Peoples of china
Over 90 ethnic groups are referred to as peoples of China , 56 of which are officially recognized as nationalities by the People's Republic of China . In addition to the Han , who make up the majority population in all of China (92% of the total population), there are another 55 nationalities . These peoples have a status that comes close to the European definition of a national minority , i.e. that is, they have a legal status that includes the guarantee of certain rights and the like. a. in the field of the education system and language promotionconnected is. It is irrelevant here whether the national minority also ethnically forms the national people of another state (e.g. Mongols , Koreans , Kazakhs , Vietnamese ), whether they live as minorities in several states ( e.g. the Lisu in China, Myanmar, Thailand and India) , the Jingpo and Wa in China and Myanmar) or as a closed ethnic group only native to China (for example the Salar , Naxi and She ).
The traditional settlement areas of the ethnic minorities of China comprise over 60% of the area of China. Only 18 of them have a population that exceeds the million mark.
In German, the term “Chinese” does not clearly differentiate between nationals of China and members of the Han nationality , i.e. “ethnic (Han) Chinese”. In Chinese , on the other hand, the “Chinese” as citizens ( Chinese 中國 人 / 中国 人 , Pinyin Zhōngguórén - “People from the Central Plateau ”) and the “ethnic Han Chinese” ( 漢族 人 / 汉族 人 , Hànzúrén or 漢人 / 汉人 , Hànrén - "Man of the Han people") uses two completely different terms. The term "Chinese" (in the sense of Zhōngguórén ) does not contain any ethnic attribution.
The Chinese term mínzú ( Chinese 民族 ) covers a spectrum of meanings that is occupied by several words in European languages: nation , people , nationality , ethnic group , ethnicity , ethnic group. For example, the term Zhōnghuá mínzú ( Chinese 中华民族 ) has two translation options : 1) the "Chinese nation"; 2) the "peoples (nationalities) of China". Combined with a specific ethnonym, this replaces the sign mín (people, people, people) and now stands with the remaining zú (clan, clan, lineage) as a specifically named “nationality”, for example Hànzú ( Chinese 汉族 ) as the “ Han- Nationality ”, Miáozú ( Chinese 苗族 ) as the“ Miao nationality ”or Èwēnkèzú ( Chinese 鄂温克 族 ) as the“ Evenk nationality ”.
Zhōnghuá Mínzú has been used as an official term since the 1980s , although it had previously been rejected. As a result, the People's Republic moved away from the self-image of a state formed by independent peoples towards a state with ethnic groups of a common nationality. This common nationality, which is dominated by the Han, is perceived by the minority peoples as a degradation, since they consider themselves to be independent peoples with a right to self-determination .
In the People's Republic of China , the “non-Han” are summarized with the term shǎoshù mínzú ( Chinese 少數民族 / 少数民族 ), which can be translated as “minority peoples” or “minority nationalities”. Due to the legal status associated with recognition as a mínzú , the term national minority is also justifiable. However, if the term is used unspecifically in Chinese, it usually also includes non-recognized ethnic groups. Then the more general term “ ethnic minorities ” is preferable in the translation . Another problem with the term is that it focuses on the fact that there is a quantitative majority of the Han across China. However, in many places - locally or regionally - the ethnic minorities make up the majority of the population.
In this sense, a distinction must be made between these 55 ethnic minorities (excluding the Han majority people) and the 56 ethnic groups (including the Han people).
In China, the “non-Han” cannot be generally delimited from the Han with the term “indigenous people” or even “ indigenous peoples ”, since the Han are also “indigenous people” or “indigenous people” almost everywhere in China. To speak of “indigenous people” among the Tibetans would be correct in the literal sense, but it would have the wrong connotation, since they still make up the overwhelming majority of the population in most of their traditional settlement areas, especially in Tibet. Some ethnic groups of the People's Republic, for example the Russians and the Salar , could not (as immigrants) at all, while others - for example the Koreans - could only be described as "natives" or "indigenous people" to a very limited extent. A term like “fringe peoples” does not apply to all either, since the settlement areas of many groups run through the settlement areas of the Han like a patchwork quilt.
