|US state :||new York|
|Administrative headquarters :|
|Residents :||1,636,268 (2014)|
|Population density :||27,500.3 inhabitants / km 2|
|Total area :||87.5 km²|
|Water surface :||28.0 km²|
|Website : manhattanbp.nyc.gov|
Manhattan [ mænhætn ] is an island at the mouth of the Hudson River , one of the five boroughs ( boroughs ) of the city of New York City and coincides with New York County . Manhattan Island is surrounded by the Hudson River in the west, the East River in the east and the Harlem River in the northeast.
Borough Manhattan also includes other smaller islands, including Roosevelt Island , U Thant Island (officially Belmont Island ), Governors Island , Randall's Island / Wards Island and a small piece of the mainland, Marble Hill . Marble Hill was part of Manhattan Island until the Harlem River Ship Canal was built in the 19th century.
Manhattan is 13 miles long and between 1.3 and 3.7 kilometers wide. According to the United States Census Bureau , Manhattan has an area of 87.5 km², of which 59.5 km² are land and 28.0 km² are water. The highest natural point is Long Hill, Fort Washington / Bennett Park (184th Street and Fort Washington Boulevard) at 80.77 m, marked by a plaque.
Manhattan is connected to the mainland and the neighboring island to the east by bridges and tunnels: in the west with New Jersey , in the east with the boroughs Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island and in the northeast with the Bronx . The only direct connection to Staten Island is the Staten Island Ferry , whose terminal is at Battery Park .
East Side and West Side
The Central Park divides the central part of Manhattan in the Upper East Side and Upper West Side . This can be found in the street names, which are divided into East streets (east of 5th Avenue) and West streets (west of 5th Avenue). Fifth Avenue meets Central Park in the north, which from there divides east and west, and Washington Square Park in the south . From Washington Square Park, Broadway serves as a dividing street until the division into east and west in the more confused street network at the southern tip of the street disappears.
In addition to the Upper East Side, there is the Lower East Side on the eastern southern tip of Manhattan . The East Village to the north also originally belonged to this . The term Lower West Side is not in use. As a counterpart to the East Village, however, there is the West Village . To the south of the Upper East and Upper West Side, there are around a dozen other neighborhoods such as SoHo , Tribeca , Financial District , Gramercy Park , etc.
Uptown and Downtown
In Manhattan, Uptown means (to) north and Downtown means (to) south. So go Uptown Trains of the subway to the north of Manhattan, whereas Downtown Trains travel to the south of Manhattan. The area between 23rd Street and 59th Street is called Midtown . In many other US cities, Downtown is the city center . Midtown Manhattan is the largest inner-city business and office complex in the United States and goes south to Chambers Street.
Accordingly, the term Lower Manhattan describes the "lower" and southwestern part of the island (south of Chambers Street ). Lower Manhattan includes the areas of City Hall , the Financial District as well as the site of the destroyed World Trade Center (Ground Zero) and its immediate surroundings. Lower Manhattan is the fourth largest downtown business and office complex in the United States.
At the beginning of the 19th century the city grew faster and faster; new residential areas should be developed. In 1811, the city planners decided with the Commissioners' Plan to cover the entire island of Manhattan, of which until then almost only the southern tip was built on, with a uniform, easily memorable road network (Engl .: grid ). The design of the ingeniously simple street grid (Randel plan) came from John Randel Jr. (1787-1865). It is also known as the Manhattan street grid .
The twelve north-south oriented longitudinal streets were given names with the addition "Avenue". The east-west oriented cross streets were generally given names with numbers increasing continuously to the north and the addition "Street". They are numbered from the south from Bleecker / Houston Street with ordinal numbers from 1st to 193rd in the north at the level of the Bronx .
The 5th Avenue divides the cross-roads of East and West, each side its own, 5th from the Ave. from ascending house numbering. For example, 10 East 42nd Street and 10 West 42nd Street are two different buildings. The Central Park lies in its north-south axis between the 59th Street and 110th Street . 5th Avenue forms its eastern edge. South of Houston Street, the naming was already completed. The other exceptions in the system were the existing Broadway as the central axis up to Central Park, Times Square and the freeway-like, the island almost completely enclosing West Street (partly 10th, 11th and 12th Avenue) and South Street or respectively the FDR-Drive as the easternmost traffic axis.
In Manhattan there are also a few east-west oriented streets that serve as a connection between tunnels or bridges beyond Manhattan: 36th Street to 40th Street between the Lincoln and Queens Midtown tunnels and the streets between Canal Street (at the Holland Tunnel ) and the feeders of the Williamsburg Bridge .
