|International Business Machines Corporation
|founding||June 16, 1911|
Armonk , New York , United States
|management||Arvind Krishna ( CEO )|
|Number of employees||352,600 (2019)|
|sales||77,150,000,000 USD (2019)|
|Branch||Information technology , advice|
|As of February 25, 2020|
The International Business Machines Corporation ( IBM ) is a publicly traded US-based IT - and consulting company based in Armonk in the state of New York . IBM is one of the world's leading companies for hardware , software and services in the IT sector and one of the largest consulting firms. In 2019, IBM employed more than 300,000 people worldwide. In Germany, the American Chamber of Commerce in Germany estimated the number at 16,500 in 2015.
IBM goes back to the predecessor company Tabulating Machine Company founded by Herman Hollerith in December 1896 . At that time, this company manufactured the machines developed by Herman Hollerith for counting and recording data entered via punch cards . This also included machines for counting ballots in elections in the United States. However, IBM stopped producing such machines after the manufacturers were held liable for votes not counted by their machines.
In June 1911, under the name “ Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company ” (CTR) Incorporated in Endicott, NY, USA, the companies “International Time Recording Company” and “Computing Scale Corporation” were merged with the “Tabulating Machine Company”. The new company, which employed 1,300 people, specialized in punch cards, commercial scales and clocks.
Thomas J. Watson became head of the “Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company” in 1914 and headed IBM until 1955. He shaped a special corporate culture with a strong sales orientation. Great emphasis was placed on the absolute loyalty of the employees. In February 1924 the company was renamed "International Business Machines Corporation", or IBM for short, as a large part of the product range now consisted of machines for use in companies, such as punchers , testers , punch card sorters , mixers and various tabulating machines . As a rule, these were not sold but rented out. IBM had a monopoly-like position worldwide in the field of standardized punch cards and their evaluation.
In Germany, IBM was represented by the profitable subsidiary DEHOMAG until 1949 . In 1943 Watson is said to have said the following memorable sentence: “ I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. ”(“ I think there is a market for maybe five computers worldwide. ”) Author Kevin Maney tried to trace the origin of this quote, but was unable to find any reference to it in Watson's speech or in any other document. During the Nazi era , the company also delivered billions of punched cards to its German subsidiary DEHOMAG, which were used, among other things, to organize the registration of Jewish citizens and the Holocaust more efficiently on behalf of the Nazi regime .
IBM developed one of the first electrical systems for simultaneous interpreting with microphones , mixers and headphones . First used in 1945 at the United Nations Headquarters in Geneva , it was used at the Nuremberg Trials in 1946 . The headphones used during the negotiations, which the accused Nazi criminals in particular wore, were often shown in photos.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, the models 701 and 1401 were the first computers and the associated peripherals in the form of magnetic disk and drum storage devices such as the IBM 305 RAMAC and tape stations and printers. In June 1960 the first transistor-based programmable logic computer from IBM came with the 7070 series .
A large area of business in the 1960s were electric typewriters , especially models with a ball head , which were first offered by IBM. In 1964/65 a new generation of mainframe computers, the S / 360 , came onto the market. The underlying architecture has been further developed in the S / 370 , S / 390 , zSeries, System z , Z Systems and currently IBM Z models . At the same time, the OS / 360 operating system was further developed into the current z / OS via OS / VS1 , MVS / 370 , MVS / XA , MVS / ESA and OS / 390 . For medium to large computer models there was / is the DOS for S / 360, which was further developed from S / 370 via DOS / VS , DOS / VSE to z / VSE . The system / 3 was introduced in 1969 as a low-end computer and sold until 1985. What was new here was the smaller punch card format with a third the size of conventional punch cards, which, however, could store more data with 96 instead of 80 characters.
