Edgar Allan Poe

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Edgar Allan Poe, daguerreotype from 1849Edgar Allan Poe company reconstrucción.png

Edgar Allan Poe (born January 19, 1809 in Boston , Massachusetts , † October 7, 1849 in Baltimore , Maryland ) was an American writer . He decisively shaped the genre of the short story as well as the genres of crime literature and horror or horror literature . Individual narratives have influenced later science fiction writers such as Jules Verne . His poetry , received in Europe by Charles Baudelaire , became the foundation of symbolism and thus of modern poetry.



Gravestone of Elizabeth Arnold Poe, mother of E. A. Poe, St. John's Church, Richmond, Virginia
Frances Allan

Edgar Allan Poe (born as Edgar Poe) was the son of the English- born actress Elizabeth "Eliza" Arnold Hopkins Poe (* 1787, † December 8, 1811) and the Baltimore- born actor David Poe (* July 18, 1784, † unknown) born on January 19, 1809 in Boston . The two had married in 1806 and played with the Charleston Comedians , a group led by Mr. Edgar. The father left the family the year Poe was born. What happened to him after that has not yet been clarified. In 1811, Poe's mother died of tuberculosis in Richmond , aged just 23 . During his two year older brother Henry in the custody of his grandfather David Poe senior came, the two-year Edgar and his one year remained younger sister Rosalie, after a short time in custody of the family of actors Usher, as orphans destitute.

The fate of Elizabeth Poe, popular as an actress and singer, shook the ladies of better society in Richmond. The childless Frances Allan convinced her husband John Allan, who was a successful businessman, to take Edgar Poe into the family. His sister Rosalie was taken in by another family in Richmond. John Allan's relationship with the young Poe was ambivalent: partly he spoiled him, partly he was excessively strict. Although the boy belonged to the family, he was not adopted and referred to as a ward to outsiders . Nevertheless, Poe adopted the middle name Allan. Although the business of John Allan's company and his business partner James Ellis suffered from the British-American War in 1812, they did well afterwards. The company therefore decided in 1815 to expand its business in Europe , for which John Allan, who originally came from Scotland , went to Great Britain in 1815 with his wife, sister-in-law and foster son .

From the winter of 1815 Poe was a pupil of the Old Grammar School in Irvine , Scotland , John Allan's hometown. Since the family themselves lived in London and the young Poe did not want to be separated from them, John Allan agreed to let him teach in England (London). In 1816 and 1817 Poe attended boarding school in Chelsea and then the Reverend John Bransby's school in Stoke Newington north of London. This school left a clear mark on Poe's story by William Wilson .

The economic downturn of 1819 resulted in a severe downturn in Allan's business and near bankruptcy. John Allan ended his stay in England in 1820 and returned to Richmond with the family. Because of the economic losses and the resulting accumulated debts, the Allan family lived from 1820 to 1825 in not poor, but comparatively simple circumstances. In 1825, however, John Allan's uncle, William Galt, one of Richmond's richest men, died, leaving his nephew three quarters of a million dollars . This sudden wealth lulled young Poe into the hope of inheriting from his foster father, John Allan. In Richmond, Poe continued to enjoy a good upbringing, a great gift for languages, and a great athlete, especially a swimmer. A schoolmate, Thomas Ellis, reported:

“No boy had more influence on me than he. He was indeed the leader among the boys. My admiration for him knew no bounds [...] He taught me how to shoot, swim and skate. He even saved me from drowning once - but he had pushed me upside down [...]. "

At the age of 14, Poe fell in love with Jane Stanard, the 30-year-old mother of a school friend. Details of this - presumably - mere crush are not known. Jane Stanard died of mental derangement a year later, and Poe made repeated visits to her grave. It is possible that he was looking for a replacement for his deceased biological mother in her. In 1825/26 a relationship developed between Poe and Sarah Elmira Royster, who was about the same age . This ended, however, when Poe attended university and Elmira's father, who refused the relationship, intercepted Poe's letters to her. When Poe returned from university, Elmira was engaged to someone else.


The University of Virginia when Poe was studying there, 1826

In February 1826 enrolled Poe at the age of 17 years at the recently from Thomas Jefferson founded the University of Virginia in Charlottesville . There he studied old and new languages. His teachers were George Long and the German Georg Blättermann . During this time Poe deepened his French , probably also learned some Italian and Spanish . His knowledge of Greek , Latin and German , which he later claimed , was and remained extremely poor.

At the university, Poe went into debt and began to play and drink. The exact background is not clear. The annual tuition fee was $ 350 (making the University of Virginia the most expensive college in the country). There was also room and board, books and clothing. After just eight months of college, Poe was in debt of $ 2,000. Maybe John Allan had given him too little money for his education - that is how Poe put it. But it is also possible that Poe found himself in an atmosphere where education was little, since most of the other students came from wealthy families, excesses Rule were - and that as an outsider, Poe tried to keep up at all costs, especially since he could still hope to inherit John Allan one day. But his debts only increased tension between him and Allan. In addition, it was possible that John Allan already had an illegitimate son, Edwin Collier (around 1829, two more illegitimate children, twins, were added). It is unknown whether Frances Allan knew about this and whether Edgar then took her side.

Soldier and first publications

Fort Moultrie, photo from 1861

After a violent argument with John Allan in March 1827, Poe left the Allans' house and after a few days embarked for Boston. Poe took the name Henri le Rennet (based on the name of his brother Henry Leonard), possibly to avoid creditors. In June or July 1827 his first volume of poetry, Tamerlane and Other Poems , appeared at Poe's expense in Boston, the place of his birth and his mother's favorite city . The book, which only had a very limited edition, received no critical response.

By the time the book came out, Poe had already signed up for service in the US Army . The 18-year-old said he was 22 years old and his name was Edgar A. Perry. In addition to the need to find a livelihood, the fact that Poe's grandfather David Poe had served with honors in the American War of Independence , Poe also adored Lord Byron, who died in the Greek War of Independence , and saw in him, who was also a great swimmer , may also have contributed to the decision was, not just a literary role model.

Poe signed up for five years. In November 1827 his regiment was transferred from Boston to Charleston , where he served at Fort Moultrie ; The fort was on the offshore island of Sullivan's Island , on which Poe set the story The Gold Bug years later . Poe was promoted several times, in 1829 to sergeant major , the highest possible rank for a common soldier. After two years, Poe wanted to leave the army - which, however, since he had committed for five years, meant that he had to buy himself out. In order to get the necessary funds, he sought a reconciliation with John Allan. This initially refused, but gave in after his wife Frances died on February 28, 1829. On April 15, 1829, Poe was honorably discharged from the army and returned to Richmond.

