican 9.2% 8.9% 10.4%
British 5.5% 6.4% 7.4%
- English 4.0% 4.3% 5.0%
- Scots 0.8% 1.1% 1.2%
Irish 5.1% 6.9% 7.3%
Puerto Ricans 10.0% 7.8% 7.3%
German 6.0% 6.0% 6.5%
Italian 4.4% 5.5% 6.1%
Chinese 4.9% 5.7% 6.0%
Russians 5.3% 4.9% 5.0%
American 2.2% 2.8% 4.6%
Poland 3.1% 3.5% 3.5%
South American 1.9% 1.6% 2.3%
Mexican 0.7% 2.0% 2.2%
French 1) 1.1% 1.7% 1.9%
West Indians (excluding Hispanics) 1.6% 1.8% 1.7%
Sub-Saharan Africans 0.6% 1.2% 1.5%
In the 0.4% 1.0% 1.4%
Korean 0.4% 0.7% 1.0%
different origin 25.7% 31.7% 23.9%
without assignment / without information 11.9% −0.1% 2) N / A

1) excluding Basques , including Alsatians ; 2) Total 100.1% because more ancestry than inhabitants were given


English is 61% more widespread as a native language in Manhattan than in New York overall (52%). The second most important language is Spanish , which is used by 23% of the population at home. The other languages ​​together make up 16%. Overall, 18% of respondents say they don't speak English very well.

Mother tongues Census 1990 Census 2000 ACS
English 61.0% 58.1% 61.2%
Spanish 1) 24.0% 24.9% 22.5%
Chinese 4.5% 5.2% 5.3%
French 2) 2.3% 2.4% 2.2%
German 1.2% 0.9% k. A.
Japanese 0.6% 0.9% k. A.
Italian 1.0% 0.8% k. A.
other language (s 5.4% 6.8% 8.8%
English (mother and second language) 80.7% 80.0% 82.4%

1) including Spanish Creole ; 2) including patois , Cajun and French Creole


The largest denomination in Manhattan is the Roman Catholic Church with 37% of the population. The proportion of Jews with 20% is the second highest of all American counties. Protestants from different directions make up 9% together.

Religions 2000 Number of
Proportion of (%)
Christians 720.095 46.8%
- Catholics 564.505 36.7%
- Mainline Protestants 99,916 6.5%
- American Baptist Churches USA 28,611 1.9%
- Episcopal Church 23,742 1.5%
- Methodist Church 12,900 0.8%
- Reformed Church in America 12,439 0.8%
- Presbyterian Church (USA) 10,715 0.7%
- Evangelical Protestants 32,144 2.1%
- International churches of Christ 7,868 0.5%
- Orthodox 19,705 1.3%
Jews 314,500 20.5%
Muslims 37,078 2.4%
Other / non-denominational / no information 465,522 30.3%


Manhattan around 1873
Manhattan around 1931
Downtown Manhattan's skyline prior to September 11, 2001
View of Manhattan from Brooklyn
Panorama of Downtown Manhattan 2017

The name Manhattan (originally Manna-hata or Mannahatta , but also the spellings Manados, Manahata, Manahtoes, Manhattos are guaranteed) comes from an Algonquin Indian language, the Lenape , and means something like "hilly land" or "land of many hills". A group of the Munsee Indian tribe was called Manhattan (see Lenni Lenape ). The Algonquin were the first inhabitants of Manhattan, with the Wickquaesgeck between Harlem Creek and Manhattanville inhabiting the north around 1600 and the Reckgawanck in the south of the island. However, both tribes had their main villages on the mainland, where the greater part of their area was located. In 1524 the Italian Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to sight the island of Manhattan. In the 17th century, Peter Minuit bought the island from the Indians for goods worth 60 Dutch guilders .

Manhattan was settled by Dutch people from 1624 (see Nieuw Amsterdam ). In 1667, in the Peace of Breda , the Netherlands left the island to the English. In exchange , they received Run , a small Indonesian island with which they could secure their spice monopoly for a century. The “Welikia Project” (also “Mannahatta Project”) tries to reconstruct New York City's original landscape from 400 years ago.

Historical objects

  • Between Pearl Street , Water Street , Broad Street and Coenties Slip is the Fraunces Tavern Block , a block that was listed on April 28, 1977 by the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) as a historic building with the number 77000957. The first buildings in this block, which comprises 16 buildings, date back to around 1719.
  • The Hamilton Fish House (also known as the Stuyvesant-Fish House or Nicholas and Elizabeth Stuyvesant Fish House ) , built in 1803, is at number 21 on Stuyvesant Street . The residence of the future Governor of New York, Hamilton Fish , was listed on July 31, 1972 by the National Register of Historic Places as a national historic monument with the number 72001456. It was also registered on May 15, 1975 as a National Historic Landmark (NHL).
  • The Dyckman House , completed in 1784, is the only remaining farmhouse in Manhattan. It's in the Inwood neighborhood, on the corner of Broadway and 204th Street. The house, built in the Dutch colonial style, is now used as a museum and was entered on December 24, 1967 under the number 67000014 on both the National Register of Historic Places and the list of National Historic Landmarks .