In 1975 the first "portable" computer, the IBM 5100 , came onto the market with a weight of 25 kilograms, 16 KByte RAM, BASIC, 16 × 64 character display and tape memory. The calculator also failed because of its high price of over $ 9,000 . As a response to the very successful Apple II , IBM brought the first IBM PC onto the market in 1981 . The computer was assembled from standard components freely available on the market and IBM pursued the principle of compatibility. This made it possible for the first time to use software on successor models. The high price of the PC (the equivalent of almost € 5,000) quickly brought competitors onto the market with cheaper offers, who could offer "IBM-compatible" computers thanks to the open hardware standard. In the 1990s, IBM lost its market leadership to its competitors. The principle of compatibility and the open hardware standard characterize the PC industry to this day.
The work at the IBM research laboratory in Zurich has resulted in two Nobel Prizes for Physics. The winners are Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer for the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1986, and in 1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller for the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity . With Leo Esaki another Nobel Prize winner worked for the IBM research for a time . In 1990 IBM employed 373,820 people worldwide.
In response to changing customer needs, especially for mainframes, the company has been significantly restructured since the 1990s: The proportion of consulting and services has been greatly increased, organizationally combined and most recently further in terms of content and personnel through the acquisition of PwC Consulting with around 30,000 employees worldwide in October 2002 expanded. From 1992 to 2008 there was a subsidiary, SerCon GmbH, which developed and supported service concepts. With the takeover of PwC Consulting, all consulting areas were organizationally combined in IBM. This business unit is now called IBM Global Business Services . IBM sees itself as a globally integrated business and technology partner. In addition to hardware and software solutions, a wide range of consulting and implementation services as well as financing is offered. From 1992 to 2004, IBM also sold notebooks, the ThinkPads .
In February 2001, the American author Edwin Black published the book IBM and the Holocaust . In this he accuses IBM of having worked with the National Socialist regime through its subsidiary DEHOMAG from 1933 to 1945, which made the Holocaust logistically possible with the delivery of Hollerith computers and punch card technology. Before that, IBM Deutschland GmbH had already joined the Compensation Fund for Nazi Forced Laborers . Lawsuits by GIRCA , the Gypsy International Recognition and Compensation Action , against IBM have been dismissed by Swiss courts for lack of jurisdiction - Geneva was not the seat of IBM between 1933 and 1945 - and the statute of limitations.
From March 2002 to December 2011, Samuel J. Palmisano was CEO of IBM. Sam Palmisano succeeded Louis Gerstner, Jr. , who was CEO from 1993 to 2002. With Louis Gerstner Jr., the post of CEO was for the first time not filled by a dedicated employee. Palmisano's successor as CEO and President on January 1, 2012 was Virginia Rometty - she was the first woman to take over the management of IBM.
In December 2004, IBM decided to exit the PC business and sold the PC division, including the ThinkPads, to the Chinese computer manufacturer Lenovo on May 1, 2005 for 1.75 billion US dollars . IBM expressed itself in a press release on the strategic importance of the sale of the PC division to Lenovo: IBM wants to concentrate in the future above all on more mobile devices. The PC era is drawing to a close, the company's focus is shifting to the area of mobile web services . Before that, the hard drive division was sold to Hitachi .
In 2006, IBM had 355,766 employees in 170 countries worldwide, sales of $ 91.4 billion and net income of $ 9.4 billion. According to a report in the Wall Street Journal in March 2009, IBM planned to acquire Sun Microsystems for $ 6.5 billion. The deal did not materialize and Sun was bought by Oracle instead . In 2010, for the eighteenth year in a row, IBM was the company with the most patent applications worldwide and was able to increase its own record with 5896 patents.
In 2017, IBM entered into a partnership with the Indian service provider HCL. In November 2018, IBM sold Lotus’s leftover products to HCL for an estimated $ 1.8 billion. In October 2018, the takeover of the Linux distribution provider Red Hat for 30 billion euros was announced.
- IBM Global Business Services, renaming of the consulting branch after the takeover of PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting
With consultants in over 170 countries, IBM Global Business Services , GBS, is the largest management consultancy in the world. It forms an area within IBM Global Services (see below). Around 80,000 consultants support companies from almost 20 industries, including medium-sized companies. The consulting topics range from strategy consulting to supply chain management , financial management, customer relationship management to personnel management and application management. The services and consulting business accounts for $ 48.3 billion (2006), half of IBM's total sales.
