Inner Mongolia

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ

Öbür mongɣul-un öbertegen ǰasaqu orun
Abbreviation : ( Pinyin : Měng)
Capital Hohhot

 - Total
 - share in the

Rank 3 of 33

1,218,698 km²


 - Total 2016
 - density

Rank 23 out of 33

25,200,000 inhabitants
20.68 inhabitants / km²

Management type Autonomous area
governor Bu Xiaolin
布 小林
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About this picture
ISO-3166-2 code CN-NM
District level 9 cities, 3 leagues
District level 49 banners, 23 city districts, 17 counties, 11 cities, 3 autonomous banners
Community level 496 large communities, 239 street districts, 152 sum, 105 communities, 17 nationality communities, 1 nationality sum

The Inner Mongolia ( Chinese  內蒙古  /  內蒙古 , Pinyin Nei Měnggǔ Mongolian ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ  Obur Mônggôl , short 內蒙  /  內蒙 , Nèiměng ), officially Autonomous Region Inner Mongolia ( 內蒙古自治區  /  內蒙古自治区 , Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū ; Mongolianᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ Obur Mônggôl-ûn above jasahû ôrûn ; Cyril-Mongolian Өвөр Монголын Өөртөө Засах Орон ) is an autonomous region in the People's Republic of China .


Desert in Inner Mongolia
Climate diagram Hohhot

Inner Mongolia borders Russia and Mongolia in the north . In the south it borders - from west to east - on the Chinese provinces of Gansu , Ningxia , Shaanxi , Shanxi , Hebei , Liaoning , Jilin and Heilongjiang .

Most of Inner Mongolia's territory is located on a plateau over 1000 meters above sea level.

The climate of Inner Mongolia is continental temperate with long, sometimes very cold winters, short moist warm summers and strong winds in rapidly rising temperatures in spring. The annual rainfall is between 100 and 500 mm. From southeast to northwest, the amount of rain decreases continuously; there are deserts in western Inner Mongolia. The annual sunshine duration is around 2700 hours. The Great Hinggan Mountains and the Yin Shan Mountains form a natural weather divide: to the east and north of these mountain ranges, both temperatures and rainfall are significantly lower than to the west and south of them.

Inner Mongolia is also severely affected by desertification , which turns around 3500 km² into deserts in China every year . It is caused by the conversion of pasture areas into intensively used agricultural areas by Chinese immigrants, whereby the areas are overexploited and destroyed. The shepherds, who had previously used these areas sustainably, are being pushed into less economic regions by this immigration, as a result of which they are overgrazed.

Administrative structure

Temple of the Five Pagodas in Hohhot

The capital of the autonomous region is Hohhot . Overall, it is divided - at the district level - into nine district-free cities and three federations ( aimags ):

  • City of Hohhot (呼和浩特市ᠺᠥᠺᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ),
  • Baotou City (包头 市ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠲᠣ),
  • Wuhai City (乌海 市ᠦᠬᠠᠢ),
  • Chifeng City (赤峰 市ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ),
  • City of Tongliao (通辽 市ᠲᠦᠨᠭᠯᠢᠶᠥᠥ),
  • Ordos City (鄂尔多斯 市ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ),
  • City of Hulun Buir (呼伦贝尔 市ᠺᠥᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ),
  • City of Bayan Nur (巴彦淖尔 市ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠠᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ),
  • City of Ulanqab (乌兰察布 市ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠠᠪ),
  • Xilin Gol League (锡林郭勒 盟ᠰᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ),
  • Hinggan band (兴安盟ᠬᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ),
  • Alxa Association (阿拉善 盟ᠠᠯᠠᠱᠠᠨ).

At the district level, Inner Mongolia has been divided into 103 units since 2016, namely 23 urban districts, 11 independent cities, 17 districts, 49 banners and 3 autonomous banners. By 2015 there were only 102 units.

At the community level there are 1010 administrative units, namely 239 street districts, 496 large communities, 105 communities, 152 sum, 17 nationality communities and 1 nationality sum (as of 2015) .

