Trinidad and Tobago
|Republic of Trinidad and Tobago|
|Republic of Trinidad and Tobago|
Motto : "Together we aspire, together we achieve"
Together we strive, together we blossom.
|Capital||Port of Spain|
|Form of government||parliamentary republic|
|Government system||parliamentary democracy|
|Head of state||
Paula Mae Weekes
|Head of government||
|Population density||259 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||−0.2% (2017) per year|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.780 ( 65th ) (2016)|
|currency||Trinidad and Tobago Dollars (TTD)|
|independence||August 31, 1962
(from the UK )
|National anthem||Forged From The Love of Liberty|
|Time zone||UTC − 4|
|ISO 3166||TT , TTO, 780|
|Telephone code||+1 (868) (see NANP )|
Trinidad and Tobago ( German [ ˈtrɪnidatˀʊnt toˈbaːgo ], English [ ˈtɹɪnɪdædəntəˈbeɪgoʊ ]) is a Caribbean island state that includes the islands of Trinidad and Tobago . The islands are the southernmost of the Lesser Antilles and are located off the coast of Venezuela . Trinidad and Tobago is 5,128 km² and has a population of over 1.3 million.
The naming of Trinidad was made by Christopher Columbus during his third journey in 1498. Columbus named the island after the Trinity , a term from Christian theology. The origin of the name Tobago has not been clarified beyond doubt; the most likely is a derivation from the Spanish word for tobacco , tabaco , which, according to prevailing opinion, is derived from the Taíno designation for the tobacco plant.
Geography and meteorology
In contrast to most of the other islands in the region, Trinidad and Tobago are not of volcanic origin, but were once part of mainland South America. The 4,825 km² main island of Trinidad , located on the South American continental shelf , is separated from this by the Gulf of Paria , which is connected to the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean via two straits, the Bocas del Dragón and the Boca del Serpiente . Tobago is northeast of Trinidad and, according to the IHO definition, lies on the border between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic.
Trinidad is traversed by three low mountain ranges. The Northern Range runs in a west-east direction along the north coast and is home to the two highest peaks in the country, the Cerro del Aripo (941 m) and El Tucuche (936 m). The Central Range is significantly lower with a maximum height of 325 m and runs from southwest to northeast diagonally through the middle of the island. The Southern Range runs along the south coast and reaches a maximum of 305 m. Also Tobago (303 square kilometers) is drawn through a mountain and heavily wooded.
Trinidad has numerous rivers, many of which arise on the southern slopes of the Northern Range and turn west or east in the lowlands to the south. In particular, the Caroni Plain , a large landscape between the Northern Range and Central Range, is very fertile as a result. The longest of these rivers are the 42 km long Ortoire River , which drains east into the Atlantic, and the 40 km long Caroni River , which flows west over the Caroni Swamp into the Gulf of Paria.
The largest cities are (2011 census) Chaguanas (83,516 inhabitants), San Fernando (48,838 inhabitants), San Juan (45,146 inhabitants), Port of Spain (37,074 inhabitants) and Arima (33,606 inhabitants).
The climate is tropical ; There is a savannah forest in the mountains in the south of Trinidad . The rainy season lasts from June to December, with annual precipitation reaching 2,000 mm. The average temperature during the day is around 30 ° C, at night it drops to around 20 ° C. In contrast to most of the islands in the Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago are located south of the hurricane zone.
Climate chart for Trinidad (Port of Spain)
Flora and fauna
Trinidad and Tobago are located in a biodiversity hotspot. The location of the islands near the South American continent and the variety of habitats resulted in a very diverse biota . Ecologists counted 97 native mammals, 400 birds, 55 reptiles, 25 amphibians and 617 butterfly species, as well as over 2,200 species of vascular plants . Hardly any other area of West India and only a few areas of South America show this diversity. The up to high mountain ranges are covered with tropical rainforest . Endemic animal species in Trinidad include the Trinidad Guan , the Oropuche Guppy and the Golden Tree Frog (Phyllodytes auratus).
The Ministry of Planning and Development is responsible for environmental protection. It is therefore also responsible for the implementation of the Biodiversity Convention and the conservation of the country's biological resources. The Ministry are u. a. a department for forest and forest science, reports to the environmental management authority and the agency for green spaces. The Department of Tourism is the regulator for the Emperor Valley Zoo .