The island of Manhattan is administratively one of the five boroughs of the City of New York. This Borough / county consists of several parts of the city / neighborhoods ( neighborhoods ):
Manhattan has 1,636,268 inhabitants (2014). While the population of all other New York boroughs has risen sharply since the beginning of the 20th century, it has almost halved in Manhattan between 1910 and 1980. After 1950 in particular, the population steadily decreased as a result of suburbanization . Only since the mid-1980s has there been slight population growth again, which is currently 0.8% (annual average 2000–2008). The population density of 27,476 people per km² of land area is still the highest of all New York boroughs.
The census statistics only reflect the resident population . Due to commuters and visitors, the number of people in Manhattan increases to around 4 million on a typical working day and to 2.9 million on the weekend.
Population groups and origins
The composition of the population of Manhattan is less heterogeneous compared to the other boroughs of New York. The largest group are non-Hispanic whites at 48% (New York overall: 35%). The immigrants of European origin are mostly British , Irish , German , Italian and Russian .
Hispanics form the second largest population group with a total of 25%. At 14%, the proportion of non-Hispanic blacks or African-Americans is significantly lower than in New York as a whole (24%). The Asians are growing most group and now make up 11% of the population from Manhattan.
32% of Manhattan's residents were born outside of the United States, including 12.7% in Latin America (excluding Puerto Rico), 8.3% in Asia and 5.1% in Europe.
The following two tables show statistical data on the population groups / races and on the origin / descent of the inhabitants of Manhattan. All data are self-reported by the respondents.
|Population groups / races||Census 1990||Census 2000||ACS
|Black / African American||22.0%||17.4%||15.1%|
|Mixed race||N / A||4.1%||4.0%|
|American Indians and Native Americans||0.4%||0.5%||0.4%|
|Hispanics / Latinos overall||26.0%||27.2%||25.7%|
|Origin / descent
|West Indians (excluding Hispanics)||1.6%||1.8%||1.7%|
|without assignment / without information||11.9%||−0.1% 2)||N / A|
English is 61% more widespread as a native language in Manhattan than in New York overall (52%). The second most important language is Spanish , which is used by 23% of the population at home. The other languages together make up 16%. Overall, 18% of respondents say they don't speak English very well.
|Mother tongues||Census 1990||Census 2000||ACS
|other language (s||5.4%||6.8%||8.8%|
|English (mother and second language)||80.7%||80.0%||82.4%|
The largest denomination in Manhattan is the Roman Catholic Church with 37% of the population. The proportion of Jews with 20% is the second highest of all American counties. Protestants from different directions make up 9% together.
|Religions 2000||Number of
|Proportion of (%)|
|- Mainline Protestants||99,916||6.5%|
|- American Baptist Churches USA||28,611||1.9%|
|- Episcopal Church||23,742||1.5%|
|- Methodist Church||12,900||0.8%|
|- Reformed Church in America||12,439||0.8%|
|- Presbyterian Church (USA)||10,715||0.7%|
|- Evangelical Protestants||32,144||2.1%|
|- International churches of Christ||7,868||0.5%|
|Other / non-denominational / no information||465,522||30.3%|
The name Manhattan (originally Manna-hata or Mannahatta , but also the spellings Manados, Manahata, Manahtoes, Manhattos are guaranteed) comes from an Algonquin Indian language, the Lenape , and means something like "hilly land" or "land of many hills". A group of the Munsee Indian tribe was called Manhattan (see Lenni Lenape ). The Algonquin were the first inhabitants of Manhattan, with the Wickquaesgeck between Harlem Creek and Manhattanville inhabiting the north around 1600 and the Reckgawanck in the south of the island. However, both tribes had their main villages on the mainland, where the greater part of their area was located. In 1524 the Italian Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to sight the island of Manhattan. In the 17th century, Peter Minuit bought the island from the Indians for goods worth 60 Dutch guilders .
Manhattan was settled by Dutch people from 1624 (see Nieuw Amsterdam ). In 1667, in the Peace of Breda , the Netherlands left the island to the English. In exchange , they received Run , a small Indonesian island with which they could secure their spice monopoly for a century. The “Welikia Project” (also “Mannahatta Project”) tries to reconstruct New York City's original landscape from 400 years ago.
- Between Pearl Street , Water Street , Broad Street and Coenties Slip is the Fraunces Tavern Block , a block that was listed on April 28, 1977 by the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) as a historic building with the number 77000957. The first buildings in this block, which comprises 16 buildings, date back to around 1719.
