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海南 省
Hǎinán Shěng
Abbreviation : ( Pinyin : Qióng)
Capital Haikou

 - Total
 - share in the

Rank 28 out of 33

33,920 km²


 - Total 2010
 - density

Rank 28 out of 33

8,640,000 inhabitants
232 inhabitants / km²

Management type province
governor Shen Xiaoming
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About this picture
ISO-3166-2 code CN-HI
District level 4 cities
District level 6 autonomous counties, 5 cities, 4 counties, 8 urban districts
Community level 183 large municipalities, 21 municipalities, 18 street districts, 3 hypothetical large municipalities
Administrative area of ​​the Hainan Province (in Chinese version) - sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is not recognized by other states

Hainan ( Chinese  海南 省 , Pinyin Hǎinán Shěng ) Pronunciation ? / i has been a province in the south of the People's Republic of China since 1988 , which consists of various islands. Previously, the southernmost province of the People's Republic was an administrative part of Guangdong Province (Canton). The largest of the islands is also called Hainan . The term “Hawaii of China” is often used in connection with Hainan. Audio file / audio sample


The island of Hainan ( 海南島  /  海南岛 , Hǎinán Dǎo ) is located in the South China Sea and is separated from mainland China by the approximately 15 to 30 km wide and average 44 m deep Hainan Strait (Strait of Qiongzhou) and is - to Taiwan - with 34,380 km² the second largest island in the Chinese-influenced world and the largest in the People's Republic of China. The capital is Haikou .


Hainan has a tropical climate all year round. The temperature differences that occur there over the course of the year are rather small. While the temperature fluctuates between 25 degrees Celsius and 32 degrees Celsius on average from May to September, it varies between 15 degrees Celsius and 21 degrees Celsius from November to February. The months June to September are the rainiest months with around nine rainy days per month. The rest of the time, it rains about one to five days a month.


Hainan was annexed to the Chinese empire as early as the time of the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD). Under General Lu Bode ( 路博德 ) the southern Chinese coastline was pacified. This fell in 110 BC. Also Hainan. For a long time the island was part of the Chinese province of Guangdong . From 1939 to 1945 Hainan was occupied by the Japanese. At the end of the Chinese Civil War in May 1950, the island was conquered by the communists. This ended the last major fighting of the Chinese Civil War. In April 1988, Hainan became an independent province and at the same time China's largest special economic zone. Since the People's Republic of China does not recognize the island of Taiwan as an independent state, Hainan is thus listed as the second largest island in the People's Republic of China, with a size only slightly smaller than Taiwan.

Administrative structure

District level

There are four prefecture -level cities in Hainan Province, the capital Haikou ( 海口 市 ) in the north, the city Danzhou ( 儋州市 ) in the northwest , the city Sanya ( 三亞 市  /  三亚 市 ) in the south and the city Sansha ( 三 沙市 ) on the islands in the South China Sea. While Haikou and Sanya are made up of four boroughs at the county level , Danzhou and Sansha have no further subdivisions at the county level. Shen Xiaoming has been the governor since May 2017 .

District level

Except for the eight districts of Haikous and Sanyas, all other administrative units at the county level are directly subordinate to the provincial government. There are five independent cities, four districts, and six autonomous districts:

Biggest cities

The ten largest cities in the province with the actual urban settlement population as of the 2010 census are as follows:

rank city population rank city population
1 Haikou 1,517,410 6th Qionghai 194,400
2 Sanya 453.819 7th Chengmai 184.266
3 Danzhou 418.834 8th Lingao 155,595
4th Wenchang 251,795 9 Dongfang 153,726
5 Wanning 221.263 10 Ledong 132,625


In 2008, Hainan's population was 8,647,300. 7,139,531 of these belonged to the Han Chinese and 1,507,721 to minorities, who can be broken down as follows:

Because of female fetal abortions ( sex-selective abortion ), more than 130 boys are born for every 100 girls in Hainan. In 2013 the average life expectancy was 76.3 years.


When Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang went to Hainan in 1983, he was appalled. He thought that the poorest regions in the world were in Africa. In 1988, Hainan became an independent province and China's largest special economic zone . With the status of a special economic zone, Hainan was to be made particularly interesting for foreign business people and investors. The generous freedoms were supposed to initiate a kind of “start from scratch” economically, but they also created a playground for corruption .

