Port Authority Trans-Hudson
|Port Authority Trans-Hudson|
|Route length:||22.2 km|
|Gauge :||1435 mm ( standard gauge )|
Port Authority Trans-Hudson ( PATH ) is an approximately half overground subway , which partly has the character of a S-Bahn and was originally operated as the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad . It connects the New York borough of Manhattan with the cities of Jersey City , Hoboken , Harrison and Newark in the neighboring state of New Jersey . It is operated by the state-owned Port Authority of New York and New Jersey . Although there are crossings to the New York subway and New Jersey Transit in some PATH stations , there is only a very limited tariff community: Only multi-trip cards are accepted for the subway and in exceptional operating situations between Newark Pennsylvania Station and New York Pennsylvania Station , New Jersey Transit tickets are recognized.
The standard-gauge and narrow-profile PATH route network is 22.2 kilometers long and electrified with 650 V direct current via busbars . In Manhattan, Hoboken and downtown Jersey City, the train runs underground (11.9 km in total). The hundred-year-old tunnel under the Hudson River is made of cast iron and is located at the bottom of the river, covered by a thin layer of mud. The route west of Grove Street Station runs in cuts, at ground level or on embankments. In the third quarter of 2010, an average of 252,300 passengers used the train, which operates 24 hours a day.
The PATH lines, formerly known as the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad , are of older origin than the actual New York Subway . The first plans were drawn up in 1874, but at that time the technology needed to tunnel under the Hudson River was not yet available. Construction work began in 1890, but had to be stopped after a short time due to insufficient funding. It was not until 1900 that construction could continue after William Gibbs McAdoo , who came from Tennessee and who would later become Treasury Secretary and son-in-law of Woodrow Wilson , took over the management. McAdoo later also became president of the society, which is why the stretches under the river were jokingly referred to as "McAdoo Tunnels" for a long time.
Hudson and Manhattan Railroad
The first test trains ran at the end of 1907, the last test run to clear the tunnel (which can be passed in eight minutes) took place on February 17, 1908. On February 26, 1908, public services began between Hoboken and 19th Street in central Manhattan at midnight after President Roosevelt turned on the power in the White House with a push of a button. On July 19, 1909, the line between southern Manhattan and Jersey City was opened, the trains ran through a tunnel two kilometers further south. In 1911 the extensions to 33rd Street, to Newark and to the (now closed) Manhattan Transfer station followed . The cost of the entire project is estimated at $ 55 to 60 million , which is about a billion dollars based on today's standards.
The main purpose of the H&M was to connect New York City with three major terminal stations west of the river: the Lackawanna Railroad station in Hoboken , the Erie Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) stations in Jersey City . In Newark, the change from the PRR trains to the H&M trains took place in the Manhattan Transfer station until 1937, after which the route was relocated a few hundred meters to Pennsylvania Station in Newark. Problems caused problems, however, with the construction of the IND 6th Avenue Line of the New York subway under 6th Avenue in Manhattan in the 1930s. After it was not possible to integrate the H&M routes into the route network of the Independent Subway (IND) due to the different profiles, separate tunnels had to be built parallel to the H&M line. However, the street width was not sufficient for a total of six tracks plus platform systems, so that the 6th Avenue Subway is spread over two levels between 34th Street and 4th Street West / Washington Square stations. Because the "Independent" was not interested in any other cooperation with H&M, the tracks and even platforms on the same line remained separate; a condition that continues to this day.
Plans to extend the H&M lines in Manhattan to Astor Place and Grand Central Terminal were never realized, as was an extension from Hoboken to today's Secaucus Junction . The opening of the Holland Tunnel (1927) and the Great Depression shortly afterwards resulted in a noticeable drop in passenger numbers. This trend intensified after the opening of the George Washington Bridge (1931) and the Lincoln Tunnel (1937). Numerous advertising campaigns could not stop the economic decline of the company.
Takeover by the Port Authority
In the late 1950s, H&M went bankrupt. The railway was initially taken over by the states of New York and New Jersey and in 1962 transferred to the new company "Port Authority Trans-Hudson", a subdivision of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey . However, the Port Authority did not agree to take over until it received permission to build the World Trade Center on the grounds of the “Hudson Terminal” .
The World Trade Center station , one of the PATH terminus in New York City, was destroyed on September 11, 2001 . Immediately before the collapse, the station was closed and could be evacuated with a waiting train. The station was already badly damaged in the attacks of February 26, 1993 and has not yet been completely repaired. The Exchange Place station was also closed for almost two years due to the tunnel being flooded. Although the water damage could be repaired quickly, Exchange Place was not designed as a terminus and had to be converted accordingly. From June 2003 trains to Newark and Hoboken ran here again.