West Point Military Academy, engraving after a painting by George Catlin, 1828

However, Poe planned to continue his career in the army - as an officer. To do this, he wanted to enter the US Military Academy at West Point . John Allan supported his wish, probably in hopes of getting rid of Poe for good in this way. However, Poe had to wait around a year for admission to West Point.

He traveled to Baltimore, where his father's relatives lived. There he lived with his aunt Maria Clemm and her daughter, his cousin Virginia Clemm. A second collection of his poems appeared in Baltimore in December 1829 under the title Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems - this time not anonymously, but under the name Edgar A. Poe.

In June or July 1830, Poe was inducted into West Point as a cadet . In the first few months there, he distinguished himself through excellent performance. He chose French and mathematics as major subjects. In October 1830, John Allan married his second wife, Louisa Patterson. This renewed marriage made the break between Poe and Allan final, despite further attempts by Poe to reach a rapprochement. The rift also led to Poe provoking his discharge from the army in order to embarrass Allan, who had been very committed to his acceptance into West Point. After numerous violations of the rules announced in a letter to Allan, he was tried before a court-martial and expelled from the military academy.

In February 1831, Poe went from West Point to New York and from there in April to his relatives in Baltimore. In April 1831 his third volume of poetry appeared in New York under the title Poems . He had financed the book through the subscription of military comrades in West Point. During his time at the military academy, he had written several lines of derision at superiors, and his fellow cadets assumed there was more of them in the volume. This hope was dashed. Poe dedicated the volume to the US Cadet Corps. It contains several poems from the two earlier volumes, but also six previously unpublished ones, including early versions of To Helen and The City in the Sea .

Baltimore, short stories

Early illustration from Wogel to MS. Found in a bottle

Not long after Poe's return to Baltimore, his brother William Henry Leonard died on August 1, 1831, at the age of 24, of complications from his alcoholic illness . Although Poe had rarely seen his brother, he was in correspondence with him and admired him for his sea voyages. William Henry Leonard had also written several poems and stories. In some early texts by Poe, it can even be assumed that the two brothers were jointly authors.

Very little is known about Poe's life in Baltimore between 1831 and early 1835. What is certain is that during this time he began to write short stories in order to earn such an income. A first story, Metzengerstein , appeared in Philadelphia on January 14, 1832, in the Saturday Courier . In 1833, Poe won with MS. Found in a bottle at a Baltimore Saturday Visiter competition for the advertised $ 50. This story begins with an elaborate mix of poetry and truth like this:

“I have little to say about fatherland and family. Injustice, like the passage of time, has driven me from one and alienated me from the other. Parental wealth made it possible for me to have an education of an unusual kind. "

The prize brought Poe into contact with the writer and politician John P. Kennedy , who subsequently helped him to get articles into magazines. In addition, Kennedy put in contact with Thomas W. White, editor of the Richmond-based Southern Literary Messenger . White offered Poe a permanent position in his relatively new magazine, and in August 1835 Poe went back to Richmond. After a few weeks, however, Poe left Messenger and returned to Baltimore. The exact background is unclear. It may have played a role that Neilson Poe (a relative) had offered Poe's aunt Maria Clemm and cousin Virginia to move in with him. Poe wanted to prevent that. Poe "unofficially" married his 13-year-old cousin Virginia at the end of September 1835, or at least the two became engaged. For a long time Poe saw his much younger cousin as more of a sister than a wife; he called her "Sissy" (little sister) and his aunt Maria "Muddy" (mother).

Shortly afterwards there was another understanding with White. In October 1835, Poe returned to Richmond with Maria Clemm and Virginia. Thomas W. White must have appreciated Poe's work for his magazine. Yet he sent him these warning words:

“Edgar, if you should roam these streets again, I'm afraid you will be drinking again until you are completely out of your mind. [...] Nobody who drinks before breakfast can be relied on! "

Poe was supposed to work for Messenger until January 1837 . During this time, according to Poe, the circulation of the Messenger increased from under 1,000 to 5,000 copies. Poe's collaboration ensured that the magazine became known, to which, in addition to his prose works, above all his rapidly growing reputation as a sharp-tongued literary critic contributed.


On May 16, 1836, in Richmond, Poe officially married his first cousin Virginia Eliza Clemm (August 15, 1822– January 30, 1847). A marriage between cousin and cousin , i.e. close relatives, was legitimate in the southern states at the time , but was nevertheless viewed critically. Perhaps for this reason, Virginia's age was stated in the marriage certificate as 21, the age of majority , which one of the best man sworn to the clergyman. In fact, at the time of the marriage, she was only 13 years old and her husband was almost twice her age at 27. In the presence of a registrar , a Presbyterian clergyman performed the ceremony at Mrs. Yarrington's boarding house . The couple then spent their honeymoon in nearby Petersburg .

Richmond and New York - Arthur Gordon Pym

Copper engraving of the "Turkish chess player" constructed by Wolfgang von Kempelen (1783)

In Richmond in 1836, Poe's essay Maelzel's Chess-Player was written about the machine, also known as the Chess Turks . Although Poe was not the first to prove that the supposed robot had to be hiding a short human being, the detailed technique of his evidence prepared his later detective stories . The stories that were written during this time and first published in Messenger include Berenice , Morella , Hans Pfaall - A Tale and Loss of Breath . Parts of his only novel The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket also appeared as a sequel story in Messenger .

All of this boosted Poe's reputation as a prose writer . More than the narratives, however, his sometimes admired, often feared literary reviews contributed to making his name known. Poe tried to overcome the provinciality of the US American literary industry and to apply general, aesthetic standards to the works discussed. In a meeting it says:

“We have become loudmouthed and vain in the deluded pride that we have all too quickly achieved literary freedom. With the most presumptuous, most senseless arrogance, we reject any respect for other people's opinion - we forget [...] that the real stage for those who are obsessed with literature can only be the whole world - raise a great shout about the necessity of our deserving domestic ones To encourage writers [...] and do not even bother to consider that everything we call encouragement in this way leads, through such indiscriminate application, to exactly the opposite of what we really want to achieve. "

In February 1837, Poe and his small family moved to New York for about 15 months . For the period that followed, up to around May 1839, there is virtually no biographical evidence of Poe. His hopes of finding a job with a magazine in New York, perhaps even starting his own magazine, were not fulfilled. The severe economic crisis of 1837 , from the consequences of which publishers and magazines also suffered, probably contributed to this.

Poe continued to work on The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym during this time . It was published by Harper & Brothers in July 1838 and received mostly positive reviews. He left New York in the summer of 1838 and moved to Philadelphia with Maria Clemm and Virginia .

Philadelphia and Dupin

Manuscript page from The Murders in the Rue Morgue , 1841

In 1838 Poe got by with work for various magazines. In The American Museum of Science, Literature, and the Arts in September, one of his most important stories appeared Ligeia .