Biggest cities

rank city Residents
1 Baotou 1,900,373
2 Hohhot 1,497,110
3 Chifeng 902.285
4th Tongliao 540,338
5 Ordos 510.242
6th Wuhai 502.704
7th Bayan only 354.507
8th Yakeshi 338.275
9 Zalantun 338.275
10 Hulun Buir 327.384
Note: The population figures refer to the actual urban settlement.

Status: 2010 census


The name “Inner” Mongolia is derived from the Manchuriandorgi (inside) / tulergi (outside)” and during the Qing Dynasty stood for six principalities in the southeast of the Mongolian-populated area, which were closest to the Chinese capital Beijing. It thus reflects the perspective of the Chinese government and consequently has a Manchurian-influenced Sinocentric connotation.

The opposite term is Outer Mongolia . He stood in particular during the Qing Dynasty and the Republic period (1912-1949) for most of the area of ​​what is now Mongolia . Mongols call the two areas öbör , ie "front" (= "southern" instead of "inner") and aru , ie "rear" (= "northern" instead of "outer") Mongolia. Proponents of greater autonomy or even independence for Inner Mongolia from China therefore prefer the term South Mongolia .


Flag of the Autonomous Government of Inner Mongolia 1945–1949

At the time of the Qing Dynasty, all of Mongolia was under the Qing rule and the Mongolian territories were administered by the Ministry of Minority Affairs ( Lifanyuan ). No evidence The division of Mongolia began at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty: after the death of the last important Mongolian Khan Ligdan Khan, the power of the Mongols shrank to their settlement area in Central Asia. The southeast of the area populated by Mongols, which was also the most densely populated region, came under Manchurian influence. After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, the southeast was divided into six principalities with a limited degree of autonomy. Under the rule of the Qing Emperors, Inner Mongolia was more firmly integrated into the Chinese Empire by settling Chinese in Inner Mongolia and building roads. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Mongolian patriotism rose and Outer Mongolia broke away from China. The spiritual and political leadership of the Mongols - most actively the religious leader Bogdo Gegen - also pushed for the separation of Inner Mongolia, but it turned out to be too firmly integrated into China. As a result, the Chinese provinces of Suiyuan , Chahar and Jehol were established in Inner Mongolia in 1913/14 . In the course of the conquest of Manchuria by the Japanese , the puppet state of Manchukuo emerged in 1931 , in the following year the autonomous region Mengjiang with the capital Kalgan was formed from Chahar and Suiyuan under the native Mongolian prince Demchugdongrub . Contrary to what the spiritual and political leadership of the Mongols had hoped, the Japanese did not support a possible separation of Inner Mongolia from China; they only instrumentalized the Mongols with the aim of weakening the young Republic of China .

The surrender of Japan in 1945 created a power vacuum in Inner Mongolia, which Soviet, Mongolian and Communist units filled from Manchuria. Although the Mongols of Inner Mongolia were largely in favor of a unified Mongolian state from what was then the Mongolian People's Republic and what is now Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia remained a part of China because the government of the Mongolian People's Republic renounced unification in view of the large Han Chinese minority.

The Mongolian communists succeeded in establishing a communist regime before the People's Liberation Army was victorious in the Chinese civil war . Therefore, even before the proclamation of the People's Republic of China on May 1, 1947, Inner Mongolia was established as an autonomous region under Ulanhu , following the Soviet model of minority policy . The integration of Inner Mongolia into the People's Republic of China was therefore much smoother than the integration of Tibet or Xinjiang . Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, autonomy has been primarily of a symbolic nature: power lies with the Communist Party, the government of the autonomous region, in which the Mongols are involved, is subordinate to the party. It initially consisted of parts of Chahar (without Kalgan) and western Manchuria (formerly Xing'an, Liaobei ) with the capital Ulanhot . 1952–55 came Suiyuan, Alxa (formerly Ningsia) and deer and other parts of Manchuria; Hohhot became the capital in 1952.

See also: Purge of Inner Mongolia

During the Cultural Revolution , parts of Inner Mongolia were added to other provinces. Numerous Mongolian party officials were removed from the Communist Party and agriculture was forcibly collectivized. These measures were largely reversed without further explanation after the end of the Cultural Revolution.


