from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Name , symbol , atomic number Xenon, Xe, 54
Element category Noble gases
Group , period , block 18 , 5 , p
Appearance colorless
CAS number 7440-63-3
EC number 231-172-7
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.338
ATC code
Mass fraction of the earth's envelope 9 · 10 −6  ppm
Atomic mass 131,293 (6) et al
Covalent radius 140 pm
Van der Waals radius 216 pm
Electron configuration [ Kr ] 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 6
1. Ionization energy 12.129 843 6 (15) eV 1 170.35 kJ / mol
2. Ionization energy 20th.975 (4) eV2 023.8 kJ / mol
3. Ionization energy 31.05 (4) eV2 996 kJ / mol
4. Ionization energy 42.20 (20) eV4 072 kJ / mol
5. Ionization energy 54.1 (5) eV5 220 kJ / mol
Physical state gaseous
Crystal structure Cubic area-centered
density 5.8982 kg m −3 at 273.15 K.
magnetism diamagnetic ( Χ m = −2.5 10 −8 )
Melting point 161.4 K (−111.7 ° C)
boiling point 165.2 K (−108 ° C)
Molar volume (solid) 35.92 · 10 −6 m 3 · mol −1
Heat of evaporation 12.6 kJ / mol
Heat of fusion 2.30 kJ mol −1
Vapor pressure 4.13 · 10 6 Pa at 273.15 K.
Speed ​​of sound 169 (gaseous) 1090 (liquid) m s −1
Thermal conductivity 0.00569 W m −1 K −1
Electronegativity 2.6 ( Pauling scale )
isotope NH t 1/2 ZA ZE (M eV ) ZP
124 Xe 0.1% 1.8 · 10 22 a εε 124 te
125 Xe {syn.} 16.9 h ε 1.652 125 I.
126 Xe 0.09% Stable
127 Xe {syn.} 36.4 d ε 0.662 127 I.
128 Xe 1.91% Stable
129 Xe 26.4% Stable
130 Xe 4.1% Stable
131 Xe 21.29% Stable
132 Xe 26.9  % Stable
133 Xe {syn.} 5.253 d β - 0.427 133 Cs
134 Xe 10.4% Stable
135 Xe {syn.} 9.14 h β - 1.151 135 Cs
136 Xe 8.9% 2.11 · 10 21 a β - β - 136 Ba
For other isotopes see list of isotopes
NMR properties
number I
γ in
rad · T −1 · s −1
E r  ( 1 H) f L at
B = 4.7 T
in MHz
129 Xe 1/2 −7.452 10 7 0.0057 55.62
131 Xe 3/2 2.209 · 10 7 0.0006 8.24
safety instructions
GHS labeling of hazardous substances
04 - gas bottle


H and P phrases H: 280
P: 403
As far as possible and customary, SI units are used.
Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .

Xenon ( listen ? / I ) is a chemical element with the element symbol Xe and the ordinal number 54. In the periodic table it is in the 8th main group or the 18th  IUPAC group and is therefore one of the noble gases . Like the other noble gases, it is a colorless, extremely inert, monatomic gas . In many properties, such as melting and boiling point or density , it stands between the lighter krypton and the heavier radon . Audio file / audio sample

Xenon is the rarest non-radioactive element on earth and occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere. Despite its rarity, it is widely used, for example as a filling gas for high-quality insulating glass units, as well as xenon gas discharge lamps , which are used in car headlights ( xenon light ), and as an inhalation anesthetic .

The noble gas was discovered in 1898 by William Ramsay and Morris William Travers through fractional distillation of liquid air. Xenon is the noble gas with most of the known chemical compounds. The most stable one is xenon (II) fluoride , which is used as a strong oxidizing and fluorinating agent.


Sir William Ramsay

After John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh and William Ramsay in 1894 the first noble gas argon discovered and Ramsay 1895 so far only from the solar spectrum known helium from uranium ores were isolated, these recognized under the laws of the periodic table , that there be more such elements would have to. Therefore, from 1896 onwards, he first examined various minerals and meteorites and the gases released by them when heated or dissolved. Ramsay and his colleague Morris William Travers were unsuccessful. Helium and, more rarely, argon were found. The investigation of hot gases from Cauterets in France and from Iceland also yielded no results.