The National Park Department of the Ministry of the Environment oversees a number of different protected areas with different protection status and goals (marine reserve, national park, protected sites). The only national park on the islands is the Maracas Beach. The agency has stations in the following areas:
- San Fernando Hill National Landmark
- Caura Recreation Site
- Quinam Recreation Site
- Cleaver Woods Recreation Park
- Aripo Savannah Scientific Reserve
The original Indian population ( Arawak ) became extinct at the end of the 18th century. Today indigenous people make up only 0.11% of the population. As everywhere in the Caribbean, where plantation economy was practiced, this was based on the brutal exploitation of slaves. With the abolition of slavery in the British colonies in 1834, the slaves were replaced by contract workers, mostly from British India. The working and living conditions of these contract workers differed only slightly from those of slavery.
The inhabitants are, depending on which island they feel they belong to, known as Trinidadians ("Trinidadians") and Tobagoers ("Tobagonians").
According to the 2011 census, around 34.2% of the population consider themselves to be descendants of slaves who were abducted from Africa in earlier centuries , around 35.4% locate their ancestors on the Indian subcontinent and around 22.8% see themselves as “mixed” ethnicity; Slightly more than 1.4% gave other information, of which 0.6% are white (“Caucasian”), 0.3% Chinese and 0.1 percent each of Portuguese , Syrian - Lebanese and indigenous origins.
Around 55% of the population profess Christianity , of which 21.6% follow the Catholic faith and the rest are divided among eight different Christian faiths. 18.2% of the population are Hindus and 5% are considered Muslim . 13.3% of the population cannot be assigned to any religion, and the rest of 8.5% are distributed among various smaller religious communities.
English, spoken by over 95% of the population, is the most widely spoken language. Spanish is also widespread (mostly as a second language) due to its proximity to Venezuela. Small language islands of Arawak and Kreol dialects have survived in rural areas .
In the period from 2010 to 2015, life expectancy was 70.2 years (men: 66.9 years, women: 73.8 years). The birth rate per woman was 1.7 children per woman in 2016. For every 1,000 inhabitants there were 13.1 births and 8.7 deaths. The high emigration rate resulted in the population shrinking by 0.17 percent in 2016.
The population of Trinidad is mostly concentrated in the western part of the island, while the eastern and northern parts of the island are very rural. Over time, Port of Spain has grown together with the suburbs further to the east and forms the East-West Corridor , in which more than 500,000 people live, which makes up almost half of the population. The agglomeration south of the Northern Range makes up the economic center of the island.
In 2017, 3.7% of the population were migrants. Most of the migrants come from other Caribbean islands.
Both Trinidad and Tobago were originally inhabited by Indians of South American origin. The first colonization of Trinidad by hunters and gatherers took place at least 7,000 years ago. It is therefore the earliest inhabited island in the Caribbean. As the first ceramic culture, the saladoids colonized around 250 BC. Chr. Trinidad and Tobago. They had stretched a trade network over the entire Antilles to Hispaniola , which also included northern South America. The saladoids also brought agriculture to the islands. Traces of the saladoids can be found in Blanchisseuse , among other things . At the time of first contact with Europeans, there were Arawak- speaking tribes in Trinidad such as Nepoya and Suppoyo , who displaced the Saladoids from the islands of the Caribbean in the 7th to 9th centuries AD, as well as Caribbean groups that emerged from 1200 AD appeared in the Antilles. Tobago, on the other hand, was inhabited by the island Caribs and Galibi .
Christopher Columbus reached the island of Trinidad on July 31, 1498. Because of its three prominent mountain peaks, he named it after the Trinity . But it was not until 1592 that Spanish settlers settled on the island. The main industries were the cultivation of cocoa and tobacco . In 1797 the British took control of Trinidad.
The name of the island of Tobago is derived from the word tobacco . It was also discovered by Columbus. In the 17th century the French , British , Dutch and Kurlanders fought over control of the island. During this time Tobago changed hands 31 times. In 1704 it was declared a neutral territory. In 1797 the British occupied Trinidad and secured their possession through the Peace of Amiens . In the Treaty of Paris in 1814, Tobago also became the property of Great Britain . In 1888 the administration of Tobago was subordinated to that of Trinidad.
The island nation used to be a center of slavery . The past is still reflected in the names of the inhabitants today. Many now have the English first names with which their ancestors were called as family names. Examples of this are the international soccer players Stern John and Kelvin Jack .
