New York City
|New York City|
|Nickname : Big Apple ; The city that never sleeps; Gotham City ; World capital|
Clockwise, from above: Midtown Manhattan , Times Square , Unisphere in Queens , Brooklyn Bridge , Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center , Central Park , UN headquarters , Statue of Liberty
|Location of New York City in New York State|
|State :||United States|
|State :||new York|
Bronx County (The Bronx)
New York County (Manhattan)
Queens County (Queens)
Kings County (Brooklyn)
Richmond County (Staten Island)
|Time zone :||Eastern ( UTC − 5 / −4 )|
- Metropolitan Area :
|8,804,190 (as of 2020)
20,140,470 (as of 2020)
|Population density :||11,153 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area :||1,214.4 km 2 (approx. 469 mi²) of
which 789.4 km 2 (approx. 305 mi²) is land
|Height :||10 m|
|Postcodes :||10001-10282 (Manhattan) 11201-11262 (Brooklyn) 11001-11697 (Queens) 10451-10475 (Bronx) 10301-10314 (Staten Island)|
|Area code :||+1 212 646 (Manhattan) 718, 917, 347, 929 (Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Iceland and overlay)|
|GNIS ID :||975772|
|Mayor :||Eric Adams ( D )|
New York City ( AE : [ nuːˈjɔɹk ˈsɪɾi ], short: New York , German outdated: Neuyork or Newyork , abbreviation: NYC ) is a cosmopolitan city on the east coast of the United States . It is located in the state of New York and is the most populous city in the United States with around 8.8 million inhabitants.
The metropolitan region of New York with 20 million inhabitants is one of the most important economic areas and trading centers in the world, the seat of many international corporations and organizations such as the United Nations, and important sea and inland ports on the American east coast and the Hudson. With its large number of sights, 500 galleries, around 200 museums, more than 150 theaters and more than 18,000 restaurants, the city enjoys a worldwide reputation in the fields of art and culture and records around 50 million visitors every year, almost 12 million of them from abroad . According to Forbes Magazine , New York City is the highest cost of living city in the United States, as well as one of the most expensive cities in the world.
The city is generally considered to be one of the most important centers of world diplomacy . Together with Geneva ( ICRC and European UN headquarters), Basel ( Bank for International Settlements ) and Strasbourg ( Council of Europe ), New York City is one of the few cities in the world that is the seat of one of the most important international organizations , without however, to be the capital of a country.
After Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and Henry Hudson in 1609 explored what is now New York, from 1610 Dutch merchants settled on the southern tip of Manna-Hatta Island and soon afterwards on the western tip of Long Island , today's Brooklyn. According to legend, Peter Minuit bought the island "Manna-hatta" from the locals, probably Lenni Lenape Indians , in 1626 for goods worth 60 guilders. The settlement was named Nieuw Amsterdam and was initially the capital of the Nieuw Nederland colony until it was conquered by the British in 1664 and the city was given the name that has been in effect since then. Its rise to a cosmopolitan city began in 1825 with the completion of the Erie Canal .
The New York- Newark - Jersey City metropolitan area generated an economic output of 1.718 trillion US dollars in 2017. It ranks second among the world's cities behind Tokyo and, as a separate state, would be counted among the 20 largest economies in the world.
New York City has expanded from the island of Manhattan , which is its center today, and protrudes as a pointed ledge between the Hudson and the East River . It is located at latitude 40.42 ° north and longitude 74.00 ° west on the east coast of the United States in New York Bay and in the immediate vicinity of Jersey City . It encloses the mouths of the Hudson River and the East River in the Atlantic Ocean and rises an average of six meters above sea level . Buildings and infrastructure of the city extend from the river banks in an abundance of suburbs to other large cities and extend far into the country. The urban area has a land area of 785.6 km² (Berlin 891.85 km²), the entire continuously built-up area (the agglomeration) of 8683.2 km². The New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island Metropolitan Statistical Area covers 17,405 km², the somewhat wider New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area 30,671 km² (the state of Brandenburg 29,478.61 km²).
Manhattan stands on a rock, which makes it possible to erect higher structures. It is surrounded by numerous natural harbors that can be reached by ships with great drafts. The Hudson opens the most important natural route into the hinterland and makes it possible to reach the Great Lakes in the northwest and the St. Lawrence River in the north via the Mohawk River or Lake Champlain . The main masses of European immigrants have settled south of the area, which is more at risk from icebergs . Thanks to these geographical conditions, New York was able to achieve a prominent position in the US and the world economy .
The area around the city of New York is part of the Atlantic coastal plain . Further into the country, the landscape gradually changes into rolling hills. Sandy beaches are found on Long Island and along the New Jersey coast to the south.
The coastal plain in which New York is located extends as the foothills of the southern Appalachians to Jacksonville . It consists of sands and clays, mainly from moraines and fluvial deposits. Elongated spits and hooks are in front of the shallow, richly indented estuaries ( Delaware Bay ) and the estuaries; in the hinterland there is a wide belt of tidal marches. At about the geographical latitude of New York, in Long Island, the coastal plain dips below sea level.
Manhattan (New York County) has 1,601,948 inhabitants (as of 2011) and a land area of 59.5 km². The borough consists mainly of Manhattan Island , which is surrounded by the Hudson River in the west, the East River in the east and the Harlem River in the northeast, as well as other smaller islands, including Roosevelt Island , Belmont Island , Governors Island and a small piece from the mainland, Marble Hill . Marble Hill was part of Manhattan Island until the Harlem River Ship Canal was built in the 19th century .
Brooklyn (Kings County) has 2,532,645 inhabitants, making it the most populous district in New York. It is located in the southeast of the city, at the western end of Long Islands and has an area of 182.9 km². The city of Brooklyn was named after the Dutch city of Breukelen and was incorporated into New York City in 1898.
Queens (Queens County) has 2,247,848 inhabitants and is the largest of the five boroughs of New York with an area of 282.9 km². It is located in the west of Long Island . Queens was founded on November 1, 1683 when New York colony was divided into counties. In 1898 the district was incorporated into New York. There are also New York's two largest airports, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport .
The Bronx (Bronx County) has 1,392,002 people and an area of 108.9 km². The formerly independent city has been the northernmost part of New York since January 1, 1874. It was named after the first settler in this area, Jonas Bronck , who emigrated from today's Sweden . At the time, to announce a visit to his farm, it was said: "We are going to the Broncks"; today the name is spelled differently, but the prefix of the article has been retained, ie "The Bronx". In addition, the Bronx is the only borough of New York that is on the mainland.
Staten Island, Richmond County has 470,467 people and a land area of 151.5 km². It is located southwest of Manhattan Island and west of the borough of Brooklyn on Long Island . The island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazzano-Narrows toll bridge and to Manhattan by the free Staten Island Ferry . To the west and north, Staten Island is separated from the state of New Jersey by the narrow Arthur Kill and the Kill van Kull . The Goethals Bridge , the Bayonne Bridge and the Outerbridge Crossing lead to New Jersey . The highest point on the island, Todt Hill , is also the highest point in New York City. In the past, all of the city's garbage was dumped on Staten Island, which to this day sometimes causes problems with odor nuisance. The debris of the World Trade Center was also brought to Staten Island.
The average annual temperature is 12.5 ° C and the average annual rainfall is 1056.4 millimeters. The warmest month is July with an average of 24.7 ° C and the coldest is January with an average of −0.4 ° C. Most of the precipitation falls in April with an average of 99.1 millimeters, the least in October with an average of 73.2 millimeters. The city is thus in the moderate climatic zone . New York's weather is largely influenced by the continental land masses to the west. Summers are generally tropical and warm and winters are cold. According to W. Köppen and R. Geiger, New York City is located in the warm, humid, temperate climate zone.
The temperature often rises above 30 ° C in July and August, and there is also a high level of humidity with sometimes heavy rainfall, often thunderstorms, which often makes the summer weather quite uncomfortable. In January the values can drop below −20 ° C, whereby it is often sunny. Occasionally, sea air (the Northeasters) brings moisture from the Atlantic Ocean, as well as strong winds and heavy rain or snowfall. One of the heaviest and most momentous of these snowstorms was the Great Blizzard of 1888 with a snow depth of around 51 cm and about 100 deaths in New York City alone. The previous record snow depth since the beginning of the weather recordings was measured in February 2006 at 68 cm.