Eventually they began to examine 15 liters of crude argon and separate them by liquefaction and fractional distillation . When they examined the residue that was left over when the raw argon was almost completely evaporated, they discovered the new element krypton . After discovering neon , Ramsay and Travers began further investigating krypton through fractional distillation in September 1898, discovering another element with a higher boiling point than krypton. They named it after the ancient Greek ξένος xénos "foreign" xenon .

In 1939 Albert R. Behnke discovered the anesthetic effects of the gas. He examined the effects of various gases and gas mixtures on divers and assumed from the results that xenon must have a narcotic effect even at normal pressure. However, he was unable to check this due to a lack of gas. This effect was confirmed for the first time in 1946 by JH Lawrence on mice; the first operation under xenon anesthesia was performed in 1951 by Stuart C. Cullen.

Neil Bartlett discovered xenon hexafluoroplatinate for the first time in 1962, a xenon compound and thus the first noble gas compound ever. Only a few months after this discovery, xenon (II) fluoride by Rudolf Hoppe and xenon (IV) fluoride by a group led by the American chemists CL Chernick and HH Claassen were able to be synthesized almost simultaneously in August 1962 .


While xenon is not uncommon in the universe and its frequency is comparable to that of barium , rubidium and nickel , it is one of the rarest elements on earth. It is the rarest stable element, only radioactive elements, which predominantly occur as short-lived intermediate products in decay series , are rarer. The fact that the xenon content in rocks is low may be caused by the fact that xenon dissolves much more poorly in magnesium silicate rocks in the earth's mantle than the lighter noble gases.

Most of the xenon is probably present in the atmosphere, the proportion is about 0.09 ppm. But the oceans, some rocks such as granite and natural gas sources also contain small amounts of xenon. This arose - as can be proven by the isotopic composition, which deviates from the atmospheric xenon - among other things through the spontaneous decay of uranium and thorium .

Xenon is continuously measured worldwide as an indicator for nuclear weapons tests by the CTBTO - via the accumulation of silver zeolites in xenon traps .

Meteorites contain xenon, which has either been enclosed in rocks since the formation of the solar system or was created through various secondary processes. These include the decay of the radioactive iodine isotope 129 I, spallation reactions and the nuclear fission of heavy isotopes such as 244 Pu. The xenon products of these reactions can also be detected on earth, which enables conclusions to be drawn about the formation of the earth. Xenon was found on the moon that was transported there by the solar wind (in the lunar dust) and in the lunar rock something that was created from the barium isotope 130 Ba by spallations or neutron capture .

Xenon could also be detected in a white dwarf . The concentration measured in comparison to the sun was 3800 times; the cause of this high xenon content is still unknown.


Xenon is extracted exclusively from air using the Linde process . In nitrogen-oxygen separation, due to its high density, it is enriched together with krypton in the liquid oxygen that is located in the bottom of the column . This mixture is transferred to a column in which it is enriched to about 0.3% krypton and xenon. In addition to oxygen, the liquid krypton-xenon concentrate also contains large amounts of hydrocarbons such as methane , fluorinated compounds such as sulfur hexafluoride or tetrafluoromethane, and traces of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide . Methane and nitrous oxide can be converted into carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen via combustion on platinum or palladium catalysts at 500 ° C, which can be removed by adsorption on molecular sieves . Fluorine compounds, on the other hand, cannot be removed from the mixture in this way. In order to break them down and remove them from the mixture, the gas can be irradiated with microwaves , whereby the element-fluorine bonds break and the fluorine atoms formed can be caught in soda lime or passed over a titanium dioxide - zirconium dioxide catalyst at 750 ° C . The fluorine compounds react to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen fluoride and other separable compounds.

Then krypton and xenon are separated in a further column, which is heated at the bottom and cooled at the top. While the krypton and oxygen residues escape at the top of the column, xenon collects at the bottom and can be skimmed off. Due to its rarity and high demand, xenon is the most expensive noble gas. The total production volume in 2017 was 12,200 m 3 , which corresponds to about 71.5 tons.