- The Hamilton Fish House (also known as the Stuyvesant-Fish House or Nicholas and Elizabeth Stuyvesant Fish House ) , built in 1803, is at number 21 on Stuyvesant Street . The residence of the future Governor of New York, Hamilton Fish , was listed on July 31, 1972 by the National Register of Historic Places as a national historic monument with the number 72001456. It was also registered on May 15, 1975 as a National Historic Landmark (NHL).
- The Dyckman House , completed in 1784, is the only remaining farmhouse in Manhattan. It's in the Inwood neighborhood, on the corner of Broadway and 204th Street. The house, built in the Dutch colonial style, is now used as a museum and was entered on December 24, 1967 under the number 67000014 on both the National Register of Historic Places and the list of National Historic Landmarks .
There are four National Monuments and three National Memorials in Manhattan . 90 places have the status of a National Historic Landmark . A total of 543 structures and sites in the county are registered in the National Register of Historic Places (as of February 17, 2018).
Landmarks and sights
Here is a list of some of the most popular Manhattan attractions. See also the New York City article .
- 111 Eighth Avenue - one of the largest office buildings in the city
- 20 Exchange Place
- 40 Wall Street
- American International Building
- American Museum of Natural History
- Bank of America Tower
- Theater District along Broadway
- Brooklyn Bridge
- Central Park
- Chrysler Building
- Citigroup Center
- Columbia University
- East 73rd Street Historic District
- Empire State Building
- Federal Hall
- Fifth avenue
- Flatiron Building
- Grand Central Terminal
- High line
- Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
- Little Italy
- Museum Mile
- Museum of Modern Art
- New York Times Tower
- New York University
- Rockefeller Center
- Seagram Building
- South Street Seaport
- Times Square
- Trump World Tower
- Wall street
- Woolworth Building
- World Financial Center
- World Trade Center (destroyed on September 11, 2001 , see World Trade Center Site and One World Trade Center )
Bridges and tunnels
The islands of Manhattan are connected by 22 bridges and 21 tunnels to the mainland ( New Jersey in the west, Bronx in the north) and Long Island in the east. The following list is broken down according to the waters crossed and follows clockwise , starting in the northwest.
- See the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) of NY state with the MTA bridges and tunnels and the public transport system in the city and region and the article on the New York City Department of Transportation for essentially the remaining bridges.
The Harlem River is a narrow inlet that connects the East River and the Hudson for over eight miles.
Bridges from northwest to southeast:
|Sputyen Duyvil Bridge||1899||186 m||1||-||
Swing Bridge ,
Railway (West Sideline) only
|Henry Hudson Bridge||1936||673 m||7th||70.094|
|Broadway Bridge a||1962||93 m||4th||35,523||
Lift Bridge ,
IRT Broadway - Seventh Avenue Line , 3 tracks
|University Heights Bridge||1908||82 m||4th||41,422||Swing bridge|
|Three bridges over the Harlem River: The High Bridge in the foreground, the Alexander Hamilton Bridge and the Washington Bridge farthest away.||Washington Bridge||1888||724 m||6th||56,945|
|Alexander Hamilton Bridge||1963||724 m||8th||192.651|
|High bridge||1848||600 m||-||-||Aqueduct - no traffic|
|Macombs Dam Bridge||1895||774 m||4th||40,749||Swing bridge|
|Concourse tunnel||1933||3||-||IND Concourse Line|
|149th Street Tunnel||1905||2||-||IRT White Plains Road Line|
|145th Street Bridge||1905||4th||21,147||Swing bridge|
|Madison Avenue Bridge||1910||4th||44,663||Swing bridge|
|Park Avenue Bridge||1954||3||-||Lift bridge, rail only|
|Lexington Avenue tunnel||1918||4th||-||IRT Lexinton Avenue Line|
|Third Avenue Bridge||1898||5||59,712||Swing bridge|
|( Harlem River Bridge )||1897||4th||-||Railway swing bridge, closed in 1955|
|Willis Avenue Bridge||2010
a Although it crosses the Harlem River (more precisely the Harlem River Ship Canal , completed in 1895), the Broadway Bridge connects two districts within Manhattan: Inwood in the south with Marble Hill in the north. The two bridges over Spuyten Duyvil Creek , which formed the natural course of the Harlem River around Marble Hill, were King's Bridge (first bridge in the city, 1693) and Dyckman Bridge (1759). This part was raised in 1914.
