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Jiāngxī Shěng
Abbreviation : ( Pinyin : Gàn)
Capital Nanchang

 - Total
 - share in the

Rank 18 out of 33

166,900 km²


 - Total 2016
 - density

Rank 14 out of 33

45,920,000 inhabitants
275 inhabitants / km²

Management type province
governor Liu Qi
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About this picture
ISO-3166-2 code CN-JX
District level 11 cities
District level 62 counties, 27 city districts, 10 cities
Community level 770 large communities, 651 communities, 120 street districts, 7 nationality communities

Audio file / audio sample Jiāngxī ? / i (Chinese 江西, formerly alsoKiangsi) is aprovince ofthePeople's Republic of China. It is located south of theYangtze River. The province has 45.7 million inhabitants (2015).


Jiangxi is an inland province and borders Hubei and Anhui to the north . To the east are Zhejiang and Fujian . Jiangxi borders on Guangdong to the south and Hunan to the west .

Significant parts of the province are freshwater areas, including Poyang Lake , the largest freshwater lake in China. Its area of ​​3,600 km² can expand to 4,700 km² during floods. The most important river is the 751 km long Gan River , which gave the province its abbreviation. It cuts through Jiangxi from south to north, where it flows into Lake Poyang. The Poyang Lake in turn drains into the Yangtze River , which only touches the province on its northern border.

The surface shape is flat in the north. The land rises to the south, here it forms the valley of the Gan River. To the east, south and west, the territory of the province is surrounded by mountains. In the east, Wuyi Shan and Huaiyu Shan separate Jiangxi from Fujian. To the west are the Mufu Mountains , the Jiuling Mountains and the Luoxiao Mountains ; in the latter is the Jinggangshan, an important retreat for the communists during the civil war . East of the city of Pingxiang is the 2301 m high Wugong Shan . The southern part of Jiangxi is generally mountainous, here are the Jiulian Mountains and the Dayu Mountains .

Important cities besides the capital Nanchang are Jiujiang , Jingdezhen , Ji'an , Ganzhou and Pingxiang .

Jiangxi's climate is humid and subtropical. January temperatures average between 3 ° C and 9 ° C, while the average July temperatures are between 27 ° C and 31 ° C. The provincial capital Nanchang is one of the hottest cities in China. The annual precipitation of 1200 to 1900 mm is relatively high, most of which falls between April and July. The northeast is one of the wettest areas in the province.

Xianrendong Cave with models of early settlement 20,000 years ago

Prehistory and History

The history of Jiangxi stretches from the Paleolithic to the present, as Homo erectus settled southeast China a million years ago and human beings for at least 80,000 years . Early traces of human settlement are in the caves of Xianrendong (Xianren Cave, Dayuan Township, in Wannian County), where the oldest ceramics known to man were found, which were dated to an age of 20,000 years.

The Shanghai bronzes date from the 12th century BC. Historical information about the time before Jiangxi was incorporated into the Chinese ancestral territory is very thin. It is very likely that the Yue people , who mainly settled in what is now Zhejiang and Fujian , were also native to Jiangxi. During the spring and autumn periods , the north of what is now Jiangxi was part of the Wu Empire , while the south is believed to have remained under the influence of the Yue. Yue was born in 333 BC. Destroyed by the state of Chu , the 221 BC. Was destroyed by Qin .

Villas on the Lushan

During the Qin Dynasty that followed, Jiangxi became part of the first unified Chinese Empire. The Qin established a number of command posts and districts to administer the newly reclaimed land and to secure the roads to the south. Under the following Han dynasty , Nanchang had already developed into an important administrative center.

The valley of the Gan River was not initially settled by the Han . These flowed slowly from the north to Hunan and into the plain around Lake Poyang . It was not until the 13th century that the south was also settled by the Han. At the same time, the northern part of Jiangxi came under the influence of the region around Hangzhou and Nanjing , where handicrafts, trade and innovation flourished; in the south the mining of precious metals flourished.

During the Tang Dynasty , Jiangxi was part of Jiangnan ( south of the Yangtze River ), which was split into a western and an eastern part in 733. Jiangxi belonged to the western part, called Jiangnanxi ( southwest of the river ), which in the course of time shortened to Jiangxi . However, it was not until the Ming period that the province got approximately its present-day dimensions.