Coexistence of peoples in the past and present
Even in the process of its formation, China developed as an ethnically and culturally heterogeneous state . The unification of the empire by the first emperor of the Qin in the year 221 BC. BC not only made different states disappear, it also united different peoples with different languages and cultures in one state. This created the prerequisites for the ethnogenesis of the Han , the majority population of today's China. But not all populations became part of this process. Regionally independent, ethnically and culturally autochthonous population groups were able to maintain and develop not only on the fringes of the Middle Kingdom, which had already expanded rapidly during the Han Empire , but also in its interior. The historical peoples of China who were also involved in the formation and development of today's ethnic diversity in the country include: a. - to name just a few of the most important: Dingling , Fufuluo , Gaoche , Huihe , Minyue , Nanyue , Qidan and Black Qidan , Rouran , Ruzhen (Dschurdschen), Saken , Sushen , Tabgatsch , Tanguten , Tiele , Tocharer , Tujue , Tuyuhun , Wuhu , Wuhuan , Wusun , Xianbei , Xiongnu , Xueyantuo , Yelang , Yuezhi . Some of them, for example the Tabgatsch ( Northern Wei Dynasty ), Qidan ( Liao Dynasty ) and Ruzhen ( Jin Dynasty ), ruled more Han in their empires than members of their own ethnic groups. There were even two Chinese dynasties that controlled the country and its rulers ethnic minorities were the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) the Mongols and the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) of the Manchu (Manju). They all did not see themselves as "foreign dynasties", as they are still called by the European-centered historiography, but as original representatives of the "China concept" ( Chinese 中國 / 中国 , Pinyin Zhōngguó - "Central Plains") in the sense of "Land of Center". Regardless of the ethnic affiliation of the Chinese imperial family, population groups in all dynasties of Chinese history were repeatedly oppressed, expelled, persecuted and fought because of their affiliation to ethnically defined or ethnically defined communities.
Only after the founding of the PR China was the equality of all nationalities in China anchored in constitutional law. Today, in addition to the right to autonomy, there are numerous measures to positively discriminate against the “national minorities”: bilingual teaching is widespread today and is also anchored in law among the large peoples who have their own written language. Members of national minorities are generally exempt from the one-child policy and may have at least two children in any case. In rural, sparsely populated regions and with quantitatively very small nationalities, there are regional and even local regulations that sometimes allow significantly more children per family. The population censuses of 1982, 1990 and 2000 accordingly found a significantly higher population growth for almost all national minorities in China than for the Han. Due to fixed quotas, the national minorities are also over-represented in China's politics. Their percentage of MPs in the NPC and people's congresses at the lower levels, in the MPs of the CPPCC and consultative conferences at the lower levels, and even in the delegates to the CCP congresses is regularly higher than their share of the population. Many Chinese politicians are members of ethnic minorities. The highest office reached the Mongol Ulanhu , who was Vice President of the PRC from 1983 to 1988.
However, the changeable political history of the People's Republic of China often had a negative impact on relations with the Han majority of the population. Even if the Han and members of ethnic minorities were equally affected by the negative consequences of the Great Leap Forward (1958/59) and the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), these political movements were largely perceived by the non-Han as something that the ethnic majority imposed on them. As a result, ethnic tensions grew and ethnic conflicts became more common.