During World War II , Trinidad was the largest allied military base in the Caribbean, as it played an essential role in anti-submarine combat in the Atlantic and Caribbean. During this time the foundations for today's infrastructure and industry on the island were created.
Even before independence, under British administration, the active and passive right to vote for women was introduced in 1946 .
In 1958 Trinidad and Tobago became independent from Great Britain as part of the West Indian Federation , the capital of which was Port of Spain. But the federation broke up in 1962; on August 31, Trinidad and Tobago finally gained independence. The women's suffrage was confirmed at independence 1962nd Initially, the country was a monarchy under Elizabeth II , and since 1976 it has been a republic under the Commonwealth of Nations .
In 1990 114 members of Jamaat al Muslims , a Muslim rebel group led by Yasin Abu Bakr (actually Lennox Phillip ), stormed the parliament building "Red House" and the only television station in Trinidad and Tobago at the time. They held officers hostage there for six days before giving up.
The national holiday is August 31st. Due to the surrender treaty between Spain and Great Britain of February 18, 1797, Corpus Christi remained a public holiday even under British rule and is still today.
Trinidad and Tobago is one of the countries in the Commonwealth that continues to impose the death penalty for certain crimes . Until 2011, it was the only intended punishment for murder. Capital punishment was after a ruling by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London has been put into operation, suspended since the committee for a prison term of over five years of the death penalty as "cruel" (English. Cruel and unusual punishment was considered) . Following this judgment, the defense lawyers succeeded in extending the length of the appeal proceedings until a final judgment was reached beyond this fixed five-year period, so that no death sentence has been carried out since 1999.
Trinidad and Tobago is a parliamentary republic , the president is elected indirectly for a period of five years by an electoral college (representatives of both chambers). The parliament consists of a House of Representatives with 41 elected members and a Senate of 31 members appointed by the President. Of these, the Prime Minister proposes 16 members, 9 the opposition leaders. The republic is a unitary state , but Tobago has its own parliament and limited autonomy.
The main parties are the United National Congress , UNC , the Party of Indian Immigrants, and the People's National Movement (PNM) , which mainly relies on the population of African origin. In the 2015 election to the House of Representatives in September 2015, the PNM triumphed over the previously ruling electoral alliance of UNC, COP and TOP.
In the 2019 Democracy Index, Trinidad and Tobago ranks 44th out of 167 countries, making the country an “incomplete democracy”.
In the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) of Transparency International , the country was ranked 101st out of 176 countries (as of 2016), along with Peru , the Philippines , Gabon , Niger , Thailand and East Timor .
There have been repeated reports of police killings, confirmed by Amnesty International, where the circumstances indicate unlawful killings.
Crime and drug trafficking
Trinidad and Tobago has a relatively high homicide rate, much of which is due to drug and gang crime. In the past few years there were mostly more than 400 murder victims out of a total population of around 1.3 million. Trinidad and Tobago is considered a hub for drugs, especially cocaine, which are transported from the nearby South American continent, mainly to North America. The geographical location of the two islands of Trinidad and Tobago, coastal stretches that are difficult to guard and a high level of corruption combined with a certain inability or unwillingness of state authorities to combat drug trafficking make Trinidad and Tobago an "ideal" transshipment point for drugs. In December 2013, cocaine worth around 100 million US dollars was seized in the US state of Virginia. The drugs were disguised as canned fruit juice from a Trinidadian company and transported in a shipping container from Trinidad to Virginia.
Trinidad and Tobago is divided into nine regions, three boroughs, two cities and a ward.
|Diego Martin||127.53||102,957||Petit Valley|
|Mayaro-Rio Claro||852.81||35,650||Rio Claro|
|Princes Town||621.35||102,375||Princes Town|
|San Juan Laventille||220.39||157.295||San Juan|
|Sangre Grande||898.94||75,766||Sangre Grande|
|Point Fortin||23.88||20,235||Point Fortin|
|Port of Spain||13.45||37,074||Port of Spain|
|San Fernando||18.64||48,838||San Fernando|
|total||5,155.05||1,328,019||Port of Spain|
- Saint Andrew
- Saint David
- Saint George
- Saint Patrick
Police and military
The Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF) consists of the forces of the Trinidad and Tobago Regiment (infantry), Coast Guard, Air Guard (Luftwaffe) and the reserve. The regiment consists of around 2,800 men and women, the TTDF a total of around 4,000.