During the Taiping Uprising , Nanchang was the first to be captured by the Taiping. After the Taiping were pushed back by the Imperial forces, regions in the east and south of Jiangxi were among the parts of the country held longest by the Taiping forces. Around the same time, as a result of the Opium War, foreign powers are forcing Jiujiang to open up .

After the fall of the Qing Dynasty (1911), Jiangxi declared its independence from the Chinese imperial family . It remained afterwards (1920s) in the sphere of influence of the warlords from the Zhili faction . During the northern expedition of the Kuomintang troops, Jiangxi supported the idea of ​​the unification of China, but on August 1, 1927, Jiangxi was the scene of the Nanchang uprising , which was a retaliatory action by the communists for the Kuomintang's Shanghai massacre in April 1927. In this uprising, 30,000 soldiers under Zhou Enlai and Zhu De occupied the provincial capital Nanchang , but were only able to hold it for a few days. This uprising meant a change in the strategy of the communists because it had become clear that a revolution in the cities could not lead to communist victory. Most of the communist troops under Zhu De withdrew towards Guangdong , others remained in West Jiangxi, in and around the Jinggangshan Mountains, where they united with the peasant troops of Mao Zedong and resisted attacks by the Kuomintang.

This development led to the proclamation of the Chinese Soviet Republic (November 1929) with the capital Ruijin (瑞金), which is why it is still called the Old Red Capital (红色 故都) or simply the Red Capital today. The region around Ruijin became an experimental field for communist politics, which was later implemented in the communist-occupied areas during the civil war. Ruijin had to be evacuated in the fall of 1934, which was the beginning of the Long March . The power bases of the communists had to be given up and only came under their control again in May 1949.

Since then, the province has largely shared the fortunes of the People's Republic of China and has made its appearance above all through important communist congresses (especially in Lushan ).


The 2000 census showed a population of 41.4 million people, making Jiangxi the least densely populated province of eastern China (251 inhabitants / km²). Jiangxi has a surplus of men. Only 0.27% of the population belonged to one of the national minorities , the most important minority being the She . There are also Hui , Miao , Yao , Bai and Yi .

The urban population for 2000 is given according to the census at 27.7%, with the largest city being Nanchang , with about 5 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area.

Population development

Population growth in the province since 1954.

year population
1954 census 16,772,865
1964 census 21,068,019
1982 census 33.184.827
1990 census 37.710.177
2000 census 40,397,598
2010 census 44,567,797
Guess 2016 45,920,000


Jiangxi is one of the poorer provinces in China. In 2000, GDP per capita was only 4,800 yuan ; Growth also lags behind other provinces. This leads to high levels of emigration to the much richer neighboring provinces of Guangdong , Zhejiang and Fujian , as a result of which the province loses many well-trained workers and capital.


Agriculture employs around half of Jiangxi's working population and generates around a quarter of GDP . About half of the available land is planted with rice ; Jiangxi has traditionally been an important supplier of rice to China, and the province's rice harvest is among the highest in the country. Other important agricultural products are cotton , oil crops (especially rapeseed ), sugar cane , tea and fruits. Forestry is very important in the relatively wooded south, while fish farming is very important in the north, 82% of the total fish catch comes from farms. Pigs (17.5 million in 2000) and cattle (3.7 million) dominate livestock.


Industry has a very small share of GDP , in 2000 only around 35%. Only 14.4% of the workforce is employed in industry. Nevertheless, the industry has a long tradition in the province, especially the production of ceramics, which since the time Song is located in Jingdezhen and from resources of Gaoling benefits -Tons. In addition to clay, Jiangxi is rich in other natural resources. It is one of China's main suppliers of non-ferrous metals. Jiangxi has the largest deposits of uranium, copper, silver and tantalum niobium, and it also extracts considerable amounts of coal , zinc and molybdenum . Heavy industry dominates: non-ferrous metal processing, iron and steel industry, ceramics, mechanical engineering and textile manufacture are important. In 2000, state-owned companies produced almost 80% of the total output. Jingdezhen is still considered the world capital of porcelain .