(separates the Bronx from Randall's Island)
from west to east:
|Triborough Bridge||1936||488 m||8th||North arm of the Triborough Bridge|
|Bronx kill crossing||1916||107 m||3||-||Railway bridge|
from north to south:
|The eastern arm of the Triborough Bridge and the Hell Gate Bridge; View from Queens towards Manhattan||Hell Gate Bridge||1916||310 m||3||-||Railway bridge|
|Robert F. Kennedy Bridge||1936||847 m||8th||97.241||Eastern arm of the Triborough Bridge|
|Roosevelt Island Bridge||1955||877 m||2||Lift bridge|
|63rd Street Tunnel||1989||960 m||4th||-||IND 63rd Street Line|
|60th Street Tunnel||1920||2||-||BMT Broadway Line|
|Queensboro Bridge||1909||1,135 m||10||181.365||Two levels on top of each other|
|53rd Street Tunnel||1933||2||-||IND Queens Boulevard Line|
|Steinway tunnel||1915||2||-||IRT flushing line|
|Queens Midtown Tunnel||1940||1,955 m||4th||88,379|
|East River Tunnels||1910||4 × 1||-||4 railway tunnels|
|14th Street Tunnel||1924||2||-||BMT Canarsie Line|
|Williamsburg Bridge||1903||2,228 m||8 + 2||110,545||2 lanes subway lines BMT Nassau Street Line / BMT Jamaica Line|
|Rutgers Street Tunnel||1936||2||-||IND Sixth Avenue Line|
|Manhattan Bridge (left) and Brooklyn Bridge (right); View from Manhattan towards Brooklyn||Manhattan Bridge||1909||2,089 m||7 + 4||73.205||
IND Sixth Avenue Line , BMT Broadway Line
|Brooklyn Bridge||1883||1,825 m||6th||131,551|
|Cranberry Street Tunnel||1933||2||-||IND Eighth Avenue Line|
|Clark Street Tunnel||1919||2||-||IRT Broadway - Seventh Avenue Line|
|Montague Street Tunnel||1920||2||-||BMT Broadway Line|
|Joralemon Street Tunnel||1908||2||-||IRT Lexington Avenue Line|
|Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel||1950||2,779 m||4th||56,539|
from south to north:
|Downtown Hudson Tubes||1909||-||Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) to World Trade Center|
|Holland tunnel||1927||2,609 m||4th||100,491||Road tunnel|
|Uptown Hudson Tubes||1908||1,700 m||2||-||PATH|
|North River Tunnels||1910||1,900 m||2||-||Railway tunnel of the northeast corridor|
|Lincoln Tunnel||1937||2,504 m||3 × 2||122.092||Road tunnel|
|George Washington Bridge||1931||1,451 m||14th||291,391||Road bridge|
see also list of parks in New York City
- Battery Park
- Bryant Park
- Central Park
- East River Park
- Fort Tryon Park
- Highbridge Park
- High line
- Hudson River Park
- Inwood Hill Park
- Madison Square
- Randalls Island Park
- Riverside Park
- Stuyvesant Square
- Tompkins Square Park
- Washington Square Park
- Not for Tourists Guide to New York 2013 . Skyhorse Publishing, New York City 2012, ISBN 978-1-62087-083-9 .
- US Census Bureau
- The Randel Plan is made available online by the Museum of the City of New York . The historical courses from 1811 and today are shown in such a way that they can be easily compared by overlaying them. The original is 106 × 30 7/16 inches long / wide. Here it is online at the Museum of the City of New York in miniature form: The greatest Grid. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Mitchell L. Moss and Carson Qing: The Dynamic Population of Manhattan ( Memento of the original from January 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Study by the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management, Wagner School of Public Service, New York University, March 2012.
- The American Community Survey is a representative three-year study by the US Census Bureau with random surveys of the population.
- Association of Religion Data Archives ( Memento of the original dated December 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- New York Facts ( Memento of the original from January 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. - Article on Motorrad online , October 9, 2008
- Arthur Caswell Parker: The archeological history of New York , New York n.d., p. 626.
- Welikia Project
- History of the Fraunces Tavern Museum ( Memento of the original from January 27, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- New York Architecture Images- Stuyvesant-Fish House
- Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State: New York . National Park Service , accessed February 17, 2018.
- Search mask database in the National Register Information System. National Park Service , accessed February 17, 2018.
- vehicles per day, collected in autumn 2007 from: Manhattan River Crossings 2007 (PDF; 402 kB), New York City Department of Transportation
- Guide to Civil Engineering Projects In and Around New York City , 2nd. 1st edition, Metropolitan Section, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009, pp. 62-63.