- IBM Systems and Technology Group (STG)
The IBM STG is responsible for the development and distribution of IT infrastructure solutions with IBM System servers, System Storage and POS systems.
- System i is often used as an integrated computer system in medium-sized companies. It is the successor to the AS / 400 , which is also known under its later name iSeries .
- System p is the Unix-based system for high computing requirements and high reliability. The System i and System p form the Power Systems family, which was created from the merger of pSeries and iSeries in May 2008.
- System x were the Intel / AMD-based systems from IBM. In this class, BladeCenter comprised the family of IBM blade server systems in contrast to the other 19-inch systems of the System x. In the meantime, the System x family has partly merged into PureSystems and partly sold to Lenovo.
- System z are the mainframe systems . They are the successors of the S / 360, S / 370, S / 390 and zSeries systems.
- PureSystems is a preconfigured solution made of combined hardware and software, not entirely dissimilar to the AS / 400 . It offers data center components for private cloud computing .
In addition to the hardware-optimized operating systems, different Linux distributions are still available on all systems.
IBM System Storage solutions include: a. the disk subsystems DS300 / DS400 (low-end, old models), as well as N3 / 6/7000 (low-end / mid-range / high-end NAS ) and DS3000 entry-level disk storage, DS5000 (mid-range, successor to the DS4000 series), Storwize V7000 , DS6000 (discontinued), DS8000 and XIV (both high-end) as well as the tape systems 3590, TS1120 or VTS, and SAN infrastructure and virtualization components (SAN Volume Controller, SVC), as well as deduplication solutions around Diligent (ProtecTIER) and further software and service components.
Retail store solutions include point-of-sale and kiosk systems as well as the associated peripherals.
- IBM Software Group (SWG)
The IBM Software Group has been divided into 2 areas since 2010: Middleware and Solutions.
The brands belong to the middleware group
and to the Solutions Group
- Collaboration Solutions (including the former Lotus brand )
- Business analytics including Cognos and SPSS
- Industry Solutions (Enterprise Content Management, Enterprise Marketing Management and B2B & Commerce)
- IBM Global Financing (IGF)
With operations in over 40 countries, IBM Global Financing is the world's largest IT financial service provider . One of the fields of activity is financing in the form of leasing or installment payments for hardware, software and services of the group.
- IBM Global Technology Services (GTS)
With annual sales of 47.357 billion US dollars (2005), Global Technology Services has established itself as an important part of the company in recent years, in which more than half of the employees also find their field of activity. In addition to the consulting branch, the numerous service offers are mainly at home in this area. An example of possible services is the area of strategic outsourcing , which offers the partial or complete takeover of IT departments.
The areas of activity of Global Services are:
- e-business hosting services
- Integrated Technology Services
- IT Strategic Outsourcing
- Technical Support Services and Maintenance
- IT management consulting
- Information Security Consulting
- Business Consulting (see IBM Global Business Services )
IBM measures itself against many large companies in the IT industry. The most important competitors include Accenture , Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) and Microsoft , but also Atos SE , T-Systems , Tata Consultancy Services , SAS Institute and SAP . Most recently, IBM and SAP tried to increase their awareness by using their analysis software in sports. For this purpose, SAP analyzes the games from the current Bundesliga, while IBM has been involved in tennis for years. "The IT group [...] has been supplying the Wimbledon tennis tournament with IT for 25 years - now also with programs that evaluate player data. There are also real-time analyzes to help viewers follow the games. This enables comparisons to be made back to the beginnings of Wimbledon in 1877 ”. The use of the software in everyday situations is intended to arouse broader understanding and interest in the audience.
IBM had been represented in Germany with DEHOMAG since November 30, 1910. In 1949 the company was renamed "Internationale Büro-Maschinen Gesellschaft mbH", later to "IBM Germany GmbH".
