International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
ITU building in Geneva
|Organization type||Specialized agency|
|Abbreviation||ITU, UIT, МСЭ ( MSE )|
Houlin Zhao People's Republic of China
|Founded||May 17, 1865|
|Upper organization||United Nations|
The International Telecommunication Union ( English International Telecommunication Union , ITU , Spanish and French acronym UIT ; German and world news Association ) based in Geneva, is a specialized agency of the United Nations and the only organization that officially and worldwide with technical aspects of telecommunications deals. She is the organizer of the World Radiocommunication Conference (Engl. World Radiocommunication Conference , WRC ), the ITU Radio Regulations (Engl. Radio Regulations , RR perpetuate) and the World Conference on international telecommunications ( World Conference on International Telecommunications , WCIT ), the Rules of Procedure for International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR).
The ITU goes back to the International Telegraph Association founded on May 17, 1865, making it the second oldest international organization after the International Committee of the Red Cross founded in 1863 . Today, as a UN specialized agency, it has 191 member states . Your foundation day was from 1969 to 2006 annually as World Telecommunication Day (Engl. Or World Communications World Telecommunication Day ) appreciated. After the General Assembly of the United Nations decided in March 2006 to celebrate May 17th as World Information Society Day , the Conference of Plenipotentiaries at the ITU decided in November 2006, henceforth May 17th World Day of communications and information society (engl. World Telecommunication and information society Day , WTISD ) to celebrate.
The goals of the ITU are coordination and promotion of international cooperation in the communications sector through:
- International regulations for the use of frequencies
- International assignment and registration of transmission and reception frequencies
- International call sign block assignment , the ITU prefix
- Coordinating the development of telecommunications equipment
- Coordination of efforts to handle faults in international radio traffic
- Agreements on performance guarantees and fees
State governments, private sector companies and other regional and national organizations work together in this framework. The basis of the ITU is the constitution and convention of the International Telecommunication Union ( Geneva 1992), which defines the tasks, rights and duties of the ITU organs.
The official and working languages of the ITU are Arabic , Chinese , English , French , Russian and Spanish , with the French wording being authoritative in cases of dispute or doubt. Accordingly, the Union also has six different names under which it publishes documents.
The superordinate bodies of the ITU, the Plenipotentiary Conference and the World Conference work on general principles and general conventions. The ITU study groups, on the other hand, do the real work: They work on technical issues that they discuss in regular meetings. The results are published as recommendations and only have the character of standards when they have been adopted by normative organizations such as ISO , ANSI or ETSI or by national regulatory authorities such as the Federal Network Agency in Germany . The ITU-T's cooperation with forums and consortia is regulated in particular in Recommendations A.4, A.5, A.6 and A.23 (together with A.23, Annex A).
ITU organizes the ITU Telecom trade fairs , with world fairs since 1971 and regional fairs in Asia, Africa and Latin America since 1985.
Structure of the ITU
The ITU is divided into
- ITU-D (Telecommunication Development Sector)
- ITU-R (Radiocommunication Sector), formerly Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommunications (CCIR)
- ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector), founded on March 1, 1993, formerly CCITT
The ITU-R sector is responsible for technical and operational issues, especially regarding radio communication, to carry out studies and to issue recommendations, without any restrictions on the frequency ranges. The responsibility of this sector includes the areas of space radio services, terrestrial radio services and the regulations for radio services (VO radio), including the associated study groups.
- For more information see also
Most of the standards (strictly speaking “recommendations”) are adopted within the ITU by the ITU ‑ T ( Telecommunication Standardization Sector ). In contrast to national standards such as DIN, RS or ANSI, these recommendations are recognized worldwide.
The areas of the ITU-T are:
- A Organization of the Work of ITU-T
- B Means of expression: definitions, symbols, classification
- C General telecommunication statistics
- D General tariff principles
- E Overall network operation, telephone service, service operation and human factors
- F Non-telephone telecommunication services
- G Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks
- H Audiovisual and multimedia systems
- I Integrated services digital network
- J Cable networks and transmission of television, sound programs and other multimedia signals
- K Protection against interference
- L Construction, installation and protection of cables and other elements of outside plant
- M TMN and network maintenance: international transmission systems, telephone circuits, telegraphy, facsimile and leased circuits
- N Maintenance: international sound programs and television transmission circuits
- O Specifications of measuring equipment
- P Telephone transmission quality, telephone installations, local line networks
- Q Switching and signaling
- R Telegraph transmission
- S Telegraph services terminal equipment
- T Terminals for telematic services
- U Telegraph switching
- V data communication over the telephone network
- X Data networks and open system communications
- Y Global information infrastructure and Internet protocol aspects
- Z Languages and general software aspects for telecommunication systems
Recommendations are marked with a letter for the area, a period and a number. Similar versions are e.g. B. marked by a trailing “to” or “ter”. Well-known examples of ITU-T recommendations are V.24 (interface lines for data transmission), JPEG (image compression), H.264 (video compression) or E.164 (international telephone numbering scheme).