Services and tourism

The service sector accounts for an exceptionally high share of GDP at over 40%, employing 34% of the workforce. Transport and communication as well as trade and hospitality are by far the most important sectors.

International tourism has, however, are a relatively minor role, the main attractions for tourism in the Lushan -Nationalpark (庐山), since 1996 a World Heritage Site of UNESCO is. It is known for its breathtaking landscape; Nearby are the Donglin Temple (mit 林寺) and the Tiefo Temple (铁佛寺), two important Buddhist temples.

Near the small town of Yingtan (鹰潭) is Longhushan (龙虎山), the birthplace of Taoism . There are many interesting temples, cave complexes, mountains and villages there. Furthermore, the capital Nanchang and the Poyang Lake are of great tourist importance.


Because of the high amount of precipitation and the mountainous surface shape, Jiangxi has a high potential for generating energy from hydropower . However, it is only partially used; only a little more than a quarter of the energy produced comes from hydropower plants .


Jiangxi has been an important link between the North Chinese Plain and the lowlands on the lower reaches of the Yangtze and Guangdong to the south since ancient China . The province is therefore relatively well connected to the people's republic's transport system. In 2000 there were 2,150 km of railway line, the most important of which was the 947 km long Zhejiang- Jiangxi Railway, which connects Hangzhou (杭州) and Zhuzhou (株洲) in Hunan . Of the 37,000 km of roads, 650 km are of a quality that could be called a motorway. There are also navigable waterways with a total length of 5,500 km. The two main ports are Jiujiang (on the Yangtze River) and Huangshi .


Jiangxi is home to the Gan dialect , one of the seven dialect groups of the Chinese language . The Gan dialect is spoken on two thirds of the provincial territory and it is broken down into sub-dialects, such as the Nanchang dialect , the Yichun dialect or the Ji'an dialect . However, Putonghua , the standard language of the People's Republic of China, is understood almost everywhere. In the south there are regions where Hakka settle, who have received their own language. In the northern border areas the Hui dialect or the Wu dialect are spoken.

Ganju (Jiangxi Opera) is the form of Chinese opera that is native to Jiangxi.

Jiangxi cuisine is little known outside the province. It is characterized by extreme taste, which can be traced back to the heavy use of chilli and pickled or fermented foods.

There are many important personalities from Jiangxi, including Tao Yuanming , Wang Anshi and Ouyang Xiu .


Jiangxi is made up of eleven prefecture-level cities that are directly subordinate to the provincial government:

  • City of Nanchang (南昌市; Nánchāng Shì);
  • City of Jingdezhen (景德镇 市 Jǐngdézhèn Shì);
  • City of Pingxiang (萍乡 市 Píngxiāng Shì);
  • Jiujiang City (九江 市 Jiǔjiāng Shì);
  • Xinyu City (新余 市 Xīnyú Shì);
  • City of Yingtan (鹰潭 市 Yīngtán Shì);
  • City of Ganzhou (赣 州市 Gànzhōu Shì);
  • City of Ji'an (吉安 市 Jí'ān Shì);
  • City of Yichun (宜春 市 Yíchūn Shì);
  • Fuzhou City (抚州 市 Fǔzhōu Shì);
  • City of Shangrao (上饶 市 Shàngráo Shì).

These eleven cities consist of 62 districts, 27 urban districts and 10 independent cities.

Web links

Commons : Jiangxi  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. China: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved November 21, 2017 .
  2. ^ Ofer Bar-Yosef, Youping Wang: Paleolithic archeology in China . In: Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 41, 2012, pp. 319-335, doi : 10.1146 / annurev-anthro-092611-145832 .
  3. Xiaohong Wu, Chi Zhang, Paul Goldberg, David Cohen, Yan Pan, Trina Arpin, Ofer Bar-Yosef: Early pottery at 20,000 years ago in Xianrendong Cave, China . In: Science Vol. 336, No. 6089, June 2012, pp. 1696–1700, doi : 10.1126 / science.1218643 .
  4. China: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather, and Web Information. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .

Coordinates: 27 ° 38 '  N , 115 ° 46'  E