The Gaoshan ( Chinese 高山族 , Pinyin Gāoshānzú ) are one of the 56 nationalities of the People's Republic of China that have been officially "recognized" as independent peoples. The Chinese term refers to the indigenous people of Taiwan , which is considered a "breakaway province" by the People's Republic of China. Gaoshan is a collective term for the 16 officially recognized by the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognized indigenous people Austronesian descent.
There are 16 Taiwanese officially recognized ethnic groups of Taiwanese Austronesians:
- the Amis阿美族Amei to ;
- the Atayal泰雅族Taiya too ;
- the bunun布 農 族bunong to ;
- the Kavalan噶 瑪蘭 族Gamalan to , also 卡瓦蘭 族Kawalan to ;
- the Paiwan排 灣 族Paiwan too ;
- the Puyuma卑南族Beinan zu , also called Pinuyumayan 漂 馬 族Piaoma zu ;
- the Rukai魯凱 族Lukai zu , also called Tsarisen, Tsalisen or Salisen;
- the Saisiat賽 夏 族Saixia to , also transcribed Saisiyat;
- the Sakizaya (Sakiraya) 撒奇萊雅 族Sāqíláiyǎ zú ;
- the Tau達 悟 族Dawu zu , formerly also called Yami 雅美 族Yamei zu ;
- the Thao劭 族Shaozu , also 邵族Shaozu ;
- the Truku太魯閣 族Tailuge to ;
- the Tsou鄒 族Zouzu , also 曹族Caozu ;
- the Pingpu (Peipo) 平埔 人Pingpu ren .
Hattaway (see bibliography) gives 1,500 Americans, 1,300 Bunun and 510 Paiwan for the Gaoshan of the PRC. However, there is no verifiable evidence for these figures. The population censuses counted 1,650 (1982), 2,909 (1990), 4,461 (2000) and finally 4,015 (2010) Gaoshan. The strong population growth from 1982 to 2000 (170.36%) is due to the increased need for political representation, which encouraged people with Taiwanese ancestors to define themselves ethnically as Gaoshan. The slight decrease in the last ten years is due to the fact that on the one hand the potential has been exhausted and on the other hand the population was very old.
Distribution of the Gaoshan at the provincial level in China according to the data of the 2010 census (reference date November 1, 2010)
|People's Republic of China||4.015||100.00%|
Very few Gaoshan speak remnants of various languages of the indigenous people of Taiwan. In the area of religion, an extensive adaptation to the Han Chinese should have taken place. Remains of autochthonous beliefs may still exist.
- Hattaway, Paul: Operation China. Introducing all the Peoples of China. Carlisle / UK, Pasadena / CA 2000, p. 39, 93, 425 (English).
- Ma, Yin, etc. Chen, Yongling et al. a .: The national minorities in China. Beijing 1990, p. 597-608 .
- Nentwig, Ingo : The indigenous people of Taiwan. Leipzig 1997, ISBN 3-91003-21-8 ( defective ) , p. 10 .
- Ye, Dabing: The Bride's Boat. Marriage Customs of China's Fifty-five Ethnic Minorities. Beijing 1993, p. 202 ff . (English).
- Zhang, Weiwen and Zeng, Qingnan: In Search of China's Minorities. Beijing 1993, p. 326-330 (English).
- Zimpel, Heinz-Gerhard: Lexicon of the world population. Geography - Culture - Society. Berlin, Hamburg 2000, pp. 172 .