The lowest temperature ever recorded is -26 ° C in January and the highest at 41 ° C in July.
The water temperatures on the New York coast fluctuate between an average of 3 ° C and 23 ° C.
|New York City|
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for New York City
Effects of climate change
New York is affected by global warming due to rising sea levels and the increasing risk of storm surges . It is assumed that as a result of the climate crisis, the water level in New York could rise by 1.80 meters by the year 2100 and the number of severe storms and storm surges is likely to increase significantly. Official forecasts assume that around 37% of the buildings on Manhattan's southern tip will be threatened by storm surges in 2050 and 20% of the streets in this area will be flooded daily in 2100. One strategy for adapting to global warming is to strengthen the 850 km long coastline.
With 8.5 million people, New York City is the largest city in the United States and one of the largest cities in the world. The population has doubled since the beginning of the 20th century. Since 1825, the city has been the port of call for immigrants from all over the world due to its location on the Atlantic Ocean and the waterway of the Hudson River inland. Further development made New York the largest industrial city and financial metropolis.
The city's population is divided into different classes. The upper class lives mostly outside of the city or in the expensive district of Manhattan. In New York there are numerous social housing measures and for socially disadvantaged people and families, the urban housing association NYCHA manages a total of 178,000 social housing in which around 400,000 people live.
In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life , New York City was ranked 45th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.
In 2019, the city of New York had a population of 8,336,817. The population density is 10,356 inhabitants per km². The New York – Newark agglomeration has 18,351,295 inhabitants with a population density of 5,319 inhabitants per km² (as of 2010). In the metropolitan area of New York – Northern New Jersey – Long Island live 18,897,109 people (April 1, 2010), which corresponds to a population density of 1,086 inhabitants per km² with an area of 17,405 km². The New York – Newark – Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area even has 22,085,649 inhabitants (April 1, 2010) and thus a population density of 720 inhabitants per km².
The following overviews show the population figures according to the respective territorial status. These are estimates up to 1775 and census results from the United States Census Bureau from 1790 to 2010 .
|182.9 km²||E / km²||282.9 km²||E / km²||59.9 km²||E / km²||108.8 km²||E / km²||151.5 km²||E / km²||785.6 km²||E / km²|
Population groups and origins
The composition of the population of New York is very heterogeneous and reflects all waves of immigration in American history. The largest group are non-Hispanic whites (Caucasians) at 35%. Two out of five residents were not born in the United States; most of the immigrants of European descent are from Italy (8%), Ireland (5%) and Germany (3%). Around 972,000 inhabitants are of Jewish faith or of Jewish descent , making up 12% of the total population. In Manhattan the proportion is even around 20%. This makes New York City the city with the largest Jewish community in the world, as more Jews live here than the whole of Jerusalem has inhabitants.
The proportion of non-Hispanic blacks or African-Americans is 24% and, like that of whites, is falling in line with the overall American trend. In contrast, Hispanics (Latinos) now form the second largest population group with a total of 27%. The Asians are growing most group and now make up 12% of the population of New York from.
African-Americans, whites, Asians, and Hispanics each tend to be concentrated in specific urban neighborhoods. Manhattan (Downtown and Midtown to Central Park), with the exception of Chinatown, is predominantly a residential area for whites, while in northwestern Brooklyn there are predominantly blacks, as well as in the streets north of Central Park (Harlem); in the northwestern boroughs of Queens, south of La Guardia, there are mainly Latinos and a few Asians; There are hardly any whites in the Bronx, the majority are Hispanics and some blacks, and people of Russian origin in the south of Brooklyn ( Coney Island ) live in particular. In recent years, however, there have been some opposing tendencies; the proportion of African-Americans among the population of Harlem is now less than 50%, as Latinos and whites have moved into the neighborhood, which for a long time was almost exclusively inhabited by blacks.
40.6% of the population were not born in the United States, of which 19.2% were in Latin America (excluding Puerto Rico), 9.4% in Asia and 6.4% in Europe.
The two following tables show the statistical data on the population groups ( race and ethnicity ) of the residents of New York in detail. All data are self-reported by the respondents.
|Population groups||Census 1990||Census 2000||
|Black / African American||28.7%||26.6%||24.9%|
|Two or more races||N / A||4.9%||3.0%|
|American Indians and Native Americans||0.4%||0.5%||0.4%|
|Hispanics / Latinos overall||24.4%||27.0%||28.7%|
|Origin / descent||Census 1990||Census 2000||ACS
|West Indians (excluding Hispanics)||5.1%||6.9%||7.5%|
|without assignment / without information||12.3%||4.5%||N / A|
A good half of the population only speaks English at home, while almost a quarter of the residents do not have a very good command of English. The second most important language is Spanish , which is used by 24% of New Yorkers at home. The other languages together make up 23%.
|Mother tongues||Census 1990||Census 2000||ACS
|Russian||k. A.||2.6%||k. A.|
|Indo-Aryan languages||k. A.||2.0%||k. A.|
|Italian||k. A.||1.9%||k. A.|
|French 2)||k. A.||1.4%||2.4% 3)|
|French Creole||k. A.||1.2%||k. A.|
|Yiddish||k. A.||1.1%||k. A.|
|other language (s||19.0%||7.6%||15.0%|
|English (mother and second language)||80.0%||76.3%||76.8%|
The first voyages of discovery in what is now New York took place in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano and in 1609 by Henry Hudson . From 1610 Dutch merchants began a lucrative fur trade with the Indians living there. On March 27, 1614, the newly founded Compagnie van Nieuwnederlant (New Netherlands Company) received a monopoly for trade in the area from the States General .
In October 1618, ten months after the trade monopoly had expired, the company applied for a new charter . At that time, however, the States General was already considering the establishment of a new company, the Dutch West India Company (WIC). On June 3, 1621, the WIC received a charter from the Republic of the Seven United Provinces to trade in America alone. Colonization began in 1624 when 30 Dutch, Walloon and French families settled on Manhattan Island and the Delaware area .
According to legend, in 1626 Peter Minuit bought the island from the locals, probably a branch of the Lenni Lenape Indians , who called the island "Manna-hatta", for 60 guilders. The newly established settlement was named Nieuw Amsterdam and became the capital of the Nieuw Nederland colony . The settlement soon became chaotic. Crime increased enormously under the rule of corrupt governors.
In 1647 the Dutch West India Company decided to restore order. Petrus Stuyvesant was to take on this task . During his 17-year tenure as governor, the first hospital, prison and school were built. To protect against raids, he had a wall built across the island in the north of the city in 1652, which would later give the street that ran there its name, Wall Street . On February 2, 1653, Nieuw Amsterdam received city rights.
On September 8, 1664, the city surrendered without a fight to a fleet of the Royal Navy led by Richard Nicolls . The English named the city and the colony of New York after their then commander James , Duke of York , the brother of Charles II of England , who later became king himself. In 1667 the Dutch gave up all claims to the colony in the Peace of Breda , in which they were assured the rights to Suriname in return. In the following Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch briefly retook the colony in 1673 through Cornelis Evertsen , before they finally had to surrender the land by signing the Treaty of Westminster on February 19, 1674.
By 1700, the number of Lenape in the New York population had dwindled to 200. In 1703, 42% of households were slaves, and about 40% of the population of New York City were slaves. In 1712 there was an uprising by African slaves , which was quickly and extremely brutally suppressed.
Several fires broke out in 1741 and mass hysteria spread. Blacks were accused of wanting to burn down the city in a conspiracy with poor whites. 13 blacks were burned alive, and four whites and 18 blacks were hanged.
The Stamp Act of 1765 and other measures caused public resentment, and the Sons of Liberty fought against the British between 1766 and 1776. New York was actively involved in the independence movement. In 1776 the city was the headquarters of George Washington for a short time , but was then occupied by the British . In the same year a fire destroyed large parts of New York. The British occupiers did not leave the city until 1783 after American independence was recognized by European states including Great Britain. In 1785 another fire disaster devastated other areas of the city.