In the partially still sparsely populated border regions of China ( Tibet , Xinjiang , Inner Mongolia ), the influx of Han is sometimes heavily criticized by the locals. In some of their traditional settlement areas, where they still make up the majority of the population, these nationalities now also threaten to become regional or local minorities. The government of the PR China justifies the Han migration to border areas with the economic development of unused resources. Above all, representatives of exiled Tibetans and exiled Uyghurs suspect measures against separatist movements in their regions.
List of the 56 peoples of China recognized as nationalities
The listing is in alphabetical order. The "official name" of the PR China follows GB / T 3304–1991 ( 中国 各 民族 名称 的 罗马 字母 拼写 法 和 代码 , Zhōngguó gè mínzú míngchēng de Luómǎ zìmǔ pīnxiěfǎ hé dàimǎ ).
|German name and other common names (also of subgroups)||official name||Chinese||Pinyin||Own name||Population 2010 1 (2000)||Distribution areas in China||own written language|
|Achang , Ngac'ang, Maingtha||Achang||阿昌族||Āchāngzú||39,583||96.15% in Yunnan , 1.57% in Guangdong , 0.37% in Henan||No|
|Bai , Minjia,||Bai||白族||Báizú||Bairt‧zix [pɛ tsz̩] , Bairt‧zix‧Bairt‧yvnx [pɛ tsz̩ pɛ jṽ̩] , Bairt‧horx [pɛ xo] , Bairt‧ngvrt‧zix‧ horx [pɛ ŋv̩ tsz̩ xo] , Bairt‧yin [pɛ ĩ ] ;||1,936,155||80.83% in Yunnan , 9.27% in Guizhou , 5.97% in Hunan , 0.86% in Guangdong , 0.60% in Zhejiang||Latin script in the experimental stage|
|Blang , Bulang, Samtao, Puman||Blang||布朗族||Bùlǎngzú||119,692||97.39% in Yunnan , 0.41% in Guangdong , 0.26% in Shandong , 0.25% in Zhejiang||No|
|Bonan , Baoan, Pao-an||Bonan||保安族||Bǎo'ānzú||20,077||90.50% in Gansu , 4.50% in Qinghai , 2.83% in Xinjiang||No|
|Bouyei||Buyei||布依族||Bùyīzú||Buxqyaix [pu ʔjai]||2,871,825||87.42% in Guizhou , 4.38% in Zhejiang , 2.24% in Guangdong , 2.05% in Yunnan||Bouyei font|
|Dai , Tai, Shan||Dai||傣族||Dǎizú||tai||1,261,905||98.55% in Yunnan , 0.6% in Sichuan||Tai Lü , Tai Nüa , Tai Dam (is still written in Jinping ), Tai Pong (today only in Myanmar ); see also Tai Le and Tai Lüe|
|Daur , Dahuren, Daguren, Daghur||Daur||达斡尔 族||Dáwò'ěrzú||Daor||132,252||58.3% in Inner Mongolia , 32.9% in Heilongjiang , 4.2% in Xinjiang , 1% in Liaoning||Latin script in the experimental stage|
|De'ang , Deang, Palaung, Benglong||De'ang||德昂族||Dé'ángzú||20,557||99.3% in Yunnan||No|
|Derung , Drung, Dulong||Derung||独龙族||Dúlóngzú||tɯɹɯŋ||6,933||79.2% in Yunnan , 2.6% in Inner Mongolia , 2.3% in Liaoning , 1.7% in Chongqing , 1.7% in Shanxi , 1.35% in Shandong , 1.3% in Anhui , 1.1% in Guizhou||No|
|Dong , Kam||Dong||侗族||Dòngzú||Gaeml [kɐm]||2,882,866||55% in Guizhou , 28.45% in Hunan , 10.2% in Guangxi , 2.4% in Hubei , 1.9% in Guangdong , 0.6% in Zhejiang||Dong script with Latin alphabet|
|Dongxiang , Santa||Dongxiang||东乡族||Dōngxiāngzú||Santa , Sarta||621,551||87.9% in Gansu , 10.9% in Xinjiang , 0.5% in Qinghai||No|
|Evenks||Evenki||鄂温克 族||Èwēnkèzú||Eweŋki||30,960||84.43% in Inner Mongolia , 8.55% in Heilongjiang , 1.45% in Liaoning , 1.40% in Beijing||not in china|
|Gaoshan||Gaoshan||高山族||Gāoshānzú||4.015||19.43% in Henan , 10.54% in Fujian , 6.92% in Guangxi , 5.26% in Liaoning , 5.18% in Hebei , 4.76% in Guizhou and beyond all over China||No|
|Gelao , Gelo||Gelao||仡佬族||Gēlǎozú||steal||551.378||96.5% in Guizhou , 1% in Guangdong , 0.7% in Guangxi||No|
|Han||Han||汉族||Hànzú||汉族||1,223,042,834||all of China||Chinese letters|
|Hani , Akha, Aini, Yani, Woni||Hani||哈尼族||Hānízú||Haqniq||1,661,763||99% in Yunnan||Hani script , with the Latin alphabet|
|Hezhen , Golden, Nanai, Kilen||Hezhen||赫哲族||Hèzhézú||xədʑən , nanio , kilən||5,378||84.3% in Heilongjiang , 4.1% in Jilin , 1.8% in Beijing , 1.8% in Liaoning , 1.2% in Inner Mongolia||No|
|Hui Chinese , Hui, Huihui, Dungans , Chinese Muslims||Hui||回族||Huízú||回民, 回族||10,595,946||20.52% in Ningxia , 11.88% in Gansu , 9.28% in Xinjiang , 9.04% in Henan , 7.87% in Qinghai , 6.59% in Yunnan , 5.38% in Hebei and above out all over China||not in china|