Introduced in 1962 after the country gained independence, it is the largest military unit in the English-speaking Caribbean. The TTDF is subordinate to the Ministry of National Security. The Commander in Chief is the President, currently President Paula Mae Weekes . Brigadier General Kenrick Maharaj is Chief of Defense.
Originally, sugar cane and other plantation crops were grown in Trinidad for export. Today there is still sugar and cocoa cultivation. In recent times more and more agricultural products have been grown for personal use. Forestry is limited to the extraction of teak and some other tropical woods. The few remaining tropical rainforests are spared. Before the invention of synthetic asphalt, Trinidad and Tobago met with Venezuela a great need for asphalt . The asphalt was quarried in La Brea Pitch Lake .
The extraction of oil was important for the development of the island. This gave rise to an entire industry (liquefaction of natural gas, among others), which contributed 45 percent to the gross domestic product in 2014 . Trinidad is the most industrialized island in the Caribbean. In addition to the petrochemical industry, there are many companies in the food and light industry for local needs and for supplying the neighboring islands. The industry is partly state-owned, but mostly private. Many state-owned companies have been privatized in recent years.
The country has one of the highest per capita incomes (15,342 US dollars in 2016) on the entire American continent. However, the drop in the price of oil caused an economic crisis from 2015.
Trinidad and Tobago is a member of the International Cocoa Organization .
In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Trinidad and Tobago ranks 83rd out of 137 countries (as of 2017-2018). In 2017, the country ranks 87th out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .
All GDP values are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).
(purchasing power parity)
|7.27 billion||8.25 billion||8.59 billion||11.75 billion||18.37 billion||30.44 billion||35.51 billion||38.19 billion||40.26 billion||38.79 billion||40.57 billion||41.28 billion||42.59 billion||43.70 billion||44.37 billion||45.53 billion||43.37 billion||43.01 billion|
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
(as a percentage of GDP)
The unemployment rate was 4.5% in 2017, underemployed people are not included. In 2016, 3.1% of the total workforce worked in agriculture, 11.5% in industry and 85.4% in the service sector. The total number of employees is estimated at 629,000 for 2017; 42% of them are women.
The service sector is characterized by financial service providers such as banks, insurance companies and many wholesalers and retailers. There is a national airline, Caribbean Airlines , and two commercial airports, Piarco Airport on Trinidad near Port of Spain and Crown Point Airport on Tobago. There is a strong international tourism in Tobago.
There is freedom of the press in the country .
There are three independent daily newspapers:
- Newsday (circulation approx. 71,000)
- Express (circulation approx. 88,000)
- Guardian (circulation approx. 56,000)
There are numerous radio stations in Trinidad and Tobago. Three of these are operated by the state-owned Caribbean New Media Group (CNMG).
|90.1||WACK radio||KMP Music Group Ltd.||link|
|90.5||Radio 90.5||CL Communications Group||link|
|91.1||Talk City 91.1||Caribbean New Media Group||link|
|91.9||The Street 91.9 FM||link|
|92.3||Caribbean Super Station||One Caribbean Media||link|
|92.7||Radio Tambrin||Kaisoca Productions Ltd.||link|
|93.0||Hott 93||One Caribbean Media||link|
|94.1||Boom Champions 94.1||Gillette Group||link|
|94.7||Star 94.7 HD||Trinidad and Tobago Radio Network||link|
|95.1||95.1 The Best Mix||Trinidad Broadcasting Company||link|
|95.5||I95.5FM||One Caribbean Media||link|
|96.1||WEFM||Trinidad and Tobago Radio Network||link|
|96.7||Red 96.7 FM||One Caribbean Media||link|
|97.1||Music Radio 97||Telemedia Ltd.||link|
|97.5||U97.5 Hot Like Pepper||Upward Trend Entertainment Ltd.||link|
|98.1||ISAAC 98.1||Family-Focus Broadcasting Network||link|
|99.5||Sky 99.5fm||Guardian Media Ltd.||link|
|99.1||Next FM||Caribbean New Media Group||link|
|100.1||Sweet FM||Caribbean New Media Group||link|
|100.5||Slam 100.5||Guardian Media Ltd.||link|
|101.1||WIN radio 101.1||Win Communication Network||link|
|101.7||Heritage radio||Hans Hanoomansingh||link|
|102.1||Power 102.1fm||Gilette Group||link|
|102.7||Radio Jaagriti 102.7 FM||Central Broadcasting Services Ltd.||link|
|103.5||Heartbeat 103.5FM radio||link|
|105.1||The Vibe CT 105.1 FM||Trinidad Broadcasting Company||link|
|106.1||Sangeet 106 FM||Trinidad Broadcasting Company||link|
|106.5||Aakash Vani 106.5FM||Trinidad Broadcasting Company||link|
|107.1||The Word 107.1 FM||One Caribbean Media||link|
|107.7||107.7 FM Music for Life||Trinidad and Tobago Radio Network||link|
- TV 6 (private)
- CNN 3 (private)
- Gayelle TV (private)
- CNC 3 (private)
- NCC (state)
- PARL (state)
- CNMG (state)
- WIN TV (private)
- IBN (private)
- IETV (private)
- Synergy (private)
In 2016, 69.1% of the population used the internet.