Since Hainan was designated a special economic zone in 1988, its economy has grown steadily. Today the island is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China. Agriculture is the second largest economic factor after tourism. In addition to coffee, bananas, oranges, pineapples, coconut, pepper, cashews and peanuts, numerous other subtropical fruits are important for the agricultural trade. In addition, pearls , fish, chickens and ducks are farmed. Furthermore, industries in the electrical and pharmaceutical sector, in the textile sector and the automotive industry (Hainan Mazda Motor Company "Haiman") are developing. Hainan has natural gas and oil reserves in its sea areas, the exploitation of which is being promoted. One of the largest paper mills in China is also located on Hainan, operated by Asia Pulp and Paper Co. (APP). The Changjiang Nuclear Power Plant on the west coast of Changjiang Autonomous County has been in operation since 2015 .

For the 20th anniversary in 2008, Beijing announced a new three-year plan for the island. After that, its development into an international contact point for cargo handling, trade and tourism is to be promoted. This also includes the establishment of free trade zones (duty free shops) on Hainan and the expansion of the port of Yangpu on the west coast of the island into a free trade port.

In 2015, the province had a GDP of 370 billion yuan (59 billion US dollars), ranking 28th among the provinces of China. The GDP per capita was 44,252 yuan (6,662 US dollars / PPP : 12,742 US dollars) per year (ranking 17th among the Chinese provinces). The level of prosperity in the province was roughly on par with Peru and was 82% of the Chinese average.

Military sites

In the south of Hainan is the important Sanya naval base , which became known to a wider public at the end of April 2008. In addition, the island is home to a number of air force bases and is - not least because of its strategic location near important sea ​​trade routes - an important location for the electronic reconnaissance of the People's Liberation Army .

In addition, there are powerful radio jammers operated by the government in the province , whose shortwave interference emissions , which contradict the agreements within the framework of the International Telecommunications Union , can be received worldwide under favorable atmospheric conditions.

Space travel

After many years of feasibility studies, the Chinese State Council decided in autumn 2007 to build a new space center near Wenchang on Hainan ( see: Wenchang Cosmodrome ), which local politicians have long been vehemently advocated for, primarily for economic reasons. The foundation stone was laid on September 14, 2009. Geostationary satellites , space probes and satellites are to be launched from the eleven square kilometers area . The planned heavy-duty missile Langer Marsch 5 is also to be used. In addition, it plans to set up an in Wenchang theme parks for air and space travel . The asteroid (3024) Hainan , discovered on October 23, 1981, has borne the name of the then newly founded province since 1989.


Beach on Hainan, 2007

While the island used to be an exile for disgraced Chinese public servants and later mainly backpackers came, Hainan has been gaining in renown for several years and is now the People's Republic's most famous tourist paradise worldwide.

Sanya in particular is becoming increasingly popular as a holiday destination. According to local government statistics, around 500,000 foreign tourists came to Sanya in 2007, an increase of 30 percent over the previous year. Due to the rapid development of tourism, the hotel and real estate industries are also booming . In spring 2008, construction work on a luxury hotel and a marina was in progress. Due to a special decree by the Chinese central government, tourists from 21 countries and regions are now allowed to enter Hainan without a visa . The Phoenix International Airport in Sanya offers an increasing number of tourist charter flights to. In the area of ​​the Lingshui der Li Autonomous County , near Sanya, is the Nanwan Monkey Island Nature Reserve for rhesus monkeys , a very popular tourist destination.

Hainan is also called the " Hawaii of China". There are more than twenty golf courses available on the island. The annual meeting of the presidents of the East Asian states takes place in the Boa Dorum in Qionghai.

The capital of Hainan Province is the city of Haikou . The city is also known as Coconut City and has interesting historical sights and an important port for the province. The so-called " Temple of the Five Officials " consists of five traditional temples and halls, which were built in honor of five officials of the Tang Dynasty (618–907) and the Song Dynasty (960–1279). The officials were exiled to Hainan for a period of 11 days to 11 years for contradicting the emperor.