In Philadelphia, in June 1839, Poe became editor and later co-editor of Burton's Gentleman's Magazine . In addition to office work and editing, he wrote a variety of articles on subjects as diverse as exercise equipment, ornithology, balloon flights and the daguerreotype . As before, there were also book reviews and stories such as The Man That Was Used Up , The Journal of Julius Rodman , William Wilson and The Fall of the House of Usher . He also wrote essays such as a treatise on interior design, The Philosophy of Furniture .

Since he only got his editor 's salary for his own texts at Burton’s , he increased his income by working for other publications such as Alexander's Weekly Messenger . He became known there through his publications on cryptography . Competitions were particularly popular in which he assured him that he could decipher every text sent in cipher - which he succeeded in doing. It should be noted, however, that the ciphers allowed for submission were simple substitution ciphers .

In December 1839 Poe's first collection of short stories appeared under the title Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque . On five hundred pages and in two volumes it gathered twenty-five stories. The book has been reviewed about twenty times and most of the reviews have been positive.

In June, Poe left Burton’s and tried to start his own magazine called The Penn , a play on "pen" and Pennsylvania . He later changed the name of the project to The Stylus and continued to pursue it until his death. However, he never managed to raise the necessary start-up capital.

In early 1841, Burton’s changed hands and the magazine was renamed Graham's Lady's and Gentlemen's Magazine . Here appeared Poe's first detective story The Murders in the Rue Morgue , in which he created the Parisian detective C. Auguste Dupin (the word "detective" came into the English language through Poe). The Colloquy of Monos and Una also appeared there .

He left Graham’s in April 1842 . In order to have a secure income, he applied for a civil servant position at customs during this time. Despite good connections in politics through acquaintances - otherwise such positions were not awarded - he did not get the post.

In 1842, Virginia Poe's health deteriorated. She suffered a hemorrhage while singing - a sure sign of tuberculosis . During this time, Poe processed his wife's illness in the stories Life in Death (later he changed the title to The Oval Portrait ) and The Masque of the Red Death .

In March 1842, Poe met Charles Dickens in Philadelphia , whose works he valued and repeatedly reviewed positively. Dickens promised Poe that he would work with English publishers for his fonts (until now, as there was no international copyright , they had been reprinted in Great Britain, but Poe received no fee). Although Dickens stood up for Poe on his return to England, his efforts were unsuccessful.

In April 1844, Poe and his family left Philadelphia for New York, hoping to earn a better income from the magazine market there.

New York and The Raven

Portrait of Virginia Clemm Poe , 1847. Posthumous watercolor by unknown artist

Poe had ruined his reputation in Philadelphia with occasional binge drinking. When speaking of "excesses", however, one has to take into account the strict religious standards of the time, which were particularly strict in Philadelphia , which was shaped by Quakers . What is certain is that Poe occasionally drank heavily, especially in crisis situations. Here, too, the certificates are very different. Several Poes acquaintances report that he was completely drunk after just a glass of wine - possibly a sign of alcohol intolerance . Other evidence suggests that Poe corresponded to the type of a "quarter drunkard", called "epsilon type" after the Jellinek concept .

In New York, Poe worked for the Evening Mirror , where he mainly published short journalistic texts of various kinds and edited articles by other journalists. That earned him a secure income of $ 15 a week. He put literary works in other magazines. The most important from this period include The Oblong Box and the Dupin story The Purloined Letter (both 1844). His best-known poem The Raven (1845) was also written in New York.

The success of The Raven first made Poe known as a poet. The poem was reprinted many times and Poe was repeatedly invited to recitations. He took this success as an opportunity to present his conception of poetry, which paved the way for aestheticism and symbolism , in the essay The Philosophy of Composition (1846) . According to Poe, the most important thing in a poem is the “unity of effect”. He describes the composition of poetry as methodical, analytical work that has nothing to do with spontaneity or intuition . Whether this describes the actual process behind The Raven's creation is debatable.

In his New York time, Poe continued to operate literary criticism and increased his sometimes polemical attacks against other authors. His attacks on Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , who was considered the most important poet in the USA in the 19th century, led to the so-called Longfellow War . Poe repeatedly accused Longfellow of being a somewhat original writer (a judgment shared by modern literary scholarship). In addition, he repeatedly accused him - not always rightly - of being a plagiarist . Some of the allegations are all the more problematic as Poe liked to use other writers himself. In addition to Poe's justified and astute literary criticism, the sharpness of his tone may be based on very personal motives: Poe was a professional writer and was paid little, if at all, for his work; Longfellow was a wealthy heir who had married rich and lived as a private citizen. Behind the personal polemics (to which Longfellow himself never answered) hides the contrast between a modern author who sees writing as a profession and the older idea of ​​the author as an amateur (in the original sense of "hobby"), one who is not subject to compulsions to higher vested free spirits. Ultimately, Poe's literary feuds during this period resulted in his spoiling himself with many authors and publishers. They also led to reputation-damaging hostility towards Poe, which darkened the picture of his personality long after his untimely death.

Poe's Cottage in Fordham, now the Bronx, was Poe's last home

Most of the time, Poe did not live in Manhattan , but in a small country house north of the city in Fordham, which was then still very rural (now in the Bronx ). At Fordham, Virginia's health deteriorated and, to Poe's horror, received anonymous letters accusing him of a relationship with the poet Frances Sargent Osgood . Virginia died in 1847 at the age of 24. Poe expressed his grief in the poem Annabel Lee , which he gave to the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond in September 1849 shortly before his death .

In 1848 Poe's essay Heureka was difficult to classify . Poe tried to combine cosmological speculations with philosophy and aesthetics. From a scientific point of view, many of his reflections were based on Pierre-Simon Laplace , especially his nebular hypothesis . Poe extended this to a kind of big bang theory without having scientific evidence for it .

He also took new directions in his stories and poems. Both Ulalume and The Bells radicalize the poem in the direction of sound poetry . In the stories The Cask of Amontillado and Hop-Frog, Poe may have turned his hatred of literary rivals into artistically significant revenge fantasies.

After Virginia's death, Poe looked for a new partner. In addition to rather enthusiastic relationships with two married women, he made serious efforts to the poet Sarah Helen Whitman . The two became engaged, but the engagement was broken off because Whitman had doubts about Poe's reliability (she received numerous letters denouncing Poe), and above all because her mother wanted to prevent a marriage to Poe at all costs. After the betrothal failed, Poe overdosed on laudanum , presumably with suicidal intent , but survived. This is the only well-documented case of Poe taking opium. Subsequent claims that Poe regularly consumed opium and was addicted are considered disproved.