Physical Properties

cubic close packing of solid xenon, a  = 620 pm
visible spectrum of xenon

Under normal conditions, xenon is a monoatomic, colorless and odorless gas that condenses at 165.1 K (−108 ° C) and solidifies at 161.7 K (−111.45 ° C). Like the other noble gases apart from helium, xenon crystallizes in a cubic close packing of spheres with the lattice parameter a  = 620  pm .

Like all noble gases, xenon only has closed shells ( noble gas configuration ). This explains why the gas is always monatomic and the reactivity is low. However, the ionization energy of the outermost electrons is so low that, in contrast to the valence electrons of the lighter noble gases, they can also be chemically split off and xenon compounds are possible.

With a density of 5.8982 kg / m 3 at 0 ° C and 1013 hPa, xenon is significantly heavier than air. In the phase diagram , the triple point is at 161.37 K and 0.8165 bar, the critical point at 16.6 ° C, 5.84 MPa and a critical density of 1.1 g / cm 3 .

The thermal conductivity is very low and, depending on the temperature, is around 0.0055 W / mK. Under high pressure of 33 GPa and at a temperature of 32 K, xenon behaves like a metal; it is electrically conductive.

Xenon discharge tube.jpg

Xeneon gas discharge tubes in various designs

Chemical and physico-chemical properties

Like all noble gases , xenon is inert and hardly reacts with other elements. However, together with radon, xenon is the most reactive noble gas; a large number of xenon compounds are known. Their number even exceeds that of the heavier radon, because although this has a lower ionization energy, the strong radioactivity and short half-life of the radon isotopes interfere with the formation of compounds.

Xenon only reacts directly with fluorine . Depending on the ratio of xenon and fluorine, xenon (II) fluoride , xenon (IV) fluoride or xenon (VI) fluoride are formed with an exothermic reaction at elevated temperatures . Compounds with some other elements such as oxygen or nitrogen are also known. However, they are unstable and can only be produced by reactions of xenon fluorides or, like xenon (II) chloride, at low temperatures by electrical discharges.

Xenon forms clathrates in which the atom is only physically bound and enclosed in a cavity in the surrounding crystal. An example of this is xenon hydrate, in which the gas is enclosed in ice . It is stable between 195 and 233 K. Near room temperature, xenon is soluble in water to a certain extent. As an inert particle, xenon has no interaction with the water, but the so-called hydrophobic effect occurs and so the mobility of the water molecules adjacent to the xenon is reduced by approx. 30% at 25 ° C. If there are additional salts in the xenon-water solution, then large anions such. B. bromide (Br - ) and iodide (I - ) to the xenon and form a xenon-anion complex, which is stronger with the larger anion. Xenon atoms can also be included in fullerenes ; these also influence the reactivity of the fullerene, for example when it reacts with 9,10-dimethylanthracene .


A total of 37 isotopes and twelve other core isomers of xenon are known. Of these, seven, the isotopes 126 Xe, 128 Xe, 129 Xe, 130 Xe, 131 Xe, 132 Xe and 134 Xe, are stable. The two unstable isotopes 124 Xe and 136 Xe have half-lives that are so long that they together make up a significant proportion of natural xenon without it being significantly radioactive. All other isotopes and isomers, on the other hand, have only short half-lives between 0.6 µs for 110 Xe and 36.4 days for 127 Xe. Xenon is thus the element with the most stable isotopes after tin. In the natural isotope mixture, 132 Xe with 26.9%, 129 Xe with 26.4% and 131 Xe with 21.2% have the largest share. This is followed by 134 Xe with 10.4% and 136 Xe with 8.9%, the others have only small proportions.

Xenon isotopes are formed during fission in nuclear power plants . Particularly important here is the short-lived 135 Xe, which is formed in large quantities directly as a cleavage product or from the 135 Te over 135 I formed during the cleavage . 135 Xe has a very large capture cross-section for thermal neutrons of 2.9 · 10 6  barn , whereby the extremely long-lived 136 Xe is formed. This neutron capture process reduces the performance of the reactor because the neutrons are no longer available for nuclear fission. During the ongoing operation of a nuclear power plant, an equilibrium of formation and decay of