From 1788 to 1790 New York was the capital of the United States . George Washington was sworn in as the first president in 1789 on the balcony of New York's Federal Hall . In the difficult economic times after the war, securities dealers founded the New York Stock Exchange on May 17, 1792 . On April 13, 1796, the first elephant in America reached New York Harbor. In 1797, Albany was designated the capital of the state of New York instead of New York and has remained so to this day.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the city was growing faster than ever before. In 1811, the city planners decided with the Commissioners' Plan to cover the entire island of Manhattan, of which only the southern tip was built on, with a grid-shaped road network. With a few exceptions - the most important is Broadway - this plan was implemented consistently.
A turning point in the history of the city was the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825. This structure was pushed through by the Governor of New York, DeWitt Clinton , against considerable political opposition. He created a connection between New York, the Great Lakes and thus the Midwest . The city quickly became the largest transshipment point on the American east coast.
At the same time, the urban picture changed. So-called "Brownstone Houses" (mostly two to four-story brick houses ) have dominated the cityscape so far . With the expansion and the still scarce apartment space, large multi-storey apartment buildings were introduced. These opulently designed residential buildings, as you can still see them on the Upper West Side on Broadway at the corner of 70th to 74th Street , had luxurious furnishings, including central dining rooms, in which the residents also met for social events. In order to strengthen confidence in the new location, the city planners deliberately relocated impressive institutions in the new urban spaces, many of which are now New York's National Historic Landmarks . An example of this is the monumental bank building on Broadway on the corner of 73rd Street or Carnegie Hall on the corner of 57th Street and 7th Avenue .
Due to the large population growth, the poverty and the lack of a sewer system in the slums, however, epidemics were favored despite the rise of the city . So it happened in 1832 and 1849 to cholera -Epidemien, 1837 spread typhoid and 1842 typhus . The economic crisis of 1837 had devastating effects, a third of the workers and ten percent of the total population were unemployed at the time, and riots broke out several times.
In the middle of the 19th century, planning began for a large city park, the so-called Central Park . Construction began in 1858 and was largely completed in 1866. The flow of immigrants increased steadily in the second half of the 19th century. Irish , Italians , Germans , all came in the hope of a better life, but most of them spent many years in slums like Five Points and Bowery . Conflicts erupted violently, as in the draft riots that plunged the city into the greatest chaos in its history.
Due to the strong growth, the administration had to be changed. In 1898 the five boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Richmond (now Staten Island), Queens and the Bronx merged to form Greater New York . Parts of the Bronx were part of the New York metropolitan area as early as 1874. Before the merger, Brooklyn was already one of the largest cities in the country. To this day, the individual city districts within the city districts have retained a certain degree of independence, both in terms of administration and in terms of the self-image of their residents. Little Italy , for example, is the name of a district that is mainly inhabited by Americans of Italian descent.
In the first half of the 20th century the city became a center of industry and trade. In the “roaring twenties” New York fell into a stock market frenzy that came to an abrupt end on October 24, 1929, Black Thursday . The economic crisis hit New York hard and the incompetent, corrupt city government of Mayor Jimmy Walker was completely overwhelmed and the city was over-indebted.
The unemployment rate rose to over 25%. People lost their jobs and their homes. The turning point came with the aid and construction programs launched by Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia after his election in 1933. At the beginning of the 20th century, the first skyscrapers , for example the Woolworth Building (1913), the Chrysler Building (1930) and the Empire State Building (1931), became landmarks of the city.
After the USA entered the Second World War , New York was the starting point for the important SC and HX convoys to Great Britain from September 1942 . The two major transatlantic convoy series existed until May 1945.
After the war, things quickly went downhill after a brief period of optimism. The middle class moved to the suburbs and industry migrated. Like many other US cities, New York suffered from race riots in the 1960s . With new waves of poorly educated immigrants (mainly from Puerto Rico) and the exodus of traditional industries, the number of people dependent on social welfare increased dramatically. As the middle class began to emigrate in the 1950s, the city administration had fewer and fewer tax funds at its disposal for ever larger expenditures. Infrastructure such as the subway fell into disrepair, and the city was sometimes no longer able to carry out elementary tasks such as clearing snow. From the 1970s to the 1990s, New York had high unemployment (8%), booming cheap drug trafficking, and high crime with an extreme homicide rate. Because of the city's lack of money, 50,000 city workers, including many police officers, were fired. In 1975 the city had to declare its Chapter 9 bankruptcy . People fled the city from crime, up to nearly 1 million in the late 1970s. In 1964, the year of the World's Fair in New York, the murder rate was 550 deaths; in 1972 the number tripled to 1,691 murders. In 1990 the highest murder rate was 2245 deaths. By strengthening the police force, the murder rate fell to 630 in 1998, in 2017 and 2018 the value halved to below 300. On July 13, 1977 there was a 25-hour power failure , which resulted in looting and fires. This blackout made the rundown state of the city clearly visible to everyone.
The relatively cheap living space ( vacant industrial buildings were often adapted) in districts such as the Lower East Side and Brooklyn attracted a new generation of artists, musicians and independent filmmakers from the mid-1970s to well into the 1980s . During this time, completely new styles of music such as hip-hop or no wave emerged , and artists as diverse as Jim Jarmusch , Madonna or Keith Haring started their careers here.
Ed Koch redeveloped the city budget during his tenure as mayor (1978-1989). In the economic boom of the 1980s, Wall Street took a leading role in the financial world again. In the 1990s, the popular mayor Rudolph Giuliani achieved considerable success with the so-called zero tolerance strategy , the crime rate fell drastically, also with the participation of the civil protection organization Guardian Angels . Overall, the number of crimes fell by 77% between 1990 and 2007, so that New York City is currently not even one of the 200 American cities with the highest crime rate. Critics objected, however, that Giuliani did not eliminate the crime, but only pushed it into the surrounding area. Be that as it may, with the massively improved security and economic recovery, it has become fashionable again to live in New York. As a result, the resident population rose from 7.3 million to a good 8 million in the 1990s alone.
On September 11, 2001 , the World Trade Center (WTC) was destroyed by a terrorist attack of unprecedented proportions. The complex had already been shaken in 1993 by a bomb attack in the underground car park of the complex (with six dead and hundreds injured). It took until May 2002 until the clean-up work at so-called Ground Zero , the area on which the WTC had stood, could be completed. The 541 meter high One World Trade Center was built on Ground Zero from 2006 to 2014 and has been the tallest structure in the United States since its completion. A memorial was also built, which opened in May 2014. A new train station at the World Trade Center was partially opened in February 2014. On March 3, 2016, the main hall of the station called Oculus was opened. Since the attacks, the whole of New York has been permanently on the alert; the police presence was massively increased again. The cost of living in Manhattan has risen massively since 2001; they are believed to be by far the highest in the United States. More tourists came to New York at the end of 2002 than in the years before the terrorist attacks.
The congress of the Republican Party took place in 2004 in Madison Square Garden held in New York. In 2004 the decision was made for the aforementioned memorial - the memorial for the victims of the terrorist attacks in 2001 - at Ground Zero. The architects Michael Arad and Max Bond as well as the landscape planner Peter Walkers with their design "Reflecting Absence" were awarded the contract . The memorial will consist of several water basins, a paved stone field and various groups of trees, which are supposed to symbolize the continued life after the destruction of the WTC. A museum will be set up underground to commemorate the victims and the destruction. The visitors will be able to get into the museum past the last remains of the WTC building.
On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused significant damage in New York. In the urban area, 47 people were killed by the effects of the storm. Because the storm surge coincided with a spring tide , the water level in Battery Park on the southern tip of Manhattan reached a new high, which exceeded the previous high when Hurricane Donna passed through in 1960. As a result, several tunnels on the New York City subway were flooded for the first time in over 100 years . The Hudson River temporarily overflowed its banks and flooded several streets. The New York Stock Exchange was closed for two days in a row due to a storm for the first time since 1888 ( Great Snowstorm ).
In 2014 the One World Trade Center was officially opened. At 541 meters, it is the tallest building in the United States.