The headquarters were in Sindelfingen until 1972 and in Stuttgart-Vaihingen until 2009 . There were branches in major cities such as Aachen , Bremen ( August-Bebel-Allee 1), Hanover (e.g. the IBM house in the List district and at the Euro Plaza ) and Salzgitter . On November 12, 2009 the new headquarters in Ehningen was inaugurated for around 3,000 employees on 12,000 m². The IBM campus in Ehningen brings together other areas of IBM Deutschland GmbH and is the location of their main data center. In the greater Stuttgart area, their research and development center has also been located in Böblingen since 1953 .
In 2003, IBM took over around 800 employees from Deutsche Bank - which corresponded to a large part of their IT team - to IBM Business Services GmbH (previously IBB ), in which they combined all of their outsourcing efforts. These included the former subsidiary of the Babcock and Borsig companies , DVO data processing service Oberhausen GmbH. The DVO was dissolved in 2003 and the employees were laid off. One of their first outsourcing projects was taking over the IT department from FAG Kugelfischer . It closed the resulting branch in Schweinfurt in 2005, laid off the employees and relocated the work abroad. The manner in which the locations were being closed unsettled many IBM employees. The same applies to the employees in Hanover, Salzgitter and Aachen who were taken over from Continental AG and who were temporarily employed in the joint ventures "ICA" and "ICG".
After the reorganization in 2005, 22,000 of the previous 25,000 employees remained at 40 locations at the time.
In July 2008 a new structure and process organization was introduced. In this context, the German IBM was divided into four core areas of expertise along the value chain . There, in turn, it was divided into new, highly specialized and globally integrated companies , into which almost all of the subsidiaries were merged or merged. This measure was u. a. associated with transfers of operations for around 8,000 employees.
In 2013, the first IBM IT service center in Germany opened in Magdeburg with around 300 employees for software consulting and development. It is to become part of a network of 32 IBM centers worldwide.
Until May 2011, the management consisted of Chairman Martin Jetter , Reinhard Reschke for Finance , Dieter Scholz for Human Resources , Michael Diemer for Global Technology Services , Gregor Pillen for Global Business Services and Martina Koederitz for SMEs and partner business . The latter followed on May 4, 2011, Martin Jetter, who took over the chairmanship of the supervisory board.
At the beginning of 2016, plans became known to cut around 1000 of the then 15,000 employees in 16 companies and 24 branches.
Matthias Hartmann has headed the IBM DACH organization and the GmbH management since January 2018, and Gregor Pillen was the managing director at the beginning of 2020.
Corporate structure of IBM Germany
- Research & Development
- Sales & Consulting
- IBM Germany GmbH, Ehningen
- IBM Germany Kreditbank GmbH, Ehningen
- Solutions & Services
- IBM Germany Enterprise Application Solutions GmbH, Ehningen
- IBM Germany Financial Industry Solutions GmbH, Munich
- IBM Germany Global Business Solutions GmbH, Ehningen
- IBM Germany Infrastructure Technology Services GmbH, Ehningen
- IBM Germany Business Services GmbH, Ehningen
- IBM Germany Customer Support Services , Berlin
- IBM Germany Mittelstand Services GmbH, Meerbusch
- IBM Germany Output Services GmbH, Stuttgart
- IBM Germany Business Transformation Services GmbH, Ehningen
- IBM Client Innovation Center Germany GmbH, Magdeburg
- IBM Germany Aviation Industry Services GmbH, Kelsterbach
- MDTVision GmbH, Munich
- BWI Systeme GmbH, part of BWI Informationstechnik GmbH, Meckenheim (Rhineland) . See also: Hercules
- Management & Support
- IBM Germany Management & Business Support GmbH, Ehningen
- IBM Germany Support Fund GmbH
- IBM Germany Pension Fund VVaG
In Slovakia there are two branches of IBM: IBM is a Slovensko, headquartered in Apollo Business Center II in Bratislava and offices in Banská Bystrica and Košice . The second branch, called the IBM International Services Center, has existed since 2003 and supports IBM's activities primarily in the areas of finance, IT and sales. In addition to the Apollo Business Center II, the IBM ISC has two other locations in Bratislava, namely in Westend Gate (since 2014) and in Tower 115.