The state budget in 2016 comprised expenditure of the equivalent of 9.3 billion US dollars , which was offset by income of the equivalent of 7.3 billion US dollars. This results in a budget deficit of 9.7% of GDP . The national debt in 2016 was $ 12.8 billion, or 61.0% of GDP.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
The steel pan is the national musical instrument of Trinidad and Tobago and is made from a round metal resonance body. The instrument was invented in the 1930s. The British colonial rulers banned the locals from drumming on African percussion instruments. Therefore the lower class of Trinidad was looking for new ways of musical expression. The first steel pans were made from discarded oil drums, which were in abundance in Trinidad due to the oil industry. The Steel Pan gained international attention when TASPO (Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra) was invited to England in 1951 to present this new musical instrument at the Festival of Britain . The steel pan is one of the few acoustic musical instruments invented during the 20th century and has enjoyed great popularity, particularly in North America and Europe, since its inception. The u. a. Calypso played on steel pans and the resulting music styles soca , rapso and chutney also have their home in Trinidad and Tobago. In addition to native styles of music, R&B with American influences is very popular. Anti-Everything , Trinidad's only punk band , leads a niche existence.
Trinidad is known for its carnival , one of the largest in the world.
The Trinidadian cuisine is shaped by the diversity of its external influences.
The national sport on the two islands is cricket . The players from Trinidad and Tobago play on the West Indies cricket team . In March and April 2007, a cricket world championship took place in the Caribbean for the first time . Some of the preliminary round matches were played at Queen's Park Oval in Port of Spain.
The national soccer team of Trinidad and Tobago (also called Soca Warriors ) qualified for a soccer world championship for the first time in 2005 and took part in the 2006 finals in Germany . The team under coach Leo Beenhakker was eliminated in the preliminary round, but exceeded many expectations. Until Iceland qualified for the 2018 World Cup, Trinidad and Tobago was the smallest country in terms of population to have participated in a World Cup. The football player Dwight Yorke comes from Tobago , who played for Manchester United and made 72 appearances for the national team. The 2010 Women's U-17 World Cup took place in Trinidad and Tobago .
The country's most famous athlete is the athlete Hasely Crawford , who won a gold medal in the 100-meter run at the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal . Keshorn Walcott was surprisingly Olympic champion in the javelin throw in London 2012, he achieved the width of 84.58 meters. Also Ato Boldon won several medals at 1996 Olympics and 2000 and 1997 world champion over 200 meters . Darrel Brown won several silver medals in the 100 meter world championships and in the 4 x 100 meter relay . The second Olympic medal at the 2012 London Games was won in the 4-by-100-meter relay after the disqualification of Canada and behind the teams of USA and Jamaica (world record). The first medalist in the field of athletics at the Olympic Games was Edwin Roberts , in 1964 with bronze over 200 meters. Rodney Wilkes won weightlifting medals at the 1948 and 1952 Olympics . Also popular are cricketer Brian Lara and track cyclist Roger Gibbon , who was the first cyclist in the country to win a medal at world cycling championships . George Bovell became the first Caribbean swimmer to win an Olympic bronze medal in 2004.
The largest stadiums in the country are Hasely Crawford Stadium for 27,000 and Queen's Park Oval for 25,000, both in Port of Spain. Dwight Yorke Stadium is located on Tobago . Trinidad also has three cycle tracks .
The list of Olympic medalists from Trinidad and Tobago shows that the two islands are home to excellent sprinters.
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