At the head of the city administration of New York Mayor stands (Mayor) , who is elected by the people for a term of four years. He appoints him responsible commissioners as heads of the administrative parts (councilors for the departments ). The New York City Council has 51 members and is also elected every four years. Both the mayor and the members of the council can only be elected for three consecutive terms, but can then run again after four years. New York City has separate responsibilities for schools, the penal system, libraries, public safety, recreation, water and sanitation, and public welfare.
Since January 1st, 2014 Bill de Blasio has been the new Mayor of New York. He was elected on November 5, 2013. After more than two decades, a Democrat is once again at the helm of the New York City Council. Bill de Blasio replaced Michael Bloomberg after a twelve-year term. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2013, Bloomberg was the 108th Mayor of New York. He is best known as the founder of the information services, news and media company Bloomberg LP , headquartered in New York. In 2001 he won the mayoral election and succeeded Rudolph Giuliani . In order not to have to run in the primary elections, the Democrat Bloomberg switched parties and joined the Republicans before the election . In 2005 he was re-elected with 58.5% of the votes cast. His challenger Fernando Ferrer of the Democratic Party received 38.7%. In 2009 Bloomberg was re-elected with 50.6% of the vote, while Ferrer got 46% of the vote.
Bloomberg's predecessor, Rudolph Giuliani, was the 107th Mayor of New York from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2001, and became popular primarily as a rigorous crime fighter and after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. In the race to succeed the outgoing mayor Ed Koch, Giuliani was defeated in 1989 as a candidate for the Republican Party and the Liberal Party to the Democrat David Dinkins , who was the first black mayor of New York.
Five years later, Giuliani ran successfully against incumbent Dinkins in an election that divided the city according to its ethnic groupings. Giuliani also benefited from the support of the then very unpopular US President Bill Clinton in favor of the Democrat Dinkins. 1997 Giuliani was confirmed in office by the voters with a large majority. In his first term in office (1994–1997) Giuliani tackled the problem of crime through a strict " Law and Order " policy. He introduced very aggressive police surveillance, which led to a sharp decrease in the number of cases in almost all crime categories. Giuliani implemented the so-called zero tolerance strategy in New York .
This policy changed the image of New York in the eyes of tourists and citizens. The impression of a crime-ridden, impoverished metropolis , as it existed in the two decades before his term in office, gave way to that of a pulsating, safe cosmopolitan city. There was less graffiti in the subway and an economic boom because people felt safe again even outside at night. Critics complained, however, that the increased police presence in NYC had not only led to a pushing of crime into the hitherto safe area, but also to more distrust among blacks and other minorities towards the law enforcement officers. Known incidents of police brutality during Giuliani's tenure include the death of the unarmed Amadou Diallo and the use of force against Abner Louima in police custody.
New York has the following historic town twinning :
|Tokyo , Japan||1960|
|Beijing , People's Republic of China||1980|
|Cairo , Egypt||1982|
|Madrid , Spain||1982|
|Santo Domingo , Dominican Republic||1983|
|Budapest , Hungary||1992|
|Rome , Italy||1992|
|Jerusalem , Israel||1993|
|London , UK||2001|
|Johannesburg , South Africa||2003|
|Brasília , Brazil||2004|
|Vienna , Austria||2006|
Culture and sights
New York has numerous architectural landmarks, 500 galleries, around 200 museums, more than 150 theaters, numerous department stores and over 18,000 restaurants. The city is considered the cultural and artistic center of the east coast of the USA and also has a worldwide impact in these areas. Many cultural attractions can be found in Manhattan in particular. Here, especially in downtown and midtown, skyscrapers determine the cityscape. Opened in 1902, the triangular Flatiron Building was the city's first skyscraper. Others include the Woolworth Building from 1913, the Art Deco-style Chrysler Building from 1930 and the Rockefeller Center building complex with the NBC studio, which was completed in 1939 . The Empire State Building from 1931 is one of the most visited monuments in the world . Around 3.5 million visitors look down on New York from its observation deck every year.
The cityscape is also characterized by many churches, for example Saint Patrick's Cathedral, completed in 1879, the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine (construction began in 1892), Trinity Church at the end of Wall Street, the "United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism" and the "Armenian Apostolic Church of America Eastern Prelacy".
The symbol of New York is the Statue of Liberty from 1886 on Liberty Island , south of Manhattan. Other significant structures include New York's most important train station, the Grand Central Terminal opened in 1913 , the Brooklyn Bridge that connects Manhattan and Brooklyn, the Madison Square Garden arena and Carnegie Hall , a concert venue. The United Nations building complex is located on the East River in Manhattan .
Other tourist attractions include Brooklyn Heights , an old residential area, as well as Greenwich Village with its Arc de Triomphe and the Jefferson Market Courthouse , which houses a library, Ground Zero , the place where the World Trade Center stood - it was when it was completed in 1973 the tallest building in the world at 417 meters - and Ellis Island , the former immigrant reception center in the Hudson River .
Well-known hotels include the "Regent" on Wall Street (opened 1842), the "Peninsula" on the corner of 5th Avenue and 55th Street (opened 1900), " The Plaza " on the corner of 5th Avenue and Central Park (opened 1907 and meanwhile converted into condominiums), the Waldorf Astoria on Park Avenue (opened 1930), the "Carlyle" on 76th Street (opened 1931) and the "Four Seasons" on 57th Street (opened 1993).
The National Park Service has 116 National Historic Landmarks in New York City . 923 buildings and sites in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) (as of November 19, 2018).
The center of theater life in New York is Broadway, with musicals for all tastes. Broadway is the theater district in Times Square between 41st Street and 53rd Street and between Sixth and Ninth Avenues . This neighborhood has around 40 large theaters and around 1,500 so-called "off-Broadway" and "off-off-Broadway" performances per year in smaller theaters.
The first theater to move from the previous theater district on Herald Square to Times Square was the Empire Theater . Charles Frohman had the building built with around 1000 seats in 1893. It was directly opposite the " Metropolitan Opera ", which opened in 1883 , at its old location between 39th and 40th Street - the corner of Broadway .
Broadway saw a large number of new theaters between 1910 and 1930. The oldest continuously operated theater from this period is the " Lyceum " , which opened on November 2nd, 1903 . It was originally called "New Lyceum Theater" because the previous Lyceum Theater from 1885 on 45th Street and Broadway had been demolished for the new building. It was also the first theater to have electric lighting in the entire building, installed by Thomas Alva Edison .
In the 1980s there was a "death of theater" on Broadway, but through urban development measures, cost-saving measures and the commitment of big names, the crisis has now (2008) been overcome. In 1988 the New York Landmarks Preservation Commission decided to give most of the historic theaters the status of historic sites . Big Broadway hits were Cats , 42nd Street , Les Misérables , The Lion King and The Producers .
The Metropolitan Opera House, or MET for short , is located near Central Park and is home to the Metropolitan Opera Company and the American Ballet Theater . It belongs to the " Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts" complex , as well as the "Avery Fisher Hall", the venue of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, the "New York State Theater", which is performed by the New York City Opera and the New York City Ballets shows Carnegie Hall and the Juilliard School . The “ Radio City Music Hall ” offers changing events.
Along with Los Angeles , New Orleans and Chicago, New York is one of the most important centers of music in the United States. In addition to numerous venues for classical music, a.o. There are countless jazz and rock clubs in the Metropolitan Opera . New York has been the starting point and center of various musical developments since the late 1920s. With the Harlem district, which is mainly inhabited by Afro-Americans, New York has been a focal point of Afro-American culture since the 1920s. Not only swing , bebop and free jazz had their starting point here. Also disco , punk rock and new wave are connected to New York. To this day, New York is the undisputed “capital” of jazz. In addition, hip-hop culture originated here, which has now become one of the country's most important cultural exports and was declared a New York Heritage Site in 2005.
Well-known science, history and technology museums in New York include the American Craft Museum, the Brooklyn Museum and the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum . The American Museum of Natural History (on the corner of Central Park West and 79th Street ) is one of the largest natural history museums in the world. Almost the entire history of mankind is covered on five floors, from the Stone Age to the Space Age . The collection is so extensive that one day is hardly enough to visit the museum. It has over 30 million samples and exhibits ready for its visitors. These include the 563 carat “ Star of India ”, the largest sapphire ever found , a life-size blue whale , the 19.2 meter long single- stemmed cedar war canoe of the Haida Indians and many dinosaur skeletons, to name just a small selection. The complex also includes the "Rose Center for Earth and Space" with the "Hayden Planetarium". The American Museum of Natural History has its own IMAX cinema and its own underground station . There is a Theodore Roosevelt memorial in front of the main entrance towards Central Park .