IBM Switzerland is based in Zurich . Around 3,300 people are employed in Switzerland. IBM Switzerland AG was founded in 1927 as an international business machinery company. In 1937 the name was changed to Watson Business Machines AG, and in 1943 to IBM Extension Suisse. In 1970 the definitive name was given to IBM Switzerland.
The Unicible based in Prilly was on software solutions for banks specialized Swiss IT service provider . Founded in 1992, the company was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Banque Cantonale Vaudoise (BCV) and focused on the banking market in western Switzerland .
In the course of a strategic reorientation in the IT area, Unicible was sold to IBM Switzerland in 2007 . This took over all of Unicible's assets and 330 employees. The remaining 60 employees were integrated into BCV. As a result, the Unicible activities were brought into the IBM Banking Competence Center , the IBM Banking Competence Center , newly created by IBM Switzerland at the previous Unicible location in Prilly .
In the course of the company's history, IBM has developed, manufactured and sold products for various areas of data processing. The company's first products are based on punched card machines that were used for censuses in the USA as early as the 1880s.
IBM started with Microsoft OS / 2 as a desktop - operating system to develop for IBM-compatible PCs. When Microsoft left this business in order to concentrate entirely on Windows as the operating system for IBM-compatible computers, IBM developed the operating system on its own. Despite its technical superiority, OS / 2 could not prevail over MS Windows with customers, which led to the discontinuation of further development. OS / 2 can still be found today mainly in banks , but also in insurance companies , airlines and in the manufacturing industry.
IBM officially announced in February 1999 for the first time that it would support Linux as an operating system platform, and was soon one of its biggest sponsors. In 2000, the company invested about $ 1 billion in the development of this free operating system , from which it benefited significantly financially in later years. Among other things, a possibility was created to run Linux on S / 390 or z systems; either directly or as a guest system under the z / VM operating system . This enables server consolidations on the mainframe. Several Linux distributions are available for this today.
AIX , a Unix derivative developed by IBM, runs on power processor- based workstations and enterprise servers such as the RS / 6000 or pSeries from IBM . IBM provides a selection for AIX, mostly free software known from Linux. The AIX Toolbox is available on the IBM website for this purpose . A pure 64-bit Linux can also be used on all modern pSeries servers.
The PowerPC processors are also used in the i5 servers, which, in addition to IBM's own i5 / OS operating system, can also run Linux, AIX and, via special plug-in cards such as Integrated PC Server (IPCS), Windows as an operating system integrated in a machine. The i5 server series from IBM is currently the system with the highest integration factor - correct from a technical point of view - hence the name “I” from Integration.
Computer processors developed by IBM:
IBM has developed a number of mainframes and z. T. distributed in series. In the 1950s and 1960s, IBM was best known for the IBM 700/7000 series . The current product from the IBM mainframe product line is called IBM z Systems.
Unix workstation and server
Building on the model platform of the IBM PC and its successors, the market segment of personal computers is shaped by IBM itself and by third-party manufacturers with IBM PC-compatible models to this day.
Input / output devices
As shown in the history section, IBM has developed more and more into a service provider since the 1990s. In 2014 the strategy was adjusted again and the focus is now on the business areas of cloud, analytics, mobile, social and security. This means that there is a shift away from standardized products towards specific large customer solutions. The existing software and hardware products are used for this. Since 2010, the software division has expanded its range through dozens of strategic company acquisitions in order to enable a change of direction.
- In 1935, the first woman was employed as a specialist at IBM. The then director of the company Thomas J. Watson Sr. wrote: “Men and women will do the same work for the same money. They are treated equally, assume the same responsibility and have the same development opportunities. "
- In 1953, the company made a declaration that it would only employ skilled workers on the basis of their ability, “regardless of race, skin color or creed”. In 1984 sexual orientation was included in this anti-discrimination rule.
- On October 10, 2005, IBM announced that it was the first multinational corporation to undertake not to use genetic data from employees or applicants in any personnel decision .