In 1849 Poe met his childhood sweetheart Elmira Shelton (née Royster) in Richmond. She was now widowed. After a short publicity, Poe made a proposal, and she needed some time to think about it. Poe's death preceded their approval.

Death in Baltimore

Memorial stone at the site of Edgar Allan Poe's first burial in Baltimore, Maryland

Poe left Richmond on the morning of September 27, 1849. His destination was his home in Fordham. There he wanted to advance the preparation of his wedding to Elmira Shelton and on the way win subscribers for his planned magazine The Stylus . The first leg of Poe's journey was by ship from Richmond to Baltimore . What happened the following week and where Poe was staying is not known.

On October 3, 1849, a printer named Joseph W. Walker found Poe outside Ryan's Tavern (also known as Gunner's Hall). Poe looked rundown and confused and appeared to be drunk and / or seriously ill. At Poe's request, Walker contacted an acquaintance, Dr. Joseph E. Snodgrass. Since a also informed relative of Poes refused to take care of him, Poe was admitted to the Washington Medical College in Baltimore. There the doctor Dr. John J. Moran for him. Poe died on October 7, 1849. The circumstances of death are unclear, the cause of death is unknown.

The doctor Dr. Moran left several accounts of Poe's condition and death. They are written in retrospect and contradict each other and the testimonies of other eyewitnesses on numerous points. They can hardly be used for research as no hospital documents have been preserved. There are many theories about what Poe died of. They range from suicide and murder to damage from alcoholism to diabetes , cholera , rabies and syphilis . Also unsubstantiated is the rumor that Poe was the victim of election traffickers ("coopers"), unscrupulous helpers of politicians who picked up people from the streets on election days, drugged them and tried to get them to vote for "their" candidates be right.

Poe was buried in Baltimore in the graveyard of the former Presbyterian Church of Westminster (now Westminster Hall and Burying Ground). Virginia and Maria Clemm were buried next to him after a reburial.


Illustration for The Fall of the House of Usher by Aubrey Beardsley , 1894/95
Cover illustration by Gustave Doré for The Raven

Poe's early work is influenced by George Gordon Byron as well as by authors of German Romanticism such as E. T. A. Hoffmann and Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué . He was later influenced by, among others, Charles Dickens , whom he met personally, and Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau .

His style-defining stories - not least because he is a virtuoso of horror was - include the short story The Fall of the House of Usher ( The Fall of the House of Usher ), the example work of black romance applies, and Poe's only novel The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket . With The Murders in the Rue Morgue ( The Murders in the Rue Morgue ), Poe is considered one of the inventors of the detective story and the deductive crime hero who solves his cases through logic and the gift of combination.

Poe's great subject , which appears again and again in many stories, is the death of a beautiful woman ( Morella , Ligeia , Annabel Lee ). The idea of ​​a person buried alive is often discussed ( The Fall of the House of Usher , The Premature Burial , The Cask of Amontillado ). Often people appear in Poe's stories who are almost “mad” provoking their own misfortune or, despite knowing the impending adversity, seem powerless to run straight into their doom and devour themselves over it ( The Tell-Tale Heart , The Black Cat ).

His lyrical work is also of great importance. The raven (English The Raven ) and The Bells are considered the first significant poems of America in world literature. In the conception of his poems, Poe attached great importance to the music and the logical-formal structure and often provided for the tonal visualization of the things described in the poem ( The Bells ), which made him a pioneer of symbolism, especially in France.

His most successful book during his lifetime was a malacological textbook with the title The Conchologist's first book or, a system of testaceous malacology (malacology = science of mollusks ). However, this book was not written by himself, but the publisher wanted to increase sales with the name Poes. Poe just wrote the foreword and got a fair amount of money for the deal. Poe also dealt a lot with questions of logic , for example with secret scripts (e.g. in Der Goldkäfer ) and so-called automatons - early robots  -, for example in Maelzel's essay on the Chess Turk , a supposed chess automaton .

Poe's work includes short stories, poetry, satires, essays, literary ( The Poetic Principle , published posthumously) and highly complex scientific treatises. As a whole, it is not easy to bring it under one umbrella term. Nevertheless, thanks to numerous film adaptations, Poe will probably never completely lose his image as a “horror author”.

German-language (complete) editions

Volumes 1–2 (in one volume) of an early German edition, published in 1904 by JCC Bruns' Verlag in Minden. The editor was the couple Hedda and Arthur Moeller-Bruck . The translations are by Hedda Moeller-Bruck and Hedwig Lachmann .

The first translations of Poe's works appeared in France in the mid-1840s by authors known there, above all Charles Baudelaire and Stéphane Mallarmé . Her translations had a lasting influence on Poe's reception there and had an impact as far as Germany, so that some German translations of Poe's works then, as now, are based on French - most recently in 2017 by Andreas Nohl .

The first German translation of a Poe work was probably an abridged version of Der Goldkäfer by an unknown translator in 1846 . It was published in a German-language magazine in Prague . It followed u. a. the 1853 translation of The Raven by Elise von Hohenhausen . This was followed by other individual translations. The first, with three volumes, more extensive edition appeared between 1853 and 1858. Between 1901 and 1904 the first complete edition was finally published in German.

So far, the following editions have appeared in chronological order, more or less completely reproducing Poe's complete works:

  • 1853–1858 : Selected works by Edgar Allan Poe in three volumes, published by Kollmann in Leipzig, translator: Wilhelm Eduard Drugulin
  • 1901–1904 : Edgar Allan Poe's works in ten volumes, published by JCC Bruns in Minden. Editors: Hedda and Arthur Moeller van den Bruck , translators: Hedda Moeller-Bruck and Hedwig Lachmann , several new editions with a reduced number of individual volumes.
  • 1909–1920 : six volumes, five of which were published by Georg Müller in Munich / Leipzig and the last by Propylaen Verlag in Berlin:
    • Poems. Translator: Theodor Etzel
    • The babbling heart and other short stories. Translator not specified
    • The fire horse and other short stories. Translator: Gisela Etzel
    • The gold beetle and other short stories. Translator: Gisela Etzel
    • King Pest and other short stories. Translator: Gisela Etzel
    • The memorable experiences of Artur Gordon Pym. Translator: Gisela Etzel
    • Ligeia and other short stories. Seven poems. Translator: Gisela Etzel and Theodor Etzel
  • 1922 : Edgar Allan Poe's works in six volumes, published by Propylaen Verlag in Berlin, editor Theodor Etzel, various translators
  • 1922 : Edgar Allan Poe: Collected works in six volumes, published by Rösl & Cie. in Munich, publisher Franz Blei , various translators
  • 1966-1973 : Edgar Allan Poe. Works in four volumes, published by Walter Verlag in Olten , editors: Kuno Schuhmann and Hans Dieter Müller , translators: Arno Schmidt , Hans Wollschläger , Richard Kruse , Friedrich Polakovics and Ursula Wernicke (since then several text-identical licensed editions from other publishers)
  • 1989 : Edgar Allan Poe: Selected works in three volumes, published by Insel Verlag in Leipzig, various translators
  • 1994 : Edgar Allan Poe: Collected works in five volumes, published by Offizin Andersen Nexö Leipzig in Leipzig, almost identical in text to the 1966 edition by Walter, but in chronological order (later also published by Two Thousand One)
  • 2008 : Edgar Allan Poe works in four volumes, published by Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, text identical to the 1966 edition by Walter

The 17-volume “Virginia Edition” published in 1902 by James A. Harrison in the USA is still considered the “most complete critical” English original edition. This edition was the basis for what is currently the most extensive German publication, the 4-volume thin print edition published in 1966 with translations by Arno Schmidt, Hans Wollschläger and others.