The more well-known museums for fine arts and design include the “ Metropolitan Museum of Art ” (exhibits from ancient Egyptian temples to modern art, opened in 1880), the “ Museum of Modern Art ” (Museum of Modern Art, MoMA for short , opened in 1929 ) and its branch P, S. 1. in Queens , the " Frick Collection " (opened 1935) and the " Whitney Museum of American Art " (opened 1966), furthermore a branch of the " National Museum of the American Indian ", the “ Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum ”, the “ American Museum of the Moving Image ”, the “ International Center of Photography ”, the “ Pierpont Morgan Library ”. The “MoMA” is considered to be the world's most important museum for contemporary art from the western world and was reopened in a new building in 2004 after extensive expansions. Some of the above museums form at the 5th Avenue in the Upper East Side , the Mile Museum .
The spiral structure of the " Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum " (1071 5th Avenue ) was designed according to plans by the famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright and is similar in structure to a snail shell. It is Lloyd Wright's only building in New York, opened in 1959 and houses a collection of contemporary painting and sculpture , including classics by Wassily Kandinsky , Pablo Picasso and Paul Klee .
Not far from Liberty Island with the Statue of Liberty is Ellis Island , once the first checkpoint for over twelve million immigrants. Under the name Gibbert Island , the island served the English as a penal camp for pirates. In 1892 an outpost for the immigration authorities was set up there, primarily to cope with the huge influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. When the outpost closed in 1954, an enormous complex stood on the island, which had been enlarged by landfill. Today the "Ellis Island Immigration Museum" is located in the central building with its towers.
With around 5,800 buildings with more than twelve floors, New York is a city of high-rise buildings and skyscrapers . The fifty-tallest building in New York measures over 200 meters, making it one of the tallest in Europe. The twin towers of the World Trade Center were the tallest buildings in the city until they were destroyed in the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 , the slightly higher north tower measured 417 meters (with antenna 527 meters) and the south tower 415 meters.
Statue of Liberty and Liberty Island
The Statue of Liberty (Statue of Liberty) , colloquially "Miss Liberty" or "Lady Liberty" called, was inaugurated on October 28, 1886 before the New York Harbor as a welcome of returnees and newcomers. It is a gift from France to the USA and was originally supposed to be completed in 1876 for the centenary of the American Declaration of Independence in 1776. The statue stands on Liberty Island and belongs together with Ellis Island to the Statue of Liberty National Monument . By UNESCO , it became the World Heritage declared.
The statue was designed by Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi and Gustave Eiffel , the designer of the Eiffel Tower , designed the inner iron skeleton. It has a height of 46 meters without a base, with a base it reaches a height of 93 meters. Its exterior consists of a copper jacket that is supported by an internal iron framework. Over time, the copper has formed a green layer of patina . The stone base houses a museum and was built on a star-shaped fort that was modeled on the former fortification at the same location.
The goddess of freedom stands with one foot on broken chains that symbolize slavery. In her left hand she is holding a plaque with the inscription "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" - July 4th 1776 - the date of the American Declaration of Independence. With her right hand she holds aloft a torch with a gold-plated flame. The statue is adorned with a seven-pointed crown in which there are 25 windows. The seven rays symbolize the seven seas and continents and the 25 windows symbolize the 25 precious stones of the world. The poem The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus , an allusion to the Colossus of Rhodes , is engraved on the pedestal .
Liberty Island ("Freedom Island") is a small, uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay , the original name was Bedloe's Island . On August 3, 1956, Eisenhower renamed the island. It is owned by the federal government of the United States and is administered and maintained by the National Park Service . The island is 600 meters from Liberty State Park in Jersey City , New Jersey. The island is 1.6 miles from Battery Park in Manhattan. Although the island is not New Jersey territory, it is on the New Jersey-facing side of the border line between the states of New Jersey and New York. It is therefore an exclave of New York in the waters of New Jersey. The distance to nearby Ellis Island, which has a similar status, is approximately 1.6 kilometers.
The " Flatiron Building " (175 5th Avenue ) completed in 1902 at the intersection of Broadway , Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street was never the tallest building in the city with a height of 91 meters, but it was a tourist destination from the start. It was built according to plans by the architect Daniel Burnham . The idiosyncratic triangular floor plan gave the building the name "Flatiron Building" (= "Iron Building").
The shape of the oldest surviving skyscraper in New York means that strong winds develop on the street. Due to its size, the building is no longer noticeable today, although after its construction it towered over everything surrounding it with its twenty floors. Shortly after its completion, the building served as a motif for one of the most famous photographs by the American photographer Alfred Stieglitz .
One of the most distinctive structures in the city is the Chrysler Building on Lexington Avenue . The Art Deco building has a shiny, stepped spire made of stainless steel with arches and triangular windows and is 319 meters high, including the spire. It measures 282 meters to the roof.
It was designed in 1930 by the architect William Van Alen on behalf of the automobile manufacturer Walter Percy Chrysler (1875-1940). For a year it was the tallest building in the world, then the Empire State Building was completed.
Empire State Building
The Empire State Building is an Art Deco skyscraper on Fifth Avenue in Midtown. It rises 381 meters to the roof, including the antenna 443 meters into the sky. From its completion in 1931 to 1972, it was the tallest building in the world. From September 11, 2001 until the topping-out ceremony of One World Trade Center with a height of 541 meters on May 10, 2013, it was again the tallest building in New York City . Since its completion, around 120 million visitors have viewed the panorama of the city from the visitor platform on the 86th floor.
There is another viewing platform on the 102nd floor, the top floor. However, this is located inside the building. On special holidays and occasions, the spire shines in different colored lights. The building has also played a prominent role in several well-known motion pictures, including King Kong and the White Woman , Independence Day, and The Great Love of My Life .
World Financial Center
The World Financial Center (200 Liberty Street ) is located in Lower Manhattan in the Battery Park City district on the Hudson River in the immediate vicinity of the financial center of the metropolis. This complex was designed by Cesar Pelli & Associates. American Express , CIBC World Markets , Dow Jones , Merrill Lynch and other major companies have their headquarters in the four towers .
The focus is a winter garden with tall palm trees from the Sonoran Desert in Arizona . There are also restaurants, shops and a piazza that overlooks the Hudson River marina in the complex. The various cultural events and demonstrations are free of charge. The winter garden and other parts were badly affected by the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. The repair work in the winter garden was completed in September 2002.
The Bank of America Tower , completed in 2009, is the tallest building after the Empire State Building. The 366 meter high skyscraper belongs to a new generation of high-rise buildings in New York that are very modern and environmentally friendly. This includes the New York Times Tower , the new headquarters of The New York Times , which in 2007 was completed and with 319 meters as high as the Chrysler Building is.
The tallest building in the United States is the One World Trade Center (formerly Freedom Tower ) at Ground Zero , which was completed on November 3, 2014 . At 541 meters, this building towers over the Empire State Building, and the One World Trade Center is more than 120 meters higher than its predecessor: the twin towers of the old World Trade Center , built from 1966 to 1972/73, destroyed during the attacks of November 11th. September 2001, were 417 feet tall.
The international style " Seagram Building " ( 375 Park Avenue ) was opened in 1958. The block made of bronze glass and steel was built according to plans by the German architect Mies van der Rohe . The noble restaurant "Four Seasons" is also located in this building.
The Time Warner Center ( 10 Columbus Circle ) consists of twin towers like the World Trade Center once did . When it was completed in 2004, it is the first building complex whose construction work was completed after the terrorist attacks in 2001, and it is one of the most modern centers. In the Time Warner Center there are offices , a shopping center , television studios , a concert hall , a theater as well as a hotel and condominiums .