These recommendations were originally published after the end of a study period (every four years) in individual volumes, sorted by topic and assignment to study groups; all volumes were the same color. The unofficial linguistic usage therefore uses the terms “Yellow Book” (1972–1976), “Orange Book” (1976–1980), “Red Book” (1981–1984) and “Blue Book” (1985–1988). Thereafter, the recommendations were published individually, at the earliest after two consecutive plenary meetings of the responsible study group (usually nine months). The recommendations are currently published either according to the TAP (Traditional Approval Process) or the AAP (Alternative Approval Process). The TAP procedure (after two consecutive plenary sessions) is used if regulatory aspects are also involved in addition to technical issues. The AAP procedure is used for purely technical recommendations; publication is then already possible after four weeks (after the plenary meeting of the relevant study group).
Directors and General Secretaries of the ITU
|Directors of the ITU|
|Surname||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires||country|
|Louis Curchod||January 1, 1869||May 24, 1872||Switzerland|
|Karl Lendi||May 24, 1872||January 12, 1873||Switzerland|
|Louis Curchod||February 23, 1873||October 18, 1889||Switzerland|
|August Frey||February 25, 1890||June 28, 1890||Switzerland|
|Timotheus Rothen||November 25, 1890||February 11, 1897||Switzerland|
|Emil Frey||March 11, 1897||August 1, 1921||Switzerland|
|Henri Etienne||August 2, 1921||December 16, 1927||Switzerland|
|Joseph Raber||February 1, 1928||October 30, 1934||Switzerland|
|Franz von Ernst||January 1, 1935||December 31, 1949||Switzerland|
|General Secretaries of the ITU|
|Léon Mulatier||January 1, 1950||December 31, 1953||France|
|Marco Aurelio Andrada||January 1, 1954||June 18, 1958||Argentina|
|Gerald C. Gross||January 1, 1960||October 29, 1965||United States|
|Manohar Balaji Sarwate||October 30, 1965||19th February 1967||India|
|Mohamed Ezzedine Mili||February 20, 1967||December 31, 1982||Tunisia|
|Richard E. Butler||January 1, 1983||October 31, 1989||Australia|
|Pekka Tarjanne||November 1, 1989||January 31, 1999||Finland|
|Yoshio Utsumi||February 1, 1999||December 31, 2006||Japan|
|Hamadoun Touré||January 1, 2007||December 31, 2014||Mali|
|Houlin Zhao||January 1, 2015||People's Republic of China|
- Christian Henrich-Franke: Global regulatory problems in a historical perspective: The fall of the radio frequency spectrum 1945–1988 . Baden-Baden 2006, ISBN 3-8329-1799-3 .
- Peter Cowhey: The international telecommunications regime: The political roots of regimes for high technology . In: International Organization . 1990, pp. 169-199.
- Andreas Tegge: The International Telecommunications Union - Organization and function of a world organization in transition . Baden-Baden 1994, ISBN 3-7890-3230-1 .
- George Codding, Anthony Rutkowski: The International Telecommunication Union in a Changing World . Washington 1982, ISBN 0-89006-113-0 .
- Office of the Secretary-General. Retrieved April 16, 2016 .
- ITU page on WTISD. Retrieved December 18, 2012 .
- INTERNATIONAL REMOTE COMMUNICATION CONTRACT, NAIROBI, 1982 ; 1984 German translation; Publisher BMPT, Bonn; … BMV, General Directorate PT, Vienna; Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Vaduz; General Directorate Switzerland PTT, Bern; Article 11, paragraph: 83.
- pressinfo: Biography of the Secretary-General Yoshio Utsumi. In: www.itu.int. Retrieved June 9, 2016 .
- Biography - Hamadoun Touré. In: ITU. Retrieved June 9, 2016 .
- Biography - Houlin Zhao. In: ITU. Retrieved April 16, 2016 .