Post fame

The defamatory obituary Death of Edgar A. Poe by Rufus Wilmot Griswold under the pseudonym Ludwig and published in the New York Daily Tribune on October 9, 1849 . (3rd and 4th columns from the left, full text) .
The Edgar Allan Poe Museum in Richmond
Stéphane Mallarmé: Le Tombeau d'Edgar Poe , autograph , sonnet on Poe from 1876.

The fact that Poe was so persistently condemned in the USA and portrayed as rampant and addicted to alcohol is due, among other things, to his hostility to the leading writers and publishers of his time, which he had repeatedly attacked in vicious and harsh satires. His administrator, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, appointed by himself, ensured that the image of Poe as that of a drunkard sinner was consolidated in the USA.

Poe's poems and stories, with their masterly craftsmanship and their gloomy atmosphere of decay, inspired numerous writers of decadence poetry and symbolism , especially in the 19th and early 20th centuries, such as Stéphane Mallarmé , Paul Verlaine , Ernest Dowson and Oscar Wilde .

The French Charles Baudelaire and Stéphane Mallarmé, who translated numerous works of Poe, made Poe famous in Europe - and in this detour also recognized as an important author in the USA. In 1864, at the age of 36 , the French writer Jules Verne published his only literary essay, Edgard Poe et ses œuvres , in which he expressed his admiration for Poe's work. Some of Verne's best-known works were inspired by Poe's stories.

At the end of the 19th century, famous science fiction authors such as B. HG Wells and well-known detective story writers such as Arthur Conan Doyle have their own profound commitment to Poe. In the 20th century, authors as diverse as Franz Kafka , HP Lovecraft , Vladimir Nabokov and Stephen King recognized the great importance of Poe for their own work. Even painters such as René Magritte and Edmund Dulac were fascinated by him and well-known directors such as Roger Corman and Alfred Hitchcock were inspired by Poe.

Poe became popular in German-speaking countries in the early 20th century when a ten-volume edition of Poe's works was published by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck and Hedda Eulenberg (1901-04). In the context of Expressionism , a strong reception of his works developed here.

The Edgar Allan Poe Museum in Richmond (Virginia) has been commemorating the author's life and work since 1922 . The house he lived in from 1838 to 1844 still stands in Philadelphia ( Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site ). The house (the oldest surviving building the poet lived in), where Poe, Maria and Virginia Clemm lived in Baltimore from 1833 to 1835, has been restored on a private initiative and has been open to visitors on weekends since May 2014.

“In the history of literature there are comparable fates, true condemnations - men with the word 'bad luck' engraved in enigmatic characters in their winding forehead lines. [...] In vain does her life show her talents, virtues, grace, society breaks the baton over her and accuses her of vices of character that only arose from the persecution by society. […] All the documents I have read have strengthened my conviction that the United States was nothing but a great prison for Poe, which he roamed with the feverish excitement of a being made for a more beautiful world - than for this great barbarism illuminated by gas light - and that the intellectual life of the poet and even the drunkard was a single uninterrupted effort to evade the influence of this hideous atmosphere. "

- Charles Baudelaire : Edgar Poe, sa vie et ses œuvres


Grave of Poe, Virginia and Maria Clemm in Baltimore from 1875 after their reburial

The most important translators of Poe's works into German are Hedda Eulenberg, Arno Schmidt and Hans Wollschläger . In France, Charles Baudelaire's Poe translations are authoritative.

  • Jules Verne wrote The Eissphinx (1897), a continuation of the culminating story The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket .
  • HP Lovecraft wrote another sequel in 1931, Berge des Wahnsinns , in which an extremely surprising explanation of the phenomena described by Poe and Verne is given.
  • Arno Schmidt had his fictional main character Daniel Pagenstecher analyzed in his main work Zettel's Traum Leben and Poe's work , published in 1970, using the " etym theory " he developed .
  • The German puppeteer and reciter Gerd J. Pohl has dedicated three literary programs to Poe since 1990: an evening with Edgar Allan Poe, silence - narrated madness and stories from the realm of shadows .
  • The Brazilian author Luis Fernando Verissimo created the novel Vogelstein's Confusion (2000), a literary detective game between the translator Vogelstein and the writer Jorge Luis Borges with motifs from Poe's stories The Murder on Rue Morgue and The Gold Beetle . An Edgar Allan Poe congress in Buenos Aires, at which one of the researchers is murdered in his hotel room, despite the doors being locked from the inside, serves as the framework for action.
  • The German author Patrick Roth wrote the story Das Verräterische Herz, Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, for his narrative volume Die Nacht der Zeitlosen (2001) , transferred to the experience of a high school student who falls madly in love with his English tutor. In 2005 Roth published a German-English edition with Poe stories and provided it with a foreword: Edgar Allan Poe. Shadow / Schatten (Frankfurt a. M .: island).
  • The American author Matthew Pearl uses the detective character Dupin, created by Poe , in his novel The Poe Shadow (2006; German title: The Hour of the Raven ).
  • The author Robert C. Marley deals with the last days of Poe in his short novel Death Clock (English title Tell-tale Twins ). (Lübbe 2013/14)
  • Ray Bradbury lets Poe, who lives exiled on Mars with other writers of fantastic literature, appear in his short story The Exiles .
  • The non-conformist Kai Graf Mölln, Hanno Buddenbrook's only friend from Thomas Mann's novel Buddenbrooks , later wants to become a writer and secretly reads Poe's works in Bible lessons , admiring his literary abilities. When he reads The Fall of the House of Usher in one scene , he escapes: “This Roderich [sic!] Usher is the most wonderful character that has ever been invented! […] If I could ever write such a good story! ”.