The tomb of Hai Rui ( 海瑞墓 , Hǎi Ruì Mù ) is a national cultural monument and dates back to 1589. The tomb was built to commemorate the many good things Hai Rui did during his life and is located in the southwest of the city of Haikou . Hai Rui was a very popular official of Hainan origin who lived during the Ming Dynasty . He was famous for his lifelong honesty and willingness to stand up for the local people. He later fell out of favor with the emperor and was persecuted.

Xiuying-Barbette Fortress was built in 1891 to defend southeast China during the Sino-French War. The five large cannons on the fortress are still intact and can be viewed. The fort is located on Haixiu Street in the Xiuying District of Haikou.

Hainan Island has many beaches and hot springs as well. Some very beautiful scenic areas are the seaside resort of Yalong Bay (near Sanya); the seaside resort of Dadonghai (near Sanya); Qizhi Shan (Seven Fingers Mountain), Guantang Hot Spring (in Qionghai ), Shishan Volcanic Garden; the Baishi and Baihua ridge, Wanquan River. The Wanquan River has its source on Wuzhi Mountain and is the third largest river in Hainan with a length of 163 km. Lush trees and palm trees grow on its upper and lower reaches. The section in Qionghai has been developed into a tourist area.

Other attractions include the Qiong Opera House and Yalong Bay ( 亞龍灣  /  亚龙湾 , Yalong Wan ), a 7 km long beach east of Sanya.


  • Burkhard Eiswaldt: Hainan Island: China's largest special economic zone . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009, ISBN 978-3-8370-8839-7 .
  • Burkhard Eiswaldt: Hainan Island: From Qiong State to Free Trade Zone - China's largest special economic zone . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009, ISBN 978-3-8391-2088-0 .

Web links

Commons : Hainan  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. Thomas Gross, dpa : Tropical island Hainan: Hawaii in Chinese. In: Spiegel Online . September 3, 2009, accessed December 31, 2016 .
  2. Hainan - Tropical Destination for a Vacation in China. In: www.e-mondo.online. Retrieved November 28, 2018 (climate in Hainan and Sanya).
  3. a b c Burkhard Eiswaldt: Hainan Island - China's largest special economic zone. 2009, ISBN 978-3-8370-8839-7 .
  4. Shen Xiaoming re-elected governor of Hainan. In: enfaohn.hainan.gov.cn. February 5, 2018, accessed June 2, 2020 .
  5. Hainan (China): Province, Cities & Counties - Population Statistics, Maps, Graphics, Weather and Web Information. In: http://www.citypopulation.de . Retrieved May 10, 2018 .
  6. 中国 统计 年鉴 -2013 - Statistical Yearbook China – 2013. In: www.stats.gov.cn. Retrieved May 10, 2018 .
  7. China's largest special economic zone celebrates 20th anniversary ( Memento from May 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In: China Military Online, April 27, 2008
  8. ^ National Data. In: www.stats.gov.cn. Accessed December 4, 2017 .
  9. Fighting the Chinese Government Fire Dragon - Music Jammer. ( pdf file, 100kB) DARC, accessed on September 11, 2017 .
  10. Xiong Tong (editor): China begins space center construction in southern island of Hainan. Xinhua , September 14, 2009; archived from the original on September 23, 2009 ; accessed on January 5, 2020 (English).
  11. Günther Glatzel: Long March 5 and Wenchang starting area - March 7th, 2008 - development delay and construction will start soon. In: china.raumfahrer.net. March 7, 2008, accessed January 5, 2020 .
  12. The Minor Planet Circular - MPC 14977. ( pdf file, 296kB) In: www.minorplanetcenter.net. September 15, 1989, accessed January 5, 2020 .
  13. Sanya - vacation paradise on the island of Hainan. In: CRI . April 22, 2008, accessed January 5, 2020 .
  14. Tom Chesshyre: Heard of Hainan? You will, you will… In: The Sunday Times . August 31, 2005, accessed January 5, 2020 .
  15. China - Hainan Island - Best Golf Courses on Hainan Island. In: www.where2golf.com. Retrieved January 5, 2020 .

Coordinates: 19 ° 6 '  N , 109 ° 34'  E