The multimillionaire Donald Trump had a luxury-class office and apartment tower , the " Trump Tower " (725 5th Avenue ) , built in the style of postmodernism. The magnificent atrium extends over six floors. On the lower floors of the building there are various boutiques, jewelers and other exclusive shops for discerning customers, while the apartments are on the upper floors.
The UN headquarters on 1st Avenue between 42nd and 48th Streets consists of several buildings, streets and parks. In 1952 the United Nations was able to move into its headquarters after John D. Rockefeller II. (1874–1960) had donated 8.5 million US dollars for the purchase of the property and because the USA loaned money without interest. The administration is located in the 39-story green glass tower, and the curved “General Assembly Building” houses the assembly hall and the visitor entrance.
Since 1931, the Art Deco style " Waldorf Astoria " (301 Park Avenue) has been one of the large luxury hotels in New York. In the twin towers there are pompous rooms for the wealthy and famous personalities. The lobby of the building is decorated with marble columns , bronze and mahogany .
The Woolworth Building (322 Broadway) was completed in 1913 and was the tallest building in the world until 1930. The elegant Gothic skyscraper designed by the architect Cass Gilbert is crowned by a pyramid roof and decorated with many animal ornaments. In addition to the headquarters of the "FW Woolworth Company", there were shops and a restaurant in the high-rise.
The Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883 and was the longest suspension bridge in the world at the time . It spanned the East River and was the first bridge to connect Manhattan with Brooklyn . The engineer John Augustus Roebling (1806–1869) constructed this technological marvel, but did not see the completion. His son completed the work. To see if the bridge could carry heavy weights, the Barnum Circus was sent over with numerous elephants .
From the higher walkway you can see the Manhattan skyline in the distance and the Gothic arches of the bridge piers up close. Almost directly under the bridge is the classy "River Café" in Brooklyn.
Building in SoHo
The SoHo district (South of Houston Street) is home to numerous galleries, antique shops, cafes and museums, including the branch of the Guggenheim Museum, the New Museum of Contemporary Art and the Museum of African Art.
The warehouses from the years 1860 to 1890 with their beautifully decorated, cast-iron facades are well worth seeing. The “Cast-Iron Historic District” has been placed under a preservation order. Many of these buildings are now used as lofts or studios. SoHo has become a popular district and is home to a large collection of cast iron architecture. Cast iron was discovered in the search for ways to build buildings quickly and relatively inexpensively. Instead of heavy masonry, iron girders were used to support the floors, thereby gaining space for larger windows and, above all, for facades. Almost every idea of an architect could be realized with cast iron. The builders designed SoHo's factories with baroque balustrades and Renaissance columns.
The religion plays a major role in the architecture of New York. In Uptown are the "Biblical Garden", various sculptures and the still unfinished Cathedral of St. John the Divine with its mixture of Romanesque and Gothic style elements.
Construction work on the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine began in 1892, was interrupted when the war broke out in 1939 and sporadically resumed in the early 1990s despite numerous controversies and financial worries. Only two thirds of the cathedral are finished. Should it ever be completed as planned, it would be the largest church in the world as it stands and large enough to accommodate Notre-Dame de Paris and Chartres Cathedral .
In Uptown there is also the Riverside Church with the 120 meter high bell tower. The architects were Charles Collens and Henry C. Pelton, construction lasted 1927-1933 and the financier was John D. Rockefeller II.
At the western end of Wall Street, on Broadway between Rector and Church Street, stands the neo-Gothic Trinity Church , in whose graveyard many well-known personalities from the founding history of the United States rest. Erected in 1846 according to plans by the architect Richard Upjohn, it was the tallest structure in the city for 50 years.
The reformed Middle Collegiate Church was built in 1892 in a neo-Gothic style.
Grand Central Terminal
In the center of Midtown, on the corner of East 42nd Street and Park Avenue, the Grand Central Terminal was built between 1903 and 1913 by the team of architects Warren & Wetmore from Minnesota . The building combines on the one hand the romance of travel and on the other hand the history of a magnificent station building from that time.
Thanks to the efforts of famous New York personalities such as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis , the station was saved from demolition and made a symbol of the city. After the Grand Central Terminal had only been used for transit purposes for a long time, after extensive renovations in the 1990s, it now presents itself with many exclusive shops and restaurants. The renovation cost over $ 200 million.
The twelve-story station concourse is 142 meters long, 50 meters wide and 46 meters high. On the vaulted ceiling, over 2,500 stars sparkle in zodiac constellations , and the huge windows ensure the halls are flooded with sunlight.
New York Public Library
The New York Public Library is one of the leading libraries in the United States and one of the three public libraries in New York. The New York Public Library on Fifth Avenue , between 40th and 42nd Streets , was designed in 1897 by architects Carrère and Hastings .
Built in 1911 in the Beaux Arts style, the library has space for more than seven million books and 10,000 magazines. Its status as one of the world's leading libraries is evidenced by the possession of, for example, a Gutenberg Bible , an edition of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica and the handwritten Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson . The first books are by Johann Jakob Astor (1763–1848).
Dakota Apartment Building
The luxury apartment building The Dakota (also known as the Dakota Building ) on the corner of 72nd Street and Central Park West was designed by Henry J. Hardenbergh between 1880 and 1884 and built in what was then still a poor area. It is one of the few surviving examples of the neo-Gothic style in New York. Hardenbergh was also the architect of the famous New York Plaza Hotel . The builder of the "Dakota" was Edward Clark , the owner of the Singer sewing machine group , who however did not live to see the completion.
The name is said to have originated during the construction phase because the property was so far outside the built-up urban area that it was jokingly claimed that it was already in the tribal area of the Dakota , an Indian people whose settlement area was in the north of the USA. The natural stone sculpture of an Indian head is embedded above the main entrance as a sign.
There are a total of 65 luxury suites in the house, in which artists such as Judy Garland , Leonard Bernstein , Boris Karloff and John Lennon have lived. The former member of the Beatles was shot in 1980 right in front of the "Dakota". His widow Yoko Ono still lives there today. The building can only be viewed from the outside.
See also List of Parks in New York City for an overview of all parks in the city.
The Central Park in 1853 set up as a country park and has since been used as a public park. Today it stretches four kilometers from 59th Street to 110th Street and 750 meters wide between Fifth and Eighth Avenues and is also called the green lung of New York. With around 340 hectares , it takes up around five percent of Manhattan's land area. It is the largest park in the city and one of the largest in the world.
In the past few decades Central Park has grown into an imposing park. Numerous joggers and inline skaters use the paved roads in the park to do sports. In the summer, many New Yorkers go to Central Park on the weekends to relax with a long picnic .
In the south of the park there is a zoo and a baseball field and in the middle a large lake, the "Jacqueline-Kennedy-Onassis-Reservoir", and the "Metropolitan Museum of Art". In the 1990s, the area above 110th Street should be avoided because of its proximity to Harlem and its formerly high crime rate. In the meantime, however, New York is one of the safest cities in the United States.
The Battery Park is a park on the southern tip of Manhattan. The port at Battery Park serves as the starting point for ferries to Ellis Island , the Statue of Liberty, Staten Island and, in summer, Governors Island . In the park itself there are numerous other monuments in addition to the monument to the Swedish engineer and inventor John Ericsson . The park takes its name from the guns that were once posted here to defend the harbor. However, due to silting up and backfilling, today's coastline has moved forward a little. The landfill was created with the help of excavation during the construction of the World Trade Center .
The Bronx Zoo was established in 1899. At over 300 acres, it is the largest zoo in New York and the largest city-based zoo in the United States. The New York Botanical Garden, which connects to the north, is also part of the zoo. The Bronx Zoo has many species of animals that have become extinct in the wild.
Edgar Allan Poe's last house is now a lovingly restored and generally accessible memorial. He lived here in what was then the suburb of Fordham from 1846 to 1849. His wife and cousin Virginia Clemm Poe , the model of his Annabel Lee, died here . Poe Cottage was moved 140 meters from its original location in 1913. It is across from Poe Park on Kingsbridge Road in the Bronx.
Governors Island , south of Manhattan , will be expanded by the National Park Service into a new amusement park in the heart of New York over the next few years. The historic northern part with Castle Williams and Fort Jay has been open to the public for several years in the summer months (the ferry is right next to the Staten Island Ferry). From the island you have a good view of the Statue of Liberty , Ellis Island, New Jersey , the southern tip of Manhattan and the docks of Brooklyn .