The work and the person of Edgar Allan Poe inspired filmmakers very early on. According to Imdb , well over 300 films are based on stories and poems by Poe - some of them close to the original, but many also deal very freely with their templates and often only use the author's ideas as a starting point for their own stories. The following is just a small selection of the most important adaptations.



  • Towards the end of his life Claude Debussy wrote two operas based on texts by Poe and bearing their titles: Le Diable Dans le Beffroi (sketch) and La Chute de la Maison Usher (1908–1916, opera fragment, planned as an opera in one act ).
  • The poem The Bells was written by Sergei Rachmaninoff as a symphony cantata, Op. 35, interpreted.
  • Joseph Holbrooke wrote The Bells, Prelude, Op. 50 .
  • Horst Lohse wrote Drei Lieder (1984/94) for medium voice ( mezzo-soprano or baritone ) and piano based on the poems To the river ("Fair river! In thy bright, clear flow ..."), Eldorado ("Gaily bedight, / A gallant knight ... ") and A dream (" In visions of the dark night ... ")
  • In his piece Der Rabe Nimmermehr , Overture for Chamber Orchestra (premiered in 1991), the German composer Moritz Eggert refers to the poem The Raven .
  • In 2005 Andreas HH Suberg wrote the piece (s) evermore for mezzo-soprano and piano based on the poem The Raven .
  • In 2017 Ludger Stühlmeyer composed an eight-part motet (SSAATTBB) based on Poe's Mariengedicht Hymn .

Underground music

  • In 1967 the Beatles mentioned him in their song I am the walrus ("elementary penguin singing Hare Krishna, man you should have seen them kicking Edgar Allan Poe").
  • The American-Japanese R'n'B singer Utada Hikaru refers to Poe in the song Kremlin Dusk of her US debut album Exodus (2004). The song calls him by name and speaks of ravens, among other things.
  • In 1976 the Alan Parsons Project set parts of Poe's literary work to music ( Tales of Mystery and Imagination ). Project songwriter Eric Woolfson released a follow-up album in 2003 called POE - More Tales Of Mystery And Imagination .
  • Numerous music groups in the horror punk genre use song lyrics inspired by Poe. This becomes very clear with the German band The Other , for example in the songs Return to the House of Usher , The Imp of the Perverse or The Tell-Tale Heart , the lesser known hidden track on the album We are who we eat . Singer Thorsten Wilms uses the pseudonym Rod Usher .
  • The German heavy metal band Grave Digger released the album The Grave Digger in 2001 , the lyrics of which are also inspired by the works of Poe.
  • Lou Reed realized the musical POEtry together with Robert Wilson in 2000 . In 2003 Lou Reed released a double CD entitled The Raven , which was dedicated to Poe's work in a mixture of songs and spoken texts. Artists such as Laurie Anderson , Ornette Coleman , Steve Buscemi and Willem Dafoe have participated .
  • Frank Nimsgern also wrote a musical together with Heinz Rudolf Kunze , which deals with the life and death of Edgar Allan Poe. Under the title: POE - Pech und Schwefel it premiered on October 30, 2004 at the Saarbrücken State Theater and was performed in Munich in winter 2005.
  • The trombonist and composer Klaus König published the concept album Black Moments in 2002 in collaboration with WDR 3 and the Enja label , which is a setting of various works by Poe. Contributors were u. a. the Klaus König Orchestra and the jazz singer Phil Minton . The style of the album ranges between jazz rock , art rock and progressive rock , with Gothic elements appearing, presumably because of the underlying theme .
  • A US rapper from North Carolina calls himself Edgar Allen Floe, in recognition and respect for Poe's work.
  • The symphonic metal piece of Nightwish The Poet and the Pendulum refers to The Pit and the Pendulum ( 'The Pit and the Pendulum').
  • The Norwegian avant-garde metal band Arcturus used the poem Alone (English alone ) as the text for their eponymous song on the album La Masquerade Infernale .
  • The British metal band Venom took on their album Black Metal song Buried Alive (dt. Buried Alive ), an allusion to the same story Poe.
  • The band Sopor Aeternus & The Ensemble Of Shadows set Voyager - the jugglers of jusa Poe's poem Alone to music twice. The poem The Sleeper served as a template for the song of the same name on the album Dead Lovers' Sarabande - Face One .
  • The band Green Carnation set the poem Alone to music on their album The Acoustic Verses .
  • The Dutch pagan folk band Omnia used in their piece The Raven , which was released on their 2007 album Alive! was published, large parts of the text of the poem of the same name by Poe.
  • The British heavy metal band Iron Maiden alludes to the story of the same name in the song Murders in the Rue Morgue from the 1981 album Killers .
  • Subway to Sally recorded a song entitled Finster, Finster for the Poe audio book Visionen , which contains numerous allusions to works by Poe.
  • Ville Valo , singer of the Finnish band HIM , has a tattoo on his back that is supposed to represent Poe's eyes. Furthermore, a raven can be seen on a microphone on the cover of the live album Digital Versatile Doom , probably as a reference to the poem Der Rabe .
  • The band Green Day mentions the name in the song St. Jimmy ("I am the son of a bitch and Edgar Allen Poe").
  • The Canadian thrash metal band Annihilator dedicated the song Ligeia to Poe on their 1989 debut album Alice In Hell .
  • The group Alesana brought 2009 album The Emptiness out the strong allusions to Poe's poem Annabel Lee has
  • In 1985, the Düsseldorf band Propaganda published the title Dream within a Dream on their album A Secret Wish , which quotes the poem Poes published in 1849.
  • The German gothic rock band The House of Usher , founded in 1990 , is named after Poe's story of the same name. It is remarkable that in each booklet there is a dark short story written by the singer of the band Jörg Kleudgen in the style of Poe or HP Lovecraft .
  • The American songwriter Phil Ochs also set the poem to music, with slightly modified text. It appeared on his first album All The News That's Fit To Sing in 1964 .
  • The 2007 album Shadow of the Raven by the music group Nox Arcana is thematically related to Poe's oeuvre.
  • The Norwegian gothic metal band Theater of Tragedy uses some dialogues from The Mask of the Red Death in their song And when he falleth .
  • On August 28, 2009 Eric Woolfson's last stage work , Edgar Allan Poe , had its world premiere in Halle (Saale).
  • The German doom metal band Ahab dedicated their 2012 album The Giant to his novel The Report of Arthur Gordon Pym .
  • In their album Swan Songs, Lord of the Lost based the song Annabel Lee on Poe's poem of the same name and took over the entire text.
  • In 2017 the British trio The Tiger Lillies released the concept album Haunted Palace, in which they processed texts and life of Poe.