There are four National Monuments and three National Memorials in Manhattan . 90 places have the status of a National Historic Landmark . A total of 543 structures and sites in the county are registered in the National Register of Historic Places (as of February 17, 2018).

Landmarks and sights

The Empire State Building was the tallest building in Manhattan and all of New York from 1931 to 1970, and then again from Sept. 11, 2001 to May 2013.
Midtown Manhattan skyline
The Lower Manhattan's skyline

Here is a list of some of the most popular Manhattan attractions. See also the New York City article .

360 ° panorama, Manhattan from the Empire State Building by day

Bridges and tunnels

The islands of Manhattan are connected by 22 bridges and 21 tunnels to the mainland ( New Jersey in the west, Bronx in the north) and Long Island in the east. The following list is broken down according to the waters crossed and follows clockwise , starting in the northwest.

Harlem River

The Harlem River is a narrow inlet that connects the East River and the Hudson for over eight miles.
Bridges from northwest to southeast:

photo Surname opening length traces traffic comment
Spuyten Duyvil Swing Bridge.jpg Sputyen Duyvil Bridge 1899 186 m 1 - Swing Bridge ,
Railway (West Sideline) only
Henry hudson bridge.jpg Henry Hudson Bridge 1936 673 m 7th 70.094
Broadway bridge new york city.jpg Broadway Bridge a 1962 93 m 4th 35,523 Lift Bridge ,
IRT Broadway - Seventh Avenue LineNYCS-bull-trans-1-hrsvg , 3 tracks
University Heights Bridge 1908 82 m 4th 41,422 Swing bridge
HarlemRiverBridges.jpgThree bridges over the Harlem River: The High Bridge in the foreground, the Alexander Hamilton Bridge and the Washington Bridge farthest away. Washington Bridge 1888 724 m 6th 56,945
Alexander Hamilton Bridge 1963 724 m 8th 192.651
High bridge 1848 600 m - - Aqueduct - no traffic
Macombs Dam Bridge 1895 774 m 4th 40,749 Swing bridge
Concourse tunnel 1933 3 - IND Concourse Line NYCS-bull-trans-B-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-D-Std.svg
149th Street Tunnel 1905 2 - IRT White Plains Road LineNYCS-bull-trans-2-hour svg
145th Street Bridge 1905 4th 21,147 Swing bridge
Madison Avenue Bridge 1910 4th 44,663 Swing bridge
Park Avenue Bridge 1954 3 - Lift bridge, rail only
Lexington Avenue tunnel 1918 4th - IRT Lexinton Avenue LineNYCS-bull-trans-4-hrsvgNYCS-bull-trans-5-hrsvgNYCS-bull-trans-6-hrsvgNYCS-bull-trans-6d-std.svg
Third Avenue Bridge 1898 5 59,712 Swing bridge
( Harlem River Bridge ) 1897 4th - Railway swing bridge, closed in 1955
Willis avenue bridge 2011.jpg Willis Avenue Bridge 2010
4th 65.113 Swing bridge

a Although it crosses the Harlem River (more precisely the Harlem River Ship Canal , completed in 1895), the Broadway Bridge connects two districts within Manhattan: Inwood in the south with Marble Hill in the north. The two bridges over Spuyten Duyvil Creek , which formed the natural course of the Harlem River around Marble Hill, were King's Bridge (first bridge in the city, 1693) and Dyckman Bridge (1759). This part was raised in 1914.

Bronx kill

(separates the Bronx from Randall's Island)

from west to east:

Surname opening length traces traffic comment
Triborough Bridge 1936 488 m 8th North arm of the Triborough Bridge
Bronx kill crossing 1916 107 m 3 - Railway bridge