Operations to South Manhattan were resumed on November 23, 2003 after the opening of a makeshift $ 323 million train station. The inaugural train was the same one that had been used for the evacuation and was the last to leave Manhattan before the Twin Towers collapsed. The railway facilities have been restored to their original location and will not be changed for the final station either. They are only provisionally developed until the new World Trade Center Transportation Hub is completed. The station therefore has no heating or air conditioning. The $ 2 billion cost was covered by New York and New Jersey state insurance and tax dollars. Access to the railway facilities had to be relocated in 2007 because it got in the way of the construction of the World Trade Center Transportation Hub. He is now blocking the completion of the loading ramps for the One World Trade Center , which must now be temporarily set up at another location.
Extension to Newark Airport
|Extension to Newark Liberty International Airport|
In October 2014, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced that the route to Newark would be extended to Newark Liberty International Airport . For this purpose, the extension will be brought along an existing railway line to the airport, where the Monorail AirTrain Newark will take over the distribution of passengers to the terminals. The work is to begin in the first quarter of 2018 and to be completed after a five-year construction period at the end of 2023. The construction costs are estimated at about 1.5 billion US dollars . As a result of the expansion, in addition to better accessibility of the airport by rail, a reduction in private transport is expected. Another advantage is the development of residential areas in southern Newark from the new southern endpoint.
Plans for an expansion were made in the 1970s. The extension that is now taking place is based on a study by the Port Authority from 2012.
PATH operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. During the day, four lines run to three terminal stops in New Jersey and two in Manhattan. Each line is identified by a color.
- Newark - World Trade Center (Red)
- Hoboken - World Trade Center (Green)
- Journal Square - 33rd Street (Yellow)
- Hoboken - 33rd Street (Blue)
Only two lines operate Monday to Friday between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. and all day on weekends and public holidays.
- Newark - World Trade Center (Red)
- Journal Square - Hoboken - 33rd Street (Yellow / Blue)
The yellow and blue lines are merged into a yellow-blue line; the trains turn heads in Hoboken .
After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 , the World Trade Center and Exchange Place stations were temporarily closed. Only the three lines Newark - 33rd Street (red), Hoboken - 33rd Street (blue) and Hoboken - Journal Square (green) operated. In 2003 a temporary World Trade Center station was opened and operations resumed.
There are currently 13 stations. Seven of them are handicapped accessible, namely 33rd Street, Exchange Place, Hoboken, Journal Square, Newark, Pavonia / Newport and World Trade Center.
New York City
|33rd Street||Blue yellow||November 10, 1910||Transition to the IND 6th Avenue Line (Lines B , D , F, and M ; 34st Street / Herald Square Station ) and the BMT Broadway Line ( N , Q , R lines ; 34st Street / Herald Square Station ) of the New York Subway as well to Pennsylvania Station ( Amtrak , New Jersey Transit , Long Island Rail Road )|
|28th Street||-||November 10, 1910||Closed in 1937 after 33rd Street Station was extended south; Remains can still be seen in the tunnel|
|23rd Street||Blue yellow||June 15, 1908||Transition to IND 6th Avenue Line (Lines F and M ; 23rd Street Station ) on the New York Subway|
|19th Street||-||February 26, 1908||Closed in 1954 to speed up traffic; Remains of the walled up platforms can still be seen|
|14th Street||Blue yellow||February 26, 1908||Transition to IND 6th Avenue Line (Lines F and M ; 14th Street Station ), BMT Canarsie Line (Line L ; 6th Avenue Station ) and the IRT West Side Line (Lines 1 , 2 and 3 ; 14th Street Station ) of the New York subway|
|9th Street||Blue yellow||February 26, 1908||The entrance to the W. 4th Street West / Washington Square subway station on lines A , B , C , D , E , F, and M is two blocks south.|
|Christopher Street||Blue yellow||February 26, 1908||Station Christopher Street / Sheridan Square IRT West Side Line is two blocks further east.|
|World Trade Center||Green red||July 19, 1909||In 1971 replaced the "Hudson Terminal" station; Transition to the IND 8th Avenue Line (Lines A and C at Chambers Street Station , Line E at the World Trade Center Station ), to the BMT Broadway Line (Line R ; Cortlandt Street Station ), and the IRT West Side Line (Line 1 at Cortlandt Street (the Cortlandt Street station was destroyed in the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and only partially rebuilt; to line 1 you have to walk to Rector Street station) and lines 2 and 3 at Park Place ) of the New York subway|