Radio plays


  • The American football team, which was based in Poe's city of death , was named in 1996 in his honor of Baltimore Raven . In addition, their mascots were the costumed raven characters Edgar , Allan and Poe until 2008 ; for the 2009 season Edgar and Allan were replaced by the living ravens Rise and Conquer , who are related to Poe's works.



Scientific studies


  • Myriam Noemi Bastian: Dimensions of the foreign in fantastic literature: ETA Hoffmann, Edgar Allan Poe and Guy de Maupassant. Tectum, Marburg 2005, ISBN 3-8288-8874-7
  • Marie Bonaparte : Edgar Poe: A Psychoanalytic Study. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt 1984, ISBN 3-518-37092-8 (German first edition: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, Vienna 1934)
  • Thomas Collmer : Poe or the horror of language. Maro, Augsburg 1999, ISBN 3-87512-151-1
  • Ina Conzen-Meairs: Edgar Allen [!] Poe and the fine arts of symbolism = manuscripts for art history in the Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft 22. Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 1989. ISBN 3-88462-921-2
  • Jutta Ernst: Edgar Allan Poe and the poetics of the arabesque. Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 1996, ISBN 3-8260-1244-5 (Series Saarbrücker Contributions to Comparative Literature and Cultural Studies ; Vol. 3).
  • Emron Esplin, Margarida Vale de Gato (Ed.): Translated Poe. Perspectives on Edgar Allan Poe. Lehigh University Press 2014, ISBN 978-1-61146-171-8 .
  • Fredrick S. Frank, Anthony Main Line: The Poe Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press, Westport 1997, ISBN 0-313-27768-0 .
  • Carla Gregorzewski: Edgar Allan Poe and the beginnings of an originally American aesthetic. Winter, Heidelberg 1982, ISBN 3-533-02927-1 (in Siegen series ; Vol. 22; Anglist. Abt.)
  • Tilman Höss: Poe, James, Hitchcock: The Rationalization of Art. Winter, Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 3-8253-1611-4 ( American studies series ; Vol. 111).
  • Frank Kelleter: The Modern Age and Death: Edgar Allan Poe - TS Eliot - Samuel Beckett. Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1998
  • J. Gerald Kennedy, Scott Peeples (Eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Edgar Allan Poe. Oxford University Press, New York 2019, ISBN 978-0-190641-87-0 .
  • Alexander Kupfer: On the way to nowhere: The systematic of intoxication at EAP. in: The artificial paradises: intoxication and reality since romanticism. A manual. Metzler, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-476-02178-5 (first 1996: ISBN 3-476-01449-5 )
  • Markus Preussner: Poe and Baudelaire: A comparison. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1991, ISBN 3-631-43538-X (Series Language and Literature ; Vol. 32)
  • Claudia Ella Weller: Between black and white: writing and writing in the self-referential work of Edgar Allan Poe and Raymond Roussel . Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2001, ISBN 3-631-36930-1 (series of Bonner Romance works ; vol. 75)


  • Bruce G. Hallenbeck: POE PICTURES. The film legacy of Edgar Allan Poe. Tomahawk Press, Sheffield 2013, ISBN 978-0-955767-06-7 .
  • David Huckvale: Poe Evermore. The Legacy in Film, Music and Television. McFarland & Company, Jefferson, NC 2014, ISBN 978-0-786494-41-5 .
  • Rose London: Cinema of Mystery. Lorrimer, London 1975. ISBN 0-85647-106-2 .
  • Don G. Smith: The Poe Cinema. A Critical Filmography of Theatrical Releases Based on the Works of Edgar Allan Poe. McFarland & Company, Jefferson, NC 1999, ISBN 978-0-7864-1703-2 .
  • Eva-Maria Warth: The Haunted Palace. Edgar Allan Poe and the American horror film (1909–1969). (= Volume 3 of CROSSROADS. Studies in American Culture. ) Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, Trier 1990 ( plus dissertation, University of Tübingen 1988), ISBN 3-922031-03-X .


  • Mary Garrettson Evans: Music and Edgar Allan Poe. A Biographical Study. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1939.
  • Gregor Herzfeld : Poe in music. A versatile alliance. (Series Internationale Hochschulschriften ; Vol. 590) Waxmann, Münster 2013, ISBN 978-3-8309-2923-9 .
  • Edward Lockspeiser (Ed.): Debussy et Edgar Poe. Éditions du Rocher, Monaco 1961.
  • Burton R. Pollin : Music and Edgar Allan Poe: A Fourth Annotated Checklist. In: Poe Studies / Dark Romanticism. Volume 36, Issue 1–2, January – December 2003, Washington State University Press, pp. 77–100 ( digitized version )