East River

from north to south:

photo Surname opening length traces traffic comment
Hell Gate and Triborough Bridges New York City Queens.jpgThe eastern arm of the Triborough Bridge and the Hell Gate Bridge; View from Queens towards Manhattan Hell Gate Bridge 1916 310 m 3 - Railway bridge
Robert F. Kennedy Bridge 1936 847 m 8th 97.241 Eastern arm of the Triborough Bridge
Roosevelt Island Bridge 1955 877 m 2 Lift bridge
63rd Street Tunnel 1989 960 m 4th - IND 63rd Street LineNYCS-bull-trans-F-Std.svg
60th Street Tunnel 1920 2 - BMT Broadway LineNYCS-bull-trans-N-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-Q-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-R-Std.svg
Queensboro Bridge-2.jpg Queensboro Bridge 1909 1,135 m 10 181.365 Two levels on top of each other
53rd Street Tunnel 1933 2 - IND Queens Boulevard LineNYCS-bull-trans-E-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-M-Std.svg
Steinway tunnel 1915 2 - IRT flushing line NYCS-bull-trans-7-hrsvg
Queens Midtown Tunnel 1940 1,955 m 4th 88,379
East River Tunnels 1910 4 × 1 - 4 railway tunnels
14th Street Tunnel 1924 2 - BMT Canarsie Line NYCS-bull-trans-L-Std.svg
Above Williamsburg Bridge crop.jpg Williamsburg Bridge 1903 2,228 m 8 + 2 110,545 2 lanes subway lines BMT Nassau Street Line / BMT Jamaica LineNYCS-bull-trans-J-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-M-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-Z-Std.svg
Rutgers Street Tunnel 1936 2 - IND Sixth Avenue LineNYCS-bull-trans-F-Std.svg
Two bridges.jpgManhattan Bridge (left) and Brooklyn Bridge (right); View from Manhattan towards Brooklyn Manhattan Bridge 1909 2,089 m 7 + 4 73.205 IND Sixth Avenue Line , BMT Broadway LineNYCS-bull-trans-B-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-D-Std.svg
Brooklyn Bridge 1883 1,825 m 6th 131,551
Cranberry Street Tunnel 1933 2 - IND Eighth Avenue LineNYCS-bull-trans-A-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-C-Std.svg
Clark Street Tunnel 1919 2 - IRT Broadway - Seventh Avenue LineNYCS-bull-trans-2-hour svgNYCS-bull-trans-3-hour svg
Montague Street Tunnel 1920 2 - BMT Broadway LineNYCS-bull-trans-N-Std.svgNYCS-bull-trans-R-Std.svg
Joralemon Street Tunnel 1908 2 - IRT Lexington Avenue LineNYCS-bull-trans-4-hrsvgNYCS-bull-trans-5-hrsvg
Brookbattunmanjeh.JPG Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel 1950 2,779 m 4th 56,539

Hudson River

George Washington Bridge

from south to north:

Surname opening length traces traffic comment
Downtown Hudson Tubes 1909 - Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) to World Trade Center
Holland tunnel 1927 2,609 m 4th 100,491 Road tunnel
Uptown Hudson Tubes 1908 1,700 m 2 - PATH
North River Tunnels 1910 1,900 m 2 - Railway tunnel of the northeast corridor
Lincoln Tunnel 1937 2,504 m 3 × 2 122.092 Road tunnel
George Washington Bridge 1931 1,451 m 14th 291,391 Road bridge


see also list of parks in New York City

See also


Web links

Commons : Manhattan  - collection of images, videos, and audio files
Wikivoyage: Manhattan  Travel Guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b US Census Bureau
  2. The Randel Plan is made available online by the Museum of the City of New York . The historical courses from 1811 and today are shown in such a way that they can be easily compared by overlaying them. The original is 106 × 30 7/16 inches long / wide. Here it is online at the Museum of the City of New York in miniature form: The greatest Grid. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  3. Mitchell L. Moss and Carson Qing: The Dynamic Population of Manhattan ( Memento of the original from January 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Study by the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management, Wagner School of Public Service, New York University, March 2012.
  4. a b c The American Community Survey is a representative three-year study by the US Census Bureau with random surveys of the population.
  5. Association of Religion Data Archives ( Memento of the original dated December 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  6. New York Facts ( Memento of the original from January 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. - Article on Motorrad online , October 9, 2008 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. ^ Arthur Caswell Parker: The archeological history of New York , New York n.d., p. 626.
  8. Welikia Project
  9. a b NRIS
  10. History of the Fraunces Tavern Museum ( Memento of the original from January 27, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  11. New York Architecture Images- Stuyvesant-Fish House
  12. Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State: New York . National Park Service , accessed February 17, 2018.
  13. Search mask database in the National Register Information System. National Park Service , accessed February 17, 2018.
  14. a b c d vehicles per day, collected in autumn 2007 from: Manhattan River Crossings 2007 (PDF; 402 kB), New York City Department of Transportation
  15. Guide to Civil Engineering Projects In and Around New York City , 2nd. 1st edition, Metropolitan Section, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009, pp. 62-63.

Coordinates: 40 ° 46 ′ 0 ″  N , 73 ° 59 ′ 0 ″  W.