Of legal age
The age of majority , rarely also referred to as majority or majority , is the age from which a natural person is legally considered to be an adult . Sometimes the more general term “maturity” is used for it.
In Germany (since January 1, 1975) the age of majority is attained with the completion of the 18th year of life, BGB . This gives the natural person full legal capacity and at the same time receives the right to stand as a candidate at the municipal and federal level ( (2) sentence 1 of the Basic Law ). At the state level, the age for eligibility in all states is 18 years. The right to vote for federal acquires a person, regardless of the determination of age, with the completion of the 18th year ( , para. 2 GG). Under criminal law , a person between the ages of 18 and 21 is considered to be an adolescent , to whom juvenile criminal law or general criminal law can be applied depending on the individual case .
Adults of legal age may also:
- marry without the permission of their custodians or the family court ,
- Legally conclude contracts without legal guardians, e.g. rent your own apartment,
- buy, own and consume high-proof alcohol and tobacco products ,
- take part in games of chance such as the lottery ,
- stay in places that are harmful to young people (night bars, night clubs),
- Consume writings that are harmful to minors
In France, a law of September 20, 1792, reduced the age of majority for most of the country from 25 to 21 years. On April 16, 1806, a few months after the founding of the Kingdom of Württemberg , the rule of majority of 25 years, as it had previously applied in Old Württemberg , was extended to the newly acquired property, as there were partly different regulations. In many other regions of Germany, too, the age of majority continued to come at the age of 25 in the first half of the 18th century.
In Württemberg , the law of 30 June 1865 reduced the age of majority from 25 to 23 years.
In the German Reich the age of majority was set at 21 years by a Reich law of February 17, 1875 (entered into force on January 1, 1876). This was preceded by the law on the age of majority of December 9, 1869, in which the future German Emperor Wilhelm I reduced the age of majority for his Kingdom of Prussia from July 1, 1870 to 21 years.
Since January 1st, 1900 this has been regulated by § 2 BGB with the same content. Furthermore, § 3 stipulated that the civil status court could award persons who had reached the age of 18 years of age, so that these rights and obligations accordingly arose earlier.
In the German Democratic Republic , the law on lowering the age of majority of May 17, 1950, which came into force on May 22, 1950, reduced the age of majority to the age of 18. As a result, all persons in the GDR who were born between May 22, 1929 and May 22, 1932, came of age on May 22, 1950.
Before 1975 young people in the Federal Republic of Germany came of age at the age of 21. The “Law Regulating the Age of Legal Age” of July 31, 1974, which came into force on January 1, 1975, reduced the age of majority to the age of 18. As a result, all persons in the FRG who were born between January 1, 1954 and January 1, 1957, came of age on January 1, 1975.
In Austria , the age of majority ( ABGB ) was reduced by law on July 1, 1973 from 21 to 19 and on July 1, 2001 from 19 to 18 years. However, you are entitled to vote at the age of 16. In Austrian law, the age of majority must be distinguished from the age of majority (here, in particular, the age of criminal responsibility is meant). According to (2) ABGB , minors in Austria reach these at the age of 14. Anyone who has already reached the age of 18 but not yet the age of 21 is criminally considered a young adult in accordance with no. 5 JGG, to whom the Youth Court Act applies.
Age requirements higher than the current age of majority apply e.g. B. for the passive eligibility as Federal President , for the steering of dangerous goods transports or the piloting of commercial aircraft ; lower ones for amateur radio , driving a bicycle , a motorbike , a light motorcycle .
The age of majority in Liechtenstein is reached by exceeding the age limit set by law. From this point in time, a natural person is fully the bearer of rights and obligations in the company. The age limit in Liechtenstein is also 18 years for participating in political rights.
Reaching the age of majority coincides with reaching full legal age, provided that a person has not been completely or partially incapacitated (§§ 270 ff ABGB ) and is therefore not in a position to legally dispose of their own assets. A distinction must therefore be made between reaching the age of majority and coming of age in Liechtenstein.
The age of majority or eligibility to vote fell to about 1848, particularly in the rural community - cantons along with the age of the defense capacity, so she was between 14 and 18 years. However, this special feature did not exist in the former city-cantons. For example, in the canton of Glarus in 1830 every over 16 year old was a member of the Landsgemeinde (Landmann), in Appenzell Ausserrhoden every 18 year old, in Graubünden every 17 year old, in Valais every 18 year old.