- With the IBM Fellow , IBM awards its own highest technical career level and award. Since TJ Watson launched the program in 1963, 305 employees have been named IBM Fellows, 89 of whom are still employed by IBM today. These include 5 Nobel Prize winners. (As of May 2019).
- In 1989 Donald Eigler wrote the words "IBM" and thus the "smallest" letters on a nickel surface with 35 xenon atoms.
- In 1992, IBM Germany was the first company in Germany to introduce teleworking on a voluntary basis for 200 employees .
- In 1998 it was decided that time clocks would be abolished at IBM. However, an electronic time recording system is still available to employees, which they can use on a voluntary basis unless instructed by the manager.
- In March 2005, IBM decided to close the Schweinfurt and Hanover locations , but not Hanover-Bemerode , even though they were operating profitably.
- At the beginning of 2006 it was announced that IBM in Germany would like to terminate pension plans for employees who joined the company before 1990. This was withdrawn due to opposition from the works council . Instead, shortly afterwards, vacation pay was also canceled in some subsidiaries, which effectively meant a loss of around 5 percent per employee.
- At the beginning of 2008, the One IBM strategy was announced. About 8000 employees were transferred to new or renamed companies by transfer of operations according to Section 613a BGB . Subsidiaries such as SerCon GmbH and it have been integrated, and service units have been combined into individual companies. The aim was a clear market presence under the brand "IBM Germany" and a bundling of competencies.
- In October 2009, IBM put Senior Vice President Robert Moffat on leave as one of the supposed main characters in an insider trading scandal. He is said to have shared confidential information about IBM balance sheets and transactions with partner companies. Moffat was considered a possible successor to IBM boss Sam Palmisano and had worked in various functions at IBM since 1978.
- IBM Germany received a Big Brother Award in 2016 for its software Social Dashboard , which is used to evaluate internal network contacts of employees .
- Paul Carroll: The Computer War. Munich 1998, ISBN 3-453-09172-8 .
- Doug Garr: The IBM turnaround. Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-7064-0646-2 .
- Edwin Black: IBM and the Holocaust . 2002, ISBN 3-548-75087-7 .
- Francesca Gaiba: The Origins of Simultaneous Interpretation : The Nuremberg Trial, Ottawa 1998, ISBN 0-7766-0457-0 .
- Louis V. Gerstner: Who says elephants can't dance? Stuttgart, 2002, ISBN 3-421-05696-X .
- Susan Smith : Change the game. The transformation of IBM in Germany and what we can learn from it. Murmann, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86774-109-5 .
- Emerson W. Pough: Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology. Cambridge (M) / London 1995, ISBN 0-262-16147-8 .
- Walter Proebster , Ed .: Datentechnik im Wandel: 75 Years of IBM Germany , Springer, 1986, ISBN 3-540-16387-5 .
- Hermann K. Reiboldt, Raimund Vollmer: We are the market - IBM and its competitors. Stuttgart 1978. ( History of IBM. On: rv-ibm.blogspot.com )
- Ulrich Steinhilper: Don't Talk - Do It! From Flying To Word Processing. Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 1-872836-75-5 .
- Raimund Vollmer: Blueland - The last 20 years of IBM. Reutlingen 1997, ISBN 3-00-001941-3 .
- Raimund Vollmer: The blue miracle - IBM and its competitors. Reutlingen 1984, OCLC 256080745 . ( 1984: The Blue Wonder - IBM and its competitors on: rv-ibm-1984.blogspot.com )
- Thomas J. Watson Jr., Peter Petre: The Father, the Son & the Company. Munich 1997, ISBN 3-453-11757-3 .
- Thomas J. Watson jr .: IBM - A company and its principles. Munich 1964.
- International Business Machines Corporation website
- IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich
- From Hollerith to IBM - Herman Hollerith's tabulating machines
- The IBM Museum for download
- Thomas Watson Jr .: From the tabulator to IBM's System / 360
- Jens Stark: 100 years as a rock in the IT surf. In: Computerworld . June 16, 2011, accessed March 28, 2019 .