|Jingpo , Kachin, Jingpho, Tsaiva, Lechi||Jingpo||景颇族||Jǐngpōzú||147.919||98.5% in Yunnan||Zaiwa script with Latin alphabet|
|Jino||Jino||基诺族||Jīnuòzú||tɕyno , cinema||23,165||99% in Yunnan||No|
|Kazakhs||Kazak||哈萨克族||Hāsàkèzú||Қазақтар, Qazaqtar||1,463,012||99.6% in Xinjiang , 0.24% in Gansu||Kazakh in slightly modified Arabic script|
|Kyrgyz||Kyrgyzstan||柯尔克孜 族||Kē'ěrkèzīzú||Кыргыздар, Kyrgyzdar||186,756||98.7% in Xinjiang , 0.9% in Heilongjiang||Kyrgyz in slightly modified Arabic script|
|Korean||Chosen||朝鲜族||Cháoxiǎnzú||조선족 [ʧʰosɔnʤuk]||1,832,179||59.6% in Jilin , 20.2% in Heilongjiang , 12.5% in Liaoning , 1.4% in Shandong , 1.1% in Inner Mongolia , 1.1% in Beijing||Korean script|
|Lahu , Lohei, Kawzhawd, Kucong||Lahu||拉祜族||Lāhùzú||486.101||98.7% in Yunnan||Lahu script with Latin alphabet|
|Lhoba , Lopa, Adi, Abor, Idu Mishmi, Midu, Miri, Tangam||Lhoba||珞巴族||Luòbāzú||3,689||94.58% in Tibet , 2.3% in Guizhou , 0.43% in Fujian , 0.3% in Beijing , 0.3% in Liaoning||No|
|Li||Li||黎族||Lízú||1,464,074||93.9% in Hainan , 4.5% in Guizhou , 0.5% in Guangdong||Li script with Latin alphabet|
|Lisu||Lisu||傈 僳 族||Lìsùzú||703.126||96% in Yunnan , 2.9% in Sichuan||Lisu script , see also Fraser script|
|Manchu , Manju, Manchurians||Man||满族||Mǎnzú||Manju||10,410,585||50.4% in Liaoning , 19.8% in Hebei , 9.7% in Heilongjiang , 9.3% in Jilin , 4.7% in Inner Mongolia , 2.3% in Beijing||the Manchurian script is rarely used outside of Manchuristics|
|Maonan , Yanghuang||Maonan||毛南族||Máonánzú||101,258||68.7% in Guangxi , 29.15% in Guizhou , 1.2% in Guangdong||No|
|Miao , Mèo, Hmông ; Thai: แม้ว (Maew), ม้ ง (Mong)||Miao||苗族||Miáozú||9,432,810||48.1% in Guizhou , 21.5% in Hunan , 11.7% in Yunnan , 5.6% in Chongqing , 5.2% in Guangxi , 2.4% in Hubei , 1.65% in Sichuan , 1 , 35% in Guangdong , 0.7% in Hainan , 0.6% in Zhejiang||several Miao scriptures|
|Monba , Moinba, Monpa||Monba||门巴族||Ménbāzú||10,573||95.05% in Tibet , 1.3% in Sichuan , 1% in Shanghai||No|
|Mongols||Mongol||蒙古族||Měnggǔzú||Moŋgol||5,990,779||68.7% in Inner Mongolia , 11.5% in Liaoning , 3% in Jilin , 2.9% in Hebei , 2.6% in Xinjiang , 2.4% in Heilongjiang , 1.5% in Qinghai , 1 , 4% in Henan||Mongolian script , see also Mongolian syllables|
|Mulam||Mulao||仫佬族||Mùlǎozú||216,500||82.1% in Guangxi , 13.7% in Guizhou , 2.3% in Guangdong||No|
|Naxi , Nahsi, Nakhi, Mosuo, Moso, Na, Malimasa||Naxi||纳西族||Nàxīzú||326.770||95.7% in Yunnan , 2.8% in Sichuan||only in the sacred area: Dongba script|
|Nu , Ayi, Lama, Nusu, Nung, Zaozou||Nu||怒族||Nùzú||37,538||96.45% in Yunnan , 1.4% in Tibet||No|
|Oroqen , Orotschonen, Birarch, Kumarchen, Mergen-Tungusen||Oroqen||鄂伦春 族||Èlúnchūnzú||Orončon||8,689||45.38% in Heilongjiang , 41.8% in Inner Mongolia , 2.26% in Liaoning , 1.9% in Beijing , 1.63% in Hebei , 1.28% in Jilin , 1.13% in Shandong||No|
|Primi , Pumi, Xifan, Hsifan||Pumi||普米族||Pǔmǐzú||phʐẽmi||42,941||98% in Yunnan , 0.5% in Sichuan||No|
|Qiang , Ch'iang||Qiang||羌族||Qiāngzú||310.081||98.3% in Sichuan , 0.5% in Guizhou||No|
|Russians||Soot||俄罗斯 族||Éluósīzú||Русские||15,416||57.2% in Xinjiang , 32.2% in Inner Mongolia , 1.7% in Heilongjiang , 1.4% in Beijing||Russian writing|
|Salar||Salar||撒拉族||Sālāzú||Salar||130,633||81.98% in Qinghai , 10.35% in Gansu , 2.85% in Xinjiang , 0.72% in Shanghai , 0.63% in Guangdong||No|
|She||She||畲族||Shēzú||709.314||52.9% in Fujian , 24.1% in Zhejiang , 10.9% in Jiangxi , 6.3% in Guizhou , 4% in Guangdong||No|
|Sui||Sui||水族||Shuǐzú||-||412.046||90.9% in Guizhou , 3.8% in Guangxi , 3.1% in Yunnan , 0.7% in Jiangsu||the sui script is out of use|
|Tajiks||Tajik||塔吉克 族||Tǎjíkèzú||tuʤik, Тоҷик||51,075||92.53% in Xinjiang , 6.59% in Zhejiang , 0.32% in Guangdong||not in china|
|Tatars||Tartare||塔塔尔族||Tǎtǎ'ěrzú||Татарлар||3,562||91.02% in Xinjiang , 1.54% in Guangdong , 0.67% in Guangxi , 0.65% in Beijing||not in china|
|Tau , Tao, Dau, Dao, Yami, Yamei||-||達 悟 族||Dáwùzú||(3872)||Lan Yu||Latin script|