Mongolian signage at KFC in the regional capital Hohhot , 2007

At the end of 2015, a resident population of 25.11 million was estimated, of which 15.14 million were urban and 9.97 million were rural. Contrary to what the name suggests, less than 20% of the population belong to the Mongolian ethnic group . The Mongols make up the majority in only a few banners .

Ethnic classification

Ethnic population in Inner Mongolia
Ethnicity Residents proportion of
Han 18,465,586 79.17%
Mongols 3,995,349 17.13%
Manchu 499.911 2.14%
Hui 209,850 0.9%
Daur 77,188 0.33%
Evenks 26,201 0.11%
Korean 21,859 0.09%
Russians 5,020 0.02%
Oroqen 3,573 0.015%
Xibe 3,023 0.01%
Others 15,787 0.085%

Status of the table: 2000

The migration of Han Chinese to what is now Inner Mongolia began in the 19th century, so that around 1.5 million Chinese were estimated to be in Mongolia by 1912. The fall of the Qing Dynasty and the proclamation of the Republic of China led to increased immigration of Han Chinese - in 1937 it was estimated that 4 million Han were in Inner Mongolia. The Han were now also allowed to buy land. When the People's Republic of China was founded, around 5 million Han lived in Inner Mongolia. The settlement of Chinese was promoted by the central government for several reasons: There are significant deposits of mineral resources such as coal , iron ore , aluminum and uranium , which were already exploited before the People's Republic was proclaimed. From the 1950s onwards, the development of heavy industry was mainly promoted in Baotou - for this reason, the large cities of Inner Mongolia have only very small proportions of Mongolian populations and they are no different from other Chinese cities. In addition, there was the rift between China and the Soviet Union , making Inner Mongolia a border area that had to be defended in the event of a Soviet attack, which was seriously feared at the time. Inner Mongolia's climate is similar to that of Beijing and other northern Chinese cities, so Chinese settlers willingly moved to Inner Mongolia.

There is always tension between the Mongols, who have always been nomads and cattle breeders throughout their history, and the Chinese. The party and government always emphasize that the tensions are by no means ethnic, but economic. The tensions are often rooted in conflicts over land use - the booming Chinese-dominated mining of coal, ores, copper and rare earths is destroying large areas of pasture on which Mongolian ranchers depend economically. Protests on the part of the Mongols therefore occur again and again; the unrest in Inner Mongolia in 2011 recently caused the most sensation. In April 2012, 22 Mongolian protesters were arrested in Naiman , demonstrating against the illegal appropriation of pasture land by a Chinese-run forestry company. In the spring of 2016, a metallurgical plant in Zalantun polluted pastureland, killing numerous sheep. When the herders protested, there were numerous arrests. In June 2016, a protest was held in Xilin Gol against road construction on pastureland. In July 2016, protests were held against the expropriation of agricultural land, and in August against evictions in Xin Bulag ( Xianghuang banner ). In December 2016, residents in Ulanhot protested against the order that the kindergartens were no longer allowed to speak Mongolian, but only Chinese. Clashes broke out in June 2017 when immigrants from Shaanxi Province tried to set up a cattle ranch on communal grazing land in the Right Bairin banner . The Communist Party has set itself the goal of persuading the Mongols to give up their nomadic way of life and switch to modern agriculture. Under the pretext of avoiding overgrazing and soil erosion , hundreds of thousands of shepherds have been forcibly resettled, mostly in urban areas, where they lead unsatisfactory lives as unskilled workers in Chinese-dominated companies and increasingly lose their identity.

The bilingualism required by law in the autonomous regions is in fact not observed in public and business life. Mongolians and members of other minorities who do not have a sufficient command of the Chinese language are seriously disadvantaged as a result.