In the United States , age of majority is determined by the federal , state, and territories . In most states and territories and where federal law applies, it is under 18 years of age. Special regulations exist in:
- Mississippi , Pennsylvania , Puerto Rico : Legal age at the age of 21
- Alabama , Nebraska : Age of majority at the age of 19
- Arkansas , Ohio , Tennessee , Utah : of age at the age of 18; for young people who are still attending high school at this point , but only when they graduate
- Nevada , Wisconsin : Age of majority at age 18; for adolescents who are still attending high school at this point in time, but not until they are 19
According to the New York Convention on the Rights of the Child of November 20, 1989, the age of majority begins at the age of 18, unless the law applicable to the child occurs earlier. National laws provide for the age of majority:
|Country||Of legal age with|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||18th|
|Brazil||18, eligibility to vote at 16|
|Bulgaria||18, eligibility to vote at 16|
|People's Republic of China||18th|
|Greece||18, until 1998: 17|
|Guinea||21, previously at marriage|
|Iran||15 lunar years for men, 9 for women, eligibility to vote and driving license at 18|
|Japan||20, from 2021: 18|
|Canada||18 years: Alberta , Manitoba , Ontario , Prince Edward Island , Québec and Saskatchewan .|
|19 years: British Columbia , New Brunswick , Newfoundland and Labrador , Northwest Territories , Nova Scotia , Nunavut and Yukon .|
|Republic of the Congo||18th|
|Luxembourg||18, previously at marriage|
|Malaysia||18, voting rights from 21|
|Monaco||18 until 2002 21|
|Namibia||21, 18 years is discussed due to legal uncertainties|
|Austria||18, right to vote from 16|
|Pakistan||18 in men,
16 in women
|Poland||18, previously at marriage|
|Russia||18, partly 16|
|St. Kitts and Nevis||18th|
|Trinidad and Tobago||18th|
|United Arab Emirates||21 lunar years (equivalent to 20 years and 4 months)|
|United States||18 if federal regulations are applied, otherwise 18, 19, 21|
|United Kingdom||18, in Scotland 16|
|Vietnam||16, eligibility to vote at 18|
|Belarus||18, until 2006: 16|
- Report on the assessment of the draft of the first section of the civil code for the Grand Duchy of Hesse elected committees of the first and second chambers , Leske, Darmstadt 1846, p. 386, full text in the Google book search
- August Ludwig Reyscher (Ed.): Complete, historically and critically processed collection of the Württemberg laws. Fues, Tübingen 1839, volume 7, part 4, p. 2, full text in the Google book search
- The new judicial legislation in the Kingdom of Württemberg. Official hand edition. JB Metzler, Stuttgart 1874, Volume V, Part 1, p. 160, full text in the Google book search
- Paul Stoepel: Prussian Law Codex. An authentic impression. Supplement 1868-1869. Frankfurt 1871, full text in the Google book search
- GDR law on lowering the age of majority of May 17, 1950, GBl, p. 437.
- BGBl. I p. 1713
- Online textbook on civil law, Chapter 4, A.II.5
- The age of criminal responsibility in Austria is reached at the age of 14 ( Section 4 (1) JGG ) Juvenile Court Act - JGG). Minors (0 to 14 years of age) "who commit an act that is threatened with a penalty are not punishable" (
- Art. 29, Paragraph 2 of the State Constitution (LV): "In state affairs, political rights are available to all nationals22 who have reached the age of 18, who have their normal place of residence in the state and who do not have the right to vote." Art. 111 LV: " In community matters, all nationals residing in the community who have reached the age of 18 and are not entitled to vote and have the right to vote are entitled to vote. "
- Art. 14 ZGB
- Status of treaties - ratification status from the CRC. UN Treaty collection , accessed on March 19, 2019 .
- up to May 1, 1990 21; since 18 (Article 488 of the Civil Code )
- since July 5, 1974 (loi no 74-631). From 1792 to 1974, the age of majority was 21.
- The Civil Code pf the Islamic Republic of Iran. (PDF) p. 112 , accessed on September 12, 2016 (English, Article 1210, Note 1).
- asia.nikkei.com ( Memento of the original from October 1, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Sandra Grauschopf: Age of Majority in Canada by Province. What is the Age of Majority in Each Canadian Province? In: contests.about.com. About, Inc., September 11, 2016, accessed January 29, 2017 .
- canadaonline.about.com (Engl.)
- Art. 476, Civil Code
- Loi n.1.261 du 23/12/2002 abaissant à dix-huit ans l'âge de la majorité civile. Princier Governorate, Principauté de Monaco, December 23, 2002, accessed October 15, 2016 (French).
- PDF at www.lawreform.gov.na ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Age of Majority Act 1970 No 137 (as of September 3, 2007), Public Act
- North Korea fact sheet
- www.pcw.gov.ph ( Memento of the original from December 29, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Polish Civil Code (kodeks cywilny), Art. 10 § 2, p. 1.