- Annual Report 2019
- Astrid Dörner: Consulting: IBM: A giant among consultants. Karriere.de, November 1, 2007, accessed June 30, 2010 .
- Yearbook 2017
- Herman Hollerith: father of data processing, grandfather of IBM.
- IBM.com: FAQ , accessed on December 2, 2010.
- Edwin Black:IBM and the Holocaust ''. Ibmandtheholocaust.com, accessed June 30, 2010 .
- Francesca Gaiba: The Origins of Simultaneous Interpretation : The Nuremberg Trial, Ottawa 1998.
- Walther Funk's Nuremberg war crimes trial headphones - Collections Search - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved July 5, 2020 .
- Rüdiger Spies: IBM's real plan after the sale to Lenovo ( Memento from June 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) , analysis in the PC world from May 6, 2008.
- Matthew Karnitschnig: IBM in Talks to Buy Sun in Bid to Add to Web Heft (March 18, 2009). Online.wsj.com, March 18, 2009, accessed June 30, 2010 .
- Oracle buys Sun (April 20, 2009). Golem.de, April 20, 2009, accessed June 30, 2010 .
- IBM sells Notes, Domino, Sametime, Connections, Portal and other products. heise.de, December 7, 2018, accessed December 7, 2018 .
- heise online: Mega deal: IBM takes over Red Hat. Retrieved October 28, 2018 (German).
- "IBM Competitors | International Business Machines Stock, " Yahoo Finance. August 15, 2015, accessed August 17, 2015.
- "Competitors are increasingly using IBM" , Yahoo Finance. July 21, 2010, accessed August 17, 2015.
- "SAP and IBM are ensnaring sports events" , Computerwoche. August 13, 2015, accessed August 17, 2015.
- IBM in Germany - The Company - The History of IBM - Germany. www-05.ibm.com, July 5, 2005, accessed November 24, 2010 .
- today the headquarters of the Zech Group
- Press release IBM opens new German headquarters on November 12, 2009. www-03.ibm.com, November 12, 2009, accessed on June 30, 2010 .
- IBB changes its name to IBM Business Services GmbH, February 13, 2002 in computerwoche
- IBM closes four locations in Germany , Torge Löding, June 14, 2002 at heise online
- Heise Online: IBM ordered a structural realignment. Heise.de, accessed on June 30, 2010 .
- IBM Germany press release of January 31, 2008. (No longer available online.) Www-05.ibm.com, January 8, 2008, archived from the original on December 2, 2008 ; Retrieved June 30, 2010 .
- Koederitz becomes head of IBM Germany. April 13, 2011, accessed April 13, 2011 .
- IBM in Germany. www-03.ibm.com, May 5, 2010, accessed June 30, 2010 .
- IBM Germany press release of November 11, 2010. www-03.ibm.com, November 11, 2010, accessed on January 24, 2011 .
- "Matthias Hartmann follows Martina Koederitz as CEO of IBM Deutschland GmbH." Press release, IBM. January 8, 2018.
- Homepage of the GmbH
- Patricia Neumann new head of IBM Austria. In: Industry magazine. Weka Industrie Medien , September 19, 2017, accessed November 8, 2017 .
- IBM Switzerland, media release of April 20, 2007 ( Memento of May 4, 2007 in the web archive archive.today )
- Can IBM expect the same ROI from the next round of investment in Linux? In: Opensource.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016 .
- Thomas Harrer, CTO at IBM, on CAMSS topics. Retrieved November 9, 2015 .
- IT hardware from IBM. Retrieved November 9, 2015 .
- ibm.com , IBM. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
- "IBM Fellows" ( Memento June 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), IBM.
- 100 years of IBM: From punch cards to the intelligent planet. on: Golem.de , June 16, 2011.
- Insider scandal: IBM gives Moffat a leave of absence - Article in Manager Magazin , October 20, 2009.
- Working world: IBM Deutschland GmbH - BigBrotherAwards. In: bigbrotherawards.de. April 22, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2016 .