|Tibetans||Pliers||藏族||Zàngzú||6,286,487||44.8% in Tibet , 23.4% in Sichuan , 20.1% in Qinghai , 8.2% in Gansu , 2.4% in Yunnan||Tibetan script|
|Tu , Monguor, Chagaan Monggol ("White Mongols")||Do||土族||Tǔzú||maŋɡuer , moŋɡuer||289,850||77.8% in Qinghai , 12.6% in Gansu , 1.9% in Guangdong , 1.3% in Yunnan , 1.2% in Guizhou , 1.2% in Xinjiang||Latin script in the experimental stage|
|Tujia||Tujia||土家族||Tǔjiāzú||8,363,987||32.9% in Hunan , 27.1% in Hubei , 17.8% in Guizhou , 17.7% in Chongqing , 1.7% in Guangdong , 0.7% in Zhejiang||No|
|Uyghurs , Uyghurs||Uygur||维吾尔族||Wéiwú'ěrzú||ئۇيغۇر (Uyƣur)||10,071,394||99.4% in Xinjiang , 0.1% in Hunan||Uighur script|
|Uzbeks , Ozbek||Uzbek||乌孜别克 族||Wūzībiékèzú||O'zbeklar||10,582||97.8% in Xinjiang , 0.4% in Guangxi , 0.3% in Guangdong||not in china|
|Va , Wa, Awa, Lawa, Parauk||Va||佤族||Wǎzú||Ba rāog||429,866||96.6% in Yunnan , 1.2% in Shandong , 0.4% in Henan||Va font with Latin alphabet|
|Vietnamese , gin, kinh||gin||京 族||Jīngzú||28,236||89.4% in Guangxi , 2.85% in Guizhou , 2.3% in Yunnan , 1.3% in Guangdong , 1.2% in Jiangxi , 0.6% in Hainan||not in china|
|Xibe , Sibe, Sibo||Xibe||锡伯族||Xíbózú||191.019||70.2% in Liaoning , 18.3% in Xinjiang , 4.7% in Heilongjiang , 1.7% in Jilin , 1.6% in Inner Mongolia||Xibenische script|
|Yao , Mien||Yao||瑶族||Yáozú||2,798,111||55.8% in Guangxi , 26.7% in Hunan , 7.7% in Guangdong , 7.2% in Yunnan , 1.7% in Guizhou||two writings: Mian and Bunu|
|Yi , Lolo, Norsu, Sani||Yi||彝族||Yízú||ꆇꉙ (Nuoxhxop)||8,721,452||60.6% in Yunnan , 27.3% in Sichuan , 10.9% in Guizhou||Yi script , see also Yi syllable characters|
|Yugur , Yellow Uyghur, Sari Yogur||Yugur||裕固族||Yùgùzú||14,413||94.5% in Gansu , 2.2% in Xinjiang , 1% in Qinghai||No|
|Zhuang||Zhuang||壮族||Zhuàngzú||Bouxcuengh (Bouчcueŋь)||16,937,662||87.8% in Guangxi , 7.1% in Yunnan , 3.5% in Guangdong||Zhuang script|
1 The reference date for the census was November 1, 2010 at midnight. With the exception of Hong Kong and Macau, the census took place in all areas in which the government of the PRC exercises actual administrative power, e.g. B. not in Taiwan , Penghu , Jinmen , Mazu , Taiping , Dongsha and southeast Tibet . For the areas in which the census was not carried out or could not be carried out, the following population figures were determined for the reference date (no ethnic breakdown was carried out): Hong Kong: 7,097,600; Macau: 552,300; all areas under the control of the Republic of China : 23,162,123; Southeast Tibet: no information.
Peoples and ethnic groups of China not recognized as (independent) nationalities
There are numerous ethnic groups in China that have not been officially recognized by either Chinese government. For example, the Hui are not recognized as a nationality by the government of the Republic of China , but instead are considered Han Muslims. For all unrecognized ethnic groups, in Chinese, after the ethnonym, they are not designated with the addition zú ( Chinese 族 ) for “nationality”, but with the addition rén ( Chinese 人 ) for “people”. Basically, however, one has to distinguish between two variants of “non-recognition”: some ethnic groups are recognized as part of a nationality , but not as an independent nationality. Other ethnic groups are not (yet) recognized as nationalities at all . In the 2000 census, 734,438 people were counted in this second category in the PRC. In the Republic of China, the population of the eleven unrecognized indigenous groups is estimated to be around 100,000.
Ethnic groups that are not recognized as independent nationalities
Some of these ethnic groups were - from the point of view of some of their representatives - assigned to a "wrong" nationality and either want to constitute themselves as an independent nationality or to be assigned to another, already existing nationality. This category includes: a. the Abdal (officially Uighurs ), the Mosuo (officially partly Naxi , partly Mongols ), the Baima (officially Tibetan), the Gejia ( 家人, officially Miao ) and the Kucong (officially Lahu ).