Web links

Commons : Edgar Allan Poe  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Edgar Allan Poe  - Sources and full texts (English)
Wikisource: Edgar Allan Poe  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 3 ff.
  2. Daniel Stashower: The Beautiful Cigar Girl. Mary Rogers, Edgar Allan Poe, and the Invention of Murder. Dutton Adult, New York 2006.
  3. Jeffrey Meyers: Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy , p. 3
    Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 11 ff.
  4. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 15 f.
  5. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 17 f.
  6. ^ E. A. Poe: Werke , Volume 2, Olten 1966, p. 1125
  7. See Panic of 1819
  8. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 20 f.
  9. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 23, 27 f.
  10. Quotation in: Walter Lennig: Edgar Allan Poe , p. 23 f.
  11. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 26, 76.
  12. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 30 f., 34
  13. ^ Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. Biography Georg Blättermann
  14. ^ Georg Blättermann taught from 1825 to 1840 at the University of Virginia ; Albert B. Faust: The Germanness in the United States: In its meaning for American culture. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg / New York 2013, ISBN 3-663-16185-4 , p. 194 footnote
  15. ^ Gustav Philipp Körner: The German element in the United States of North America, 1818-1848 . New York 1884, p. 405
  16. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe. , P. 29 f., 120
  17. Keshia A. Case, Christopher P. Semtner: Edgar Allan Poe in Richmond , p. 37
  18. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 14, 52
  19. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 34 ff.
  20. ^ Harry Lee Poe: Edgar Allan Poe: An Illustrated Companion to His Tell-Tale Stories, New York, 2008, p. 34 ISBN 978-1-4351-0469-3
  21. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 41 f.
  22. ^ EA Poe: Werke , Volume 1, p. 1042, Olten 1966
  23. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 41-47
  24. Jeffrey Meyers: Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy , pp. 32-35
  25. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 53-55
  26. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 63
  27. ^ William J. Hecker: Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems , Louisiana State University Press, 2005, pp. 49-51
  28. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 65-67
  29. Jeffrey Meyers: Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy , p. 50 f.
  30. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 69
  31. ^ William J. Hecker: Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems . Louisiana State University Press, 2005, pp. 53 f.
  32. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 84 f.
    Arthur Hobson Quinn: Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography . New York 1941, ISBN 0-8018-5730-9 , pp. 187 f.
  33. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 85 f.
  34. Manuscript find in a bottle trans. by Arno Schmidt . In: EA Poe: Werke , Volume 2, p. 9, Olten 1966
  35. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 93, 101.
  36. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 106 f.
  37. Quotation in: Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 108
  38. Quotation in: Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 127
  39. Arthur Hobson Quinn : Edgar Allan Poe. A Critical Biography. ISBN 0-8018-5730-9 .
  40. ^ Hans-Dieter Gelfert: Edgar Allan Poe: At the edge of the maelstrom. P. 76.
  41. Facsimile of the certificate in: Keshia A. Case, Christopher P. Semtner: Edgar Allan Poe in Richmond. P. 52.
  42. ^ Frank T. Zumbach: E. A. Poe. P. 334.
  43. Jeffrey Meyers: Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. P. 85f.
  44. Joseph Rodman Drake: The evil fairy, Fitz Greene Halleck: Burg Alnwick , trans. by Friedrich Polakovics. In: E. A. Poe: Werke , Volume 3, Olten 1966, p. 98 f.
  45. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 129 f.
  46. ^ William F. Friedman: Edgar Allan Poe, Cryptographer . In: On Poe: The Best from American Literature , Durham 1993, pp. 40 f.
  47. ^ Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 152
  48. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 154 f.
  49. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 171 ff.
  50. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 188
  51. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 179 ff.
  52. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 183-186, 257-262. See also Silverman's note on p. 481: “I leave aside here the much-argued question of whether Poe also drank in Philadelphia in the period before Virginia's illness. The matter is not subject to conclusive proof, since knowledge about it is limited to fragmentary evidence of dubious value […] Poe himself claimed that he staid away from alcohol between 1838 and 1840. If he did drink some while working for Burton and Graham, it was very little compared with how much he consumed after Virginia became ill. ”
  53. Thomas Poulter: Edgar Allan Poe and Alcohol ( Memento from September 27, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  54. Jeffrey Meyers: Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy , p. 87
  55. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 223 ff.
  56. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 295 ff.
  57. See also the following note in EA Poe: Werke , Volume 4, Olten 1966, p. 937 f .: “At least one must consider that the creation of the raven was already more than a year ago in this writing - the reconstruction of the compositional process from memory could inadvertently contain rationalizations. [...] He was undoubtedly convinced that due to a sharper penetration of the creative process and the increased self-control of the creative, such processes should also run in the future . In this sense he is quite rightly understood by modern poets as a forerunner or patriarch. "
  58. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 235 ff.
  59. cf. for example, Poe's article Pay of American Authors (1845), in which he goes into detail on the economic situation of the professional writer.
  60. Keshia A. Case, Christopher P. Semtner: Edgar Allan Poe in Richmond , p. 63
  61. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , pp. 384-394, 481
  62. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 433 ff.
  63. Jeffrey A. Savoye: Two Biographical Digressions: Poe's Wandering Trunk and Dr. Carter's Mysterious Sword Cane ( December 14, 2007 memento on the Internet Archive )
  64. Birgit Bramsback: The Final Illness and Death of Edgar Allan Poe: An Attempt at Reassessment . In: Studia Neophilologica . University of Uppsala, XLII, 1970, p. 40.
  65. Thomas Poulter: Edgar Allan Poe and Alcohol ( Memento from June 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  66. Kenneth Silverman: Edgar A. Poe , p. 435 f.
  67. Douglas MacGowan: The Murder of Edgar Allan Poe ( Memento from December 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  68. Michael R. Benitez: Edgar Allan Poe Mystery . University of Maryland Medical News, September 24, 1996
  69. Lutz Neitzert: The Opium Eaters and the Club des Hachichins - Drugs and Literature in the 19th Century . (PDF) - SWR2, November 22, 2000
  70. The Murder of Edgar Allan Poe . ( February 9, 2007 memento on the Internet Archive ) The Crime Library
  71. ^ Patrick F. Quinn: The French Face of Edgar Poe. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale 1957, p. 62.
  72. Scary Stories. Edited by Charles Baudelaire. dtv, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-423-28118-8 .
  73. ^ Daniel Göske: The German Face of Edgar Poe. New Evidence of Early Responses in a Comparative Perspective. In: American Studies - Amerikastudien. Year 40, Issue 4/1995, ISSN  0340-2827 , pp. 577-578.
  74. Erika Hulpke: On First Translations of “The Raven” into German. In: Poe Studies. Volume XV, Number 2 (December 1982), p. 41.
  75. Kuno Schuhmann: Foreword. In: Edgar Allan Poe Works I SI
  76. Kuno Schuhmann: Foreword. In: Edgar Allan Poe Works I S. II.
  77. ^ Franz H. Link: Edgar Allan Poe. A poet between romanticism and modernity. Athenäum Verlag, Frankfurt am Main and Bonn 1968, p. 352.
  78. ^ The Complete Works of the Edgar Allan Poe (Harrison Edition) . on The Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore website .
  79. Kenneth Silverman : Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. New York et al. a. 1991, ISBN 0-06-092331-8 , p. 440.
  80. ^ Frederick S. Frank, Anthony Magistrale: The Poe Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press, Westport 1997, ISBN 0-313-27768-0 , p. 149.
  81. ^ Death of Edgar A. Poe . “Ludwig” obituary for Poe dated October 9, 1849 (full text in English).
  82. a b See the section on Poe's Influence in Thomas Wright: Poe, Edgar Allan. In: Oxford Research Encyclopedias - Literature , published online in July 2017 at online . Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  83. The House of Poe to reopen May 24th Washington Post, May 23, 2014
  84. ^ Charles Baudelaire: Edgar Poe, Sa vie et ses œuvres . 1856 ( Wikisource )
  85. ^ Jörg Drews : Arno Schmidt - Zettels Traum , 1970
  86. Verissimo, Luis Fernando: Vogelsteins Confusion. Droemer, Munich 2003. Translation of Borges e os orangotangos [= orangutan] eternos . Sao Paulo 2000.
  87. Hans Rudolf Vaget : Thomas Mann, the American. Life and Work in Exile in America, 1938–1952. S. Fischer, Frankfurt / Main 2011, ISBN 978-3-10-087004-9 .
  88. imdb.com
  89. ^ Films in Review. National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. Volume 12, 1961, p. 462.
  90. Holger Zürch : Silbermond with forehead foot. Texts and music by Heinz Rudolf Kunze between 1980 and 2005. Chapter Masked Ball - The Musicals . Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-938873-31-0 , p. 147 ff.
  91. allmusic.com: All The News That's Fit To Sing


  1. On the occasion of the upcoming 200th birthday of Poe in 2009.