A park has been under construction since 2006 on a former elevated railway line in the west of Manhattan . The first section was opened to the public on June 8, 2009, the second followed on June 7, 2011. The last section between 30th and 34th Street is still in the planning stage. The city government invested $ 50 million in the project; further construction costs are covered by donations.
Some of the better known of the numerous professional sports teams in the New York Metropolitan Area include:
- Major League Baseball : New York Yankees and New York Mets
- National Football League : New York Giants and New York Jets
- National Basketball Association : New York Knicks and Brooklyn Nets
- National Hockey League : New York Rangers and New York Islanders
- Major League Soccer : New York City FC and New York Red Bulls
- Well-known teams that were formerly based in the city include the Los Angeles Dodgers (since 1957, formerly Brooklyn Dodgers ) and the San Francisco Giants .
The New York Yankees, founded in 1901 and whose Yankee Stadium is in the Bronx , have been the most successful club in American professional sports since the 1920s. They have won the World Series , the highest trophy in American baseball , 27 times so far, most recently in 2009. This means that the club has collected the most titles of all teams in the four major professional leagues: MLB , NFL , NBA and NHL . The championship competitions against the Brooklyn Dodgers of that time, today's San Francisco Giants and the New York Mets, called the Subway Series , are particularly famous .
Five chess world championships were held in whole or in part in New York City : The first official world championship in 1886 between Wilhelm Steinitz and Johannes Hermann Zukertort was opened there on January 11, 1886, eight years later Steinitz lost his title to Emanuel Lasker in 1894 after the first part of the Title fight had been held again in New York City. Before the chess world was divided, the 1990 World Chess Championship between Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov took place in New York City and Lyon. Five years later, Kasparov and Viswanathan Anand dueled in the south tower of the World Trade Center in 1995 . In November 2016, New York City hosted the 2016 World Chess Championship between Magnus Carlsen and Sergei Karjakin .
One of the many annual festivities in New York is the Chinese New Year , which begins in January or February and lasts for ten days. Saint Patrick's Day , the national holiday of Ireland, is celebrated on March 17th each year with a large parade on Fifth Avenue . Christopher Street Day , the gay and lesbian festival that originated here, is celebrated every summer in New York and around the world, and the Steuben Parade travels down Fifth Avenue to Central Park on the third Saturday in September each year .
Other events include Columbus Day , a large pageant every year on the second Monday in October, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade , which has attracted tens of thousands of visitors every year since 1924 and has been televised for several years, the US Open Tennis Championships in Flushing Meadows, Queens, the New York City Marathon from Staten Island to Central Park and New Year's Eve in Times Square.
The variety and diversity of its residents is also reflected in the cuisine of New York. The city has around 17,300 restaurants serving food from all over the world. The restaurants of the various population groups offer Italian, kosher , Asian and Indian dishes , among other things . The so-called delis are a New York institution and offer a wide range; its central element is a hot and cold buffet .
Typical dishes include New York bagels , pancakes , cheesecake (cheesecake), Waldorf salad , pizza , hot dogs and burgers , as well as soul food and sushi . A special specialty from the Jewish tradition is the so-called Knisch (roughly potato pocket), which can be bought at almost every deli .
Several internationally known chefs and restaurateurs such as Mario Batali , David Bouley , Daniel Boulud , Alain Ducasse , Thomas Keller , Nobu Matsuhisa , Danny Meyer , Masa Takayama and Jean-Georges Vongerichten run restaurants in New York. The renowned Michelin Guide , of which there is an edition especially for New York, gives more awards than in any other tested city except Paris .
Economy and Infrastructure
New York's role as a global financial center affects businesses and residents in the city and region. Bill Hyers, advisor to Mayor Bill de Blasio , said in 2014 that economic pressures are creating a collective concern that smells almost like pheromones across the city . “There are 40 billionaires; 400,000 millionaires. That means that there are eight million people who live, work and have to survive in this very expensive city. "
The New York metropolitan region is one of the most important economic areas in the world and, along with London and Tokyo, is one of the largest financial centers in the world. The most important economic sectors include the chemical and electrotechnical industry, the printing industry , the textile industry and the service sector.
In the south of Manhattan ( Lower Manhattan , Downtown ) is the main business center with the financial district around Wall Street and Broad Street. This is also where the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the world's largest stock exchange, is located . Its foundation stone was laid on May 17th, 1792 when 24 brokers and traders signed the Buttonwood Agreement. At the time, there were just five stocks trading in New York: the stocks of two banks and three government bonds issued in 1790. Today, about 2,800 companies are listed on the NYSE (460 of which are based outside of the United States) and the trading volume averages about 45 billion US dollars per day (as of November 2004). Other major exchanges in New York City are NASDAQ , New York Mercantile Exchange (largest commodity futures exchange in the world), American Stock Exchange and New York Board of Trade.
Numerous global corporations have their headquarters in New York. These include the Altria Group (one of the world's largest manufacturers of tobacco, food and beverages), American International Group (largest insurance and financial services company in the world), Pfizer (world's second largest pharmaceutical company), Sony Music (second largest record company in the world), Bristol-Myers Squibb (pharmaceutical company), Jetblue Airways (airline), DC Comics (comic publisher) and Estée Lauder (cosmetics company) as well as Steinway & Sons (piano manufacturer). Furthermore, the city is the seat of many law firms of international renown.
New York is an important media location. The city is the seat of the global media groups Time Warner and Viacom , several major publishers, music companies, production studios and the headquarters or sub-headquarters of four major American television, film and radio networks: ABC , CBS , NBC and FOX .
Brooklyn and the Bronx are home to extensive docks , warehouses, and manufacturing facilities. The port facilities (waterfront) in the Bronx district have a length of about 130 kilometers. More than 50% of air freight to other countries is handled via John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens New York, while LaGuardia and Newark Liberty International Airports are mainly used for domestic traffic. Since the port in the state of New Jersey has taken over a large part of the cargo traffic from New York, the passenger and cargo traffic in the entire city area is becoming less and less important.
The tourism plays for the metropolis also a very significant role. New York City registers almost 60 million guests annually, over 12 million of them from abroad (mainly from Canada and Great Britain), including 632,000 visitors from Germany. New York City benefits from spending by vacationers amounting to around 42 billion US dollars (all tourism data as of 2015).
The port of New York , both the natural harbor in Upper Bay and the port facilities around it, occupies a large area on the east coast. It is only part of the urban area and the other part is in New Jersey . The two neighboring states have formed a joint port authority ( PANYNJ ) and the Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor (WCNYH) to coordinate their interests .
The port is the third largest in terms of cargo handling, but the largest port in the United States in terms of area. It serves as an international deep sea - and via the Hudson as an inland port for parts of the USA (northeast) and eastern Canada .
New York’s economic importance today is related to its use for the handling of goods and historically to the transport of people on ships. With the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, an inexpensive transport route to the Great Lakes was opened up and New York became the most important trading port on the east coast. In addition, New York was and is a major immigration center for the United States. Millions of immigrants landed here and passed its facilities, of which Ellis Island is a relatively new one. After immigration, which used to be more significant, tourism now dominates passenger shipping in New York Harbor.
New York is connected to the rest of the country by numerous highways . There are several ways to get here by car: Route 495 , which in New York joins Interstate 495 , leads from New Jersey through the Lincoln Tunnel and from the east through the Queens-Midtown Tunnel to Midtown Manhattan.
From the southwest, Interstate Highways I-95 ( New Jersey Turnpike ) and I-78 lead through the Holland Tunnel to Canal Street and Spring Street, respectively, near SoHo and Tribeca . From the north, I-87 ( New York State Thruway ) and I-95 reach Manhattan's ring roads. Particularly at the tunnels and bridges, there are always traffic jams, also because tolls are usually collected there.
There are two airports in New York : John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport . The two airports are located in Queens, with LaGuardia being mainly used for domestic flights. There is also Newark Liberty International Airport , which is closest to Manhattan and the oldest airport in the New York area, but is located in Newark , New Jersey . The airports transport a total of over 90 million passengers per year on over a million flights. The Teterboro Airport is due to its proximity to the city market of choice for the business aviation.