|Hoboken||Blue green||February 26, 1908||Transition to the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail and New Jersey Transit , originally the Lackawanna Railroad|
|Pavonia / Newport||Green yellow||2nd August 1909||Transition to Hudson-Bergen Light Rail , originally the Erie Railroad , hence the former name: “Erie Station”|
|Exchange Place||Red Green||July 19, 1909||Transition to the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail , originally the Pennsylvania Railroad , the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and the Susquehanna Railway|
|Grove Street||Red Yellow||September 6, 1910||former name: "Grove-Henderson Streets"|
|Journal Square||Red Yellow||April 14, 1912||former name: "Summit Avenue"|
|Manhattan transfer||-||October 1, 1911||Closed on June 20, 1937; Route moved to Newark Penn Station|
|Harrison||red||June 20, 1937||Replacement of the station opened on November 26, 1911, which was a few hundred meters further north|
|Newark||red||June 20, 1937||Replacement of the “Park Place” station opened on November 26, 1911; Transition to Amtrak , New Jersey Transit, and Newark City Subway|
PATH's fleet of cars today consists of around 250 cars built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (type PA-4), Hawker Siddeley (type PA-3) and the St. Louis Car Company (type PA-1 and PA-2) were. The cars are 15.75 meters (51'8 ") long and have 35 side seats. Trains reach a top speed of 112 km / h (70 mph ), but the operating speed is normally no higher than 88 km / h (55 mph).
The types A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, which were delivered in several stages from 1908 to 1928, are no longer in use today. One car each of these so-called “ black cars” because of their paintwork can be seen today in the St. Louis Museum of Transportation and in the Shore Line Trolley Museum; two more are in the Trolley Museum of New York.
In 1958, 20 type K cars in the “ cement ” paint scheme were added, some of which are still in use as workshop cars today. Six were after their retirement to Philadelphia sold five more exploited and July 19, 1990 in front of Point Pleasant , New Jersey in the sea sunk. The Type K is considered to be the first air-conditioned U- / S-Bahn car ever.
The types PA1, PA2 and PA3 cars were built between 1965 and 1972. They are made of aluminum and have two doors on each side. Illuminated train destination displays are located above the doors.
The PA4 cars were built in 1986. They are made of stainless steel and have three doors on each side. The illuminated train destination displays are located between the doors above the windows.
In 1972, PATH revived the old tradition of naming trains. Each car is named for a New Jersey community where commuters to and from New York City live. Although the PATH network is relatively small, it represents the most important connection to the metropolis for 300 communities in the state of New Jersey. At the end of each car there is an aluminum plaque with a historical overview and a brief description of the sponsored community.
The Port Authority hired Kawasaki to build 340 new cars valued at $ 499 million. The average age of a car before the new cars were shipped was 42 years, the highest in the United States. The new cars are called PA5 and are an adapted version of the R142A type that run on IRT lines 4 and 6 of the New York Subway . The first of the new trains went into operation on July 10, 2009, and the renewal of the fleet was completed in 2011.
- Brian J. Cudahy: Rails Under the Mighty Hudson: The Story of the Hudson Tubes, the Pennsy Tunnels and Manhattan Transfer . Fordham University Press, New York 2002, ISBN 0-8232-2190-3 .
- Hudson & Manhattan Railroad / Hudson Tubes : Operating History (English), accessed April 7, 2012
- PATH : MetroCard , accessed on 7 April 2012 found.
- NJ.com : NJ Transit making changes to rail service following rider surveys , March 13, 2012.
- Transit Ridership Report Third Quarter 2010. (PDF; 1.14 MB) American Public Transportation Association, November 29, 2010, p. 2 , accessed February 1, 2011 .
- Wire messages from the “Salzb. Volksblatt ". (...) H. Newyork. In: Salzburger Volksblatt , No. 39/1908 (XXXVIIIth year), February 18, 1908, p. 9 middle. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Trolley tunnel open to Jersey. (PDF; 451 kB) New York Times, February 26, 1908, accessed February 1, 2011 .
- Extension to Jersey Airport , on www.nj.com
- New PATH Train Cars. (No longer available online.) Myfoxny.com, July 10, 2009, archived from the original on April 14, 2010 ; accessed on February 1, 2011 (English).