Other ethnic groups have been assigned a nationality to which they do not belong from an ethnological and historical point of view, at the express request of their own. These include, for example, the Tuwins in Xinjiang, who wanted to be and remain part of the Mongols , and the Yao on the island of Hainan , who absolutely wanted to be part of the Miao . Other, particularly small groups, such as the Qiakala , have resigned themselves to being assigned to a large nationality, here the Manchu. The same applies to the Utsul (or Hutsul or Utsat, a group from Cham who migrated to China ), who, like numerous other local Muslim groups, were officially classified as Hui . In a way, the subsets of some of the great peoples of China can also be included in this category. For example, Buryats and Oirats are independent peoples outside of China, but both belong to the Mongols within China , without ever questioning this. The same applies to the Tày and Nung , who are independent peoples in Vietnam , but regard themselves as one people in China, the Zhuang .
Members of the numerous subgroups of the Han nationality represent a special case . Most of them consider themselves Han and at the same time as members of a distinct subgroup. But some, for example the Chuanqing in Anshun , Guizhou Province , campaign for their recognition as a minority nationality. Other important ethnic groups within the Han nationality are for example:
- the Hakka ( Chinese 客家人 , Pinyin Kèjiārén ) in Guangdong , Fujian , Taiwan , Jiangxi , Sichuan and Hainan ;
- the Hoklo ( Chinese 福佬 人 , Pinyin Fúlǎorén ) in Fujian , Taiwan , Guangdong and Hainan ;
- the Tanka ( Chinese 蜑 家人 , Pinyin Dànjiārén ) in Guangdong , Fujian , Guangxi , Hainan and Zhejiang ;
- the Lingao ( Chinese 临 高人 , Pinyin Língāorén ) in Lingao County of Hainan Province and neighboring counties;
- the Cun ( Chinese 村人 , Pinyin Cūnrén ) in Dongfang City and Changjiang Autonomous County, Hainan Province ;
- the Waxiang ( Chinese 瓦 乡人 , Pinyin Wǎxiāngrén ) in Yuanling , Jishou , Chenxi , Guzhang and Zhangjiajie in the west of Hunan Province .
Ethnic groups that are not recognized as nationalities
Both Chinese governments, that of the People's Republic and that of the Republic of China, pursue a policy of "recognition" towards the ethnic minorities, albeit according to different criteria and of course on the basis of the different ethnic conditions of the areas they administer. While the state of the lack of recognition in the Republic of China has no special meaning and the groups concerned - as long as the recognition is lacking - are simply part of the majority population, in the People's Republic of China it is a status that is recorded separately in the regular censuses and so it has an official character. It means that the state officially recognizes that the ethnic group in question does not belong to any pre-existing nationality. This status is easier to accept for most of those affected than being assigned to an existing nationality with which they identify little or not at all. For example, the Gejia and the Chuanqing strive intensely to maintain this status and to regain it. However, there are differences here as well: One can assume that, for example, Caijia , Hu and Songjia will be assigned to an existing nationality in the next few years. On the other hand, the status of the Deng , Khmu , Mảng and Sherpa, for example , clearly has a permanent character, which makes it possible to equate them with the recognized minority nationalities at the provincial level (here: Tibet and Yunnan ).
Special case: Chinese Jews
The Jews in China ( Chinese 犹太人 , Pinyin Youtairen ) represent a special case . In the People's Republic they number about 1700 people (of which about 1000 in Hong Kong alone ), in the Republic of China (Taiwan) another 200 people. Some Jews had applied for recognition as a separate nationality in the 1950s and again in the 1980s. This was rejected. Many descendants of the Chinese Jews apparently now classify themselves as Han or Hui . However, some seem to insist on the status of not being classified. It can thus be assumed that the 30 people who, according to the 2000 census in Kaifeng, were granted the status of "not classified" were Jews or descendants of Jews. The same is presumably true for some of the “unclassified” people in Shanghai , Harbin and some other cities.