There have been Mongolian separatist organizations such as the South Mongolian Democratic Alliance or the People's Party of Inner Mongolia since the 1950s, but they have never been able to develop an effect like the separatists in Xinjiang or Tibet . The leaders of these organizations, such as Hada and Govruud Huuchinhuu , have been repeatedly arrested and sentenced to long prison terms. But even Mongolian organizations that are not politically but only culturally involved are under close scrutiny by the authorities and the party. In addition, the Mongolian ethnic awareness is weak in both Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, and Inner Mongolia is economically stronger than the Republic of Mongolia, although the Han Chinese benefit more from economic development. The demonstrations, which in the 1990s repeatedly called for the right to join Mongolia, were not sponsored by Mongolia.

Population development Population development in the province since 1954.

year population
1954 census 6.100.104
1964 census 12,348,638
1982 census 19.274.279
1990 census 21,456,518
2000 census 23,323,347
2010 census 24,706,291
Guess 2016 25,200,000


Raw material deposits, etc. a. Coal , natural gas and rare earths make the province one of the richest in China. Inner Mongolia's growth rates have remained constant in the double-digit range in recent years and are among the highest in the country.

In 2015, the province had a GDP of 1.80 trillion yuan (289 billion US dollars), ranking 16th among the provinces of China. The GDP per capita was 74,069 yuan (US $ 11,152 / PPP: US $ 21,327) per year (ranked 6th among the Chinese provinces). The level of prosperity in the province was 137% of the Chinese average.


Web links

Commons : Inner Mongolia  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
  1. a b c d e f g 内蒙古自治区 概况. In:行政 区划 网, September 8, 2016, accessed on August 20, 2018 (Chinese).
  2. a b Klemens Ludwig: Multi-ethnic China: the national minorities in the Middle Kingdom . Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59209-6 , pp. 134 .
  3. Nei Menggu - Inner Mongolia (China): Autonomous Region, Cities & Counties - Population Statistics, Maps, Graphics, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved December 11, 2017 .
  4. a b c d e f Klemens Ludwig : Multi-ethnic China: the national minorities in the Middle Kingdom . Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59209-6 , pp. 129 .
  5. a b c d e Michael Dillon : Lesser dragons: minority peoples of China . Reaction Books, London 2018, ISBN 978-1-78023-911-8 , pp. 118 .
  6. a b c d e Michael Dillon: Lesser dragons: minority peoples of China . Reaction Books, London 2018, ISBN 978-1-78023-911-8 , pp. 119 .
  7. Klemens Ludwig: Multi-ethnic China: the national minorities in the Middle Kingdom . Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59209-6 , pp. 130 .
  8. a b Klemens Ludwig: Multi-ethnic China: the national minorities in the Middle Kingdom . Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59209-6 , pp. 133 .
  9. Michael Dillon: Lesser dragons: minority peoples of China . Reaction Books, London 2018, ISBN 978-1-78023-911-8 , pp. 131 ff .
  10. Michael Dillon: Lesser dragons: minority peoples of China . Reaction Books, London 2018, ISBN 978-1-78023-911-8 , pp. 125 .
  11. ^ A b Michael Dillon: Lesser dragons: minority peoples of China . Reaction Books, London 2018, ISBN 978-1-78023-911-8 , pp. 124 .
  12. Klemens Ludwig: Multi-ethnic China: the national minorities in the Middle Kingdom . Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59209-6 , pp. 132 .
  13. Michael Dillon: Lesser dragons: minority peoples of China . Reaction Books, London 2018, ISBN 978-1-78023-911-8 , pp. 132 .
  14. China: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather, and Web Information. Retrieved May 7, 2018 .
  15. : [1]
  16. (English original: The Wolf Tuteng . Chang Jiang Culture and Art Publishing House). Goldmann Verlag , 2010. Translated from the Chinese by Karin Hasselblatt. ISBN 978-3-442-47395-3
  17. Die Berliner Literaturkritik , August 18, 2009: Annaud filmed "Anger of the Wolves"
  18. China Internet Information Center (CIIC), September 2, 2014: Wild epic "The Wrath of the Wolves" with Oscar ambitions
  19. ^ Dpa, Andreas Landwehr , February 9, 2015: Director Annaud and the beauty of nature

Coordinates: 43 ° 39 '  N , 115 ° 40'  E