In New York, there are two main train stations for the train : Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station . Grand Central is on the East Side in Midtown, while Penn Station is on the West Side. Both stations have transfer options to numerous bus and underground lines.
The “Metro-North Commuter Railroad” commuter trains to Westchester County , Putnam County , Dutchess County , Fairfield County and New Haven County currently end in Grand Central Terminal (often also called Grand Central Station ) . The Grand Central Terminal was inaugurated as a terminus on February 2, 1913 and has been the largest train station in the world ever since - it has 44 platforms with 67 tracks ending. The station is on two levels, 41 tracks end on the upper level, 26 on the lower level.
Long-distance trains from several railway companies, including Amtrak trains, stop at Penn Station . Like the Port Authority Bus Terminal and George Washington Bus Station, Pennsylvania Station is a hub for several subway lines.
The streets of New York are 10,200 kilometers in length. The grid-shaped street network in Manhattan is numbered and divided into east and west (with the division on 5th Avenue ). The exception here is the lowest downtown, where this grid system ends. There are similar grids in Brooklyn and Queens, but for historical reasons they have a rather irregular structure characterized by breaks.
In terms of the means of transport used, New York is a very un-American city as most of its residents use public transport. On the streets of Manhattan only drive about 50 percent of private vehicles - the image characterize especially the over 12,000 yellow taxis ( "Yellow Cabs"). The reasons for this include high parking fees and high fees for bridges and tunnels.
Local public transport
The New York subway network, which offers 24-hour service over large areas, is one of the largest in the world. The first section of the tunnel was opened on October 28, 1904 by the Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT). Around 6,000 subway cars run on 27 lines with 476 stations. The network has a length of 407.2 kilometers - 393.3 kilometers of which are intended for public transport. 371.1 kilometers are operated by the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) and 14.2 kilometers by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). The latter runs between Manhattan and New Jersey. The subway carries 4.5 million passengers every week and 1.5 billion passengers a year. 7,400 train journeys are made every day.
For commuter traffic in the direction of Long Iceland is Long Iceland Railroad (LIRR) responsible. The New Jersey Transit suburban trains transport New Jersey to New York commuters. On Staten Iceland which runs Staten Iceland Railway ; the island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and to Manhattan by the Staten Island Ferry .
There is also a well-developed bus network . Over 4,000 buses run in the city on 235 lines with over two million passengers on weekdays (666 million annually). Trolleybuses ran in New York between October 8, 1921 and July 26, 1960 .
On November 26, 1832, the New York and Harlem Railroad opened the world's first horse-drawn tram in the city. From 1893 the tram network was partially electrified, the prohibition of overhead lines and the technically more complex underground lines ensured that New York had one of the last horse-drawn trams in the USA. Most of the network was shut down before 1922. In 1956 the last tram from Jersey City, where it has been running again since April 15, 2000, crossed the George Washington Bridge to Manhattan.
Ferries and bridges
There are 29 permanent and seasonal ferry lines operating in New York . The free Staten Island Ferry connects Manhattan and Staten Island. In addition, numerous commercial ferries operate across the Hudson and various ferries on the East River, which connect the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx and Manhattan, including the NYC Ferry with six routes.
There are 2,027 bridges in New York City . The longest bridge is the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge between Staten Island and Brooklyn. The bridges to Manhattan over the East River on the northeast bank are called (from north to south): Throgs Neck Bridge, Bronx Whitsstone Bridge, the railroad bridge from Randalls Wards or Park Ave, Third Ave Bridge, Willis Ave Bridge, Triborough Bridge , Queensboro Bridge , Williamsburg Bridge , Manhattan Bridge and Brooklyn Bridge . On the west bank there is the Bear Mountain Bridge in the north , then the Tappan Zee Bridge (Dewey Thruway) and in the center the George Washington Bridge over the Hudson. In addition to these main bridges from / to Manhattan, there are many normal bridges as well as 25 movable bridges throughout New York: two draw-in bridges, seven swing bridges, four lifting bridges and twelve drawbridges. The city's bridges and tunnels are maintained by the New York City Department of Transportation , and the MTA Bridges and Tunnels is responsible for some of the toll bridges and tunnels .
First published in 1889, the Wall Street Journal , which is particularly devoted to economic issues , is politically conservative , is one of the highest-circulation newspapers in the United States and offers its own European and Asian editions.
Other regional daily newspapers are Newsday , AM New York , Metro New York and Staten Island Advance . In addition, there are a large number of papers whose reports focus on population groups, districts or districts of the city, for example, or appear in the languages of the original countries of origin of the population groups.
The Village Voice , founded in 1955, was the first and is the best known of the publications known as Alternative weeklies . The print edition was discontinued in 2017. The online edition will continue to appear.
Radio and television
New York is the seat of global media groups ( Time Warner , Viacom ) as well as large television and radio networks ( ABC , CBS , FOX , NBC ). Dozens of New Yorkers and numerous national and international radio and television stations can be received via cable and satellite. Around 10,000 journalists from the city report all over the world on politics, business and culture.
Over 3000 film and series productions, including dozen of blockbusters , were shot in and around the city. Many well-known entertainment programs and talk shows are recorded in the city. The late night show host Jimmy Fallon welcomes his guests to the Tonight Show . The " Saturday Night Live " show, which has existed since 1975 , also broadcasts from Manhattan. Other shows and programs produced here include The Late Show with Stephen Colbert , Inside the Actors Studio , The Daily Show , Good Morning America , Last Week Tonight with John Oliver , The Today Show, and Red Eye and Live with Kelly . The stations MTV and Comedy Central are also located in the city.
The many excellent higher education institutions include Columbia University (opened in 1754), the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art , the City University of New York , Barnard College , New York University , the Pratt Institute opened in 1887 , the Fordham University , the New School , Rockefeller University , the Juilliard School of Music, Dance, and Drama, the Manhattan School of Music (opened in 1917), and the Culinary Institute of America (opened in 1946). The City of New York also operates a number of secondary schools promoting highly talented students . The Bronx High School of Science , Stuyvesant High School and Brooklyn Technical High School are among the oldest and most renowned of these schools .
The Columbia University is located in Morningside Heights , just north of the Upper West Side , in the district of Manhattan and is one of the so-called " Ivy League ", the elite universities in the northeastern United States (such as Yale , Princeton , Harvard and others). Founded in 1754 as King's College by royal decree by King George II , it is the oldest high school in New York State and the fifth oldest in the country. Columbia is considered one of the most prestigious universities in the world.
The New York University (NYU) is a world-renowned elite university. It is the largest private university in the United States with a total of 39,408 students (Fall 2004) - 20,212 undergraduate students, 15,884 graduate students and 3,312 doctoral students. 4,000 of the students come from over 100 countries. The university campus is located in Greenwich Village in Manhattan. The university consists of 14 faculties and colleges. Founded on April 21, 1831 by a group of prominent New Yorkers, including former US Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin, it is renowned for its faculties of economics, economics, law, medicine, computer science, math, philosophy, political science, and neuroscience .
In the rankings of the US News & World Report and other publications, the university's faculties can regularly be found in the top 25, such as the NYU Stern School of Business, the School of Law , and the Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service . The Tisch School of the Arts is one of the most famous centers for music, theater, directing and stage training. The Faculty of Philosophy is widely recognized as one of the best in the country. Admission to the university is very selective, depending on the faculty. Named the No. 1 Dream School in Princeton Report polls among college applicants, it received the highest number of applications in 2004 and 2005 of any North American university.
New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, which is the only active U.S. military watch in the city. Founded in Brooklyn in 1825 on the site of a small battery used during the American Revolution , it is one of the oldest military forts still in operation. Fort Hamilton now serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transport Brigade, the 772nd Aeromedical Supply Squadron, and a military rehabilitation facility.
Other formerly active military facilities that are still used for military training or reserve and National Guard operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.
- FDNY • Fire and Police • NYPD
- Flag and seal / city arms
- Hospitals (list)
- List of tallest buildings in New York
- List of sons and daughters of New York City
- List of National Historic Landmarks site
- New York City Taxi Cabs
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