Special case: Guizhou Province
In the 1982, 1990 and 2000 censuses, 748,080, 733,400 and 710,486 people were classified as "ethnically unclassified" in Guizhou Province alone . That was 93.5%, 97.5% and 96.74% of all people in this category in the entire People's Republic. While officially unrecognized ethnic groups from Tibet (Deng and Sherpa ) or Yunnan (Mang, Khmu and Hu) are repeatedly mentioned and described in detail in Chinese publications, information about the quantitatively large groups of Guizhou is rather sparse and mostly kept brief. One of the reasons for this is likely to be the view of the Chinese government that it had resolved the "special case of Guizhou" by the census (November 2010) at the latest. That is, to drastically reduce the number of people who do not have an officially recognized nationality, to a level that can also be found in other, average provinces. The various unrecognized ethnic groups were and are assigned to the closest related (or “suitable” for other reasons) recognized nationalities. In 1981 there were still 23 ethnic groups in Guizhou without any official assignment to a nationality. They were:
|1981 not officially classified||Chinese||Pinyin||Distribution areas||Population (1985)||Year of classification||Classified as:|
|Caijia||蔡 家人||Càijiārén||Qianxi , Qixingguan , Nayong , Hezhang , Zhijin , Shuicheng , Liuzhi||20,000||-||-|
|Changpao Yao||长袍 瑶||Chángpáo Yáo||Libo , Wangmo||300 (together with the Youmai, see below)||1982-1985||Yao|
|Chenzhou||辰州 人||Chénzhōurén||Ping tang||not clear||1982-1985||Han|
|Chuanqing||穿 青 人||Chuānqīngrén||Bijie (especially Zhijin and Nayong ), Anshun , Liupanshui||over 600,000||after 1996||Han (under review)|
|Diao||刁 人||Diāorén||Congjiang||984 (together with the Xialusi, see below)||1982-1985||Dong|
|Dongjia||东 家人||Dōngjiārén||Majiang , Kaili , Duyun , Fuquan||over 40,000||1996||She|
|Gejia||家人||Gějiārén||Huangping , Kaili , Guanling , Shibing||40,000||after 1996||Miao (under review)|
|Laba||喇叭 人||Lǎbārén||Qinglong , Pu'an , Liuzhi , Shuicheng , Pan , Longli||over 60,000||1982-1985||Miao|
|Limin||里民||Lǐmín||Qinglong , Guanling , Zhenning , Shuicheng||70,000||1982-1985||Yi|
|Longjia||龙 家人||Lóngjiārén||Bijie , Anshun , Liupanshui||over 10,000||1988||Bai|
|Lu||卢 人||Lúrén||Qianxi , Jinsha , Dafang||7747||1982-1985||Manju|
|Mojia||莫 家人||Mòjiārén||Dushan , Libo||17,017||1982-1985||Bouyei|
|Mulao||木 佬 人||Mùlǎorén||Majiang , Kaili , Duyun , Fuquan , Weng'an||28,000||1993||Mulam|
|Nanjing||南京 人||Nánjīngrén||Bijie , Anshun , Liupanshui||61.171||1982-1985||Han|
|Qixing||七 姓 民||Qīxìngmín||Shuicheng , Weining , Hezhang||7589||1982-1985||Bai|
|Raojia||绕 家人||Ràojiārén||Majiang , Duyun||over 9000||1992||Yao|
|Sanqiao||三 撬 人 / 三 锹 人||Sānqiàorén / Sānqiāorén||Liping||2374||1982-1985||z. T. Miao , e.g. T. Dong|
|Xialusi||下 路 司 人||Xiàlùsīrén||Congjiang||984 (together with the Diao, see above)||1982-1985||Dong|
|Xijia||西 家人||Xījiārén||Kaili , Duyun , Majiang||over 9000||1982-1985||Miao|
|Yanghuang||佯 亻 黄 人||Yánghuángrén||Pingtang , Dushan , Huishui , Luodian||40,000||1990||Maonan|
|Yiren||羿 人 / 弈 人||Yìrén / Yìrén||Qixingguan ; in Sichuan : Xuyong and Gulin||1015 (in Sichuan: over 300)||1982-1985||Gelao ; in Sichuan: e.g. T. Yi , e.g. T. Han|
|Youmai||油 迈 人||Yóumàirén||Libo , Wangmo||300 (together with the Changpao Yao, see above)||1982-1985||Yao|
For the most part, these classifications were made in agreement with the respective affected population and were also accepted. Four problems remain:
- With the exception of the 1,140 people affected in the Liuzhi special area , who were classified as belonging to the Yi nationality at their own request in October 1989 , around 20,000 Caijia Guizhous still remain without official ethnic affiliation.
- The Songjia ( 宋 家人 ) in Wudang , Kaiyang , Xiuwen , Longli and Guiding only made an application for classification in the 2000s, which has not yet been decided. The assignment to the Miao , the Bouyei or the Han is under discussion .
- The 40,000 Gejia are so dissatisfied with their classification as Miao that they continue to fight for their recognition as a separate nationality. It remains to be seen whether they will be classified as “Miao” or “not classified” in the November 2010 census.
- The over 600,000 Chuanqing are so far unwilling to accept their classification as Han . They made up the vast majority of the "unclassified" in Guizhou in the 2000 census. If they were counted as "Han" in the November 2010 census, the number of "unclassified" people in Guizhou would definitely fall below 100,000.
Within Guizhou, in the 2000 census, the vast majority of the “unclassified” were concentrated in a few counties, urban districts and cities. Especially in Zhijin, Nayong and Dafang it is almost completely Chuanqing.
|District / City / Municipality||Residents||of which without ethnic classification||Share of the district population||Share of the unclassified population of Guizhou||Proportion of the unclassified population of China|
In addition to these problems and unresolved issues of ethnic classification in Guizhou, which are also evident from the census, there also seem to be a few problems that are not so obvious. An example is the alleged " Li " population of Guizhou. In the 2000 census in Guizhou, 56,082 alleged "Li" were counted. That number cannot possibly be correct. The Li are the indigenous people of the island province of Hainan and, before and after the founding of the PRC, only a relatively small number of them left their home island. Of course, the number of population movements in a modern society is increasing and so, of course, increasing numbers of Li are moving to other provinces for professional or personal reasons (marriage). The 316 Li who live in the Sichuan province according to the 2000 census or the 1426 Li who live in the Yunnan province can be taken seriously. The number for Guizhou is - calculated cautiously - at least 50 times too high. This riddle is relatively easy to solve: In the name of the 70,000 Limin listed in the above table of the 23 unclassified groups from 1981 , the Li stands for the ethnonym and min simply stands for “people”, “people”. The "real" Li von Hainan write themselves with the character 黎 , the Guizhouer Limin, however (actually) with the character 里 , but a comparison of the main settlement areas of the Limin ( Qinglong , Guanling , Zhenning , Shuicheng ) with the districts in which the most people who managed to be classified as Li suggests that these two groups are likely to be identical, or at least largely identical:
|circle||Residents||thereof classified as Li||Share of the district population||Share of the population of Guizhou classified as “Li”|
Only in Shuicheng do the Limin seem to have accepted their classification as Yi . In any case, 44.6% of all people assigned to the “real” Li nationality in the census live in the districts that are named as the main settlement area of the Limin. Whether it is also Limin in Pu'an and Pan, or whether another indigenous ethnic group calls itself “Li”, remains to be investigated. It also remains to be seen whether the coming census (November 2010) will succeed in drastically correcting the number of “Li” in Guizhou downwards.
List of the peoples and ethnic groups of China not recognized as nationalities
|Name, name variants||Chinese||Pinyin||Subgroups||Classification of the language||population||Distribution areas in China||status|
|Caijia||蔡 家人||Càijiārén||no||Sino-Tibetan , Sinitic , Bai||over 20,000||Qianxi , Qixingguan , Nayong , Hezhang , Zhijin , Shuicheng and Liuzhi in Guizhou||officially not recognized|
|Deng , Dengba||僜 人 / 僜 巴 人||Dèngrén / Dèngbārén||Darang ( 达 让人 ) and Geman ( 格曼 人 )||Sino-Tibetan , Tibeto-Burmese , North Assamese||over 1000||Zayu in Tibet||officially not recognized|
|Hu||户 人||Hùrén||no||Austro-Asiatic , Mon-Khmer , Northern Mon-Khmer||about 1500||Mengla and Jinghong in Yunnan||officially not recognized|
|Ili Turks||伊犁 土 尔克 人||Yīlí Tǔ'ěrkèrén||no||Altaic , Turkish , East Turkish||100-200||Gulja in Xinjiang||unclear (may have since been classified as "Uzbeks")|
|Khabit , Buxing||必定 人||Bìdìngrén||no||Austro-Asian , Mon-Khmer , Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuisch, Khao||over 600||Mengla in Yunnan||unclear (may now be considered part of the Khmu)|
|Khmu , Kammu, Khammu||克 木人||Kèmùrén||Manmet ( 克 蔑 人 ) and Kuanren ( 宽 人 )||Austro-Asian , Mon-Khmer , Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuisch, Mal-Khmu '||approx. 5000||Mengla and Jinghong in Yunnan||officially not recognized|
|Mảng 1||莽 人||Mǎngrén||no||Austro-Asiatic , Mon-Khmer , Northern Mon-Khmer||over 500||Jinping in Yunnan||officially part of the Blang since 2009|
|sherpa||夏尔巴 人||Xià'ěrbārén||no||Sino-Tibetan , Tibeto-Burmese , Bodisch , Tibetan||approx. 2600||Dinggyê and Nyalam in Tibet||officially not recognized|
|Songjia||宋 家人||Sòngjiārén||no||not clear||Wudang , Kaiyang , Xiuwen , Longli and guiding in Guizhou||officially not recognized|
|Thami , Tami||塔米 人||Tǎmǐrén||no||Sino-Tibetan , Tibeto-Burmese , West Himalayan||about 500||Nyalam in Tibet||not clear|
- Demographics of the People's Republic of China
- Overseas Chinese
- Indigenous peoples of Asia
- List of historical Chinese ethnonyms and country names
- Nationality University
- Siberian Turkic people
- Siberian peoples
- Tai peoples
- Tungus peoples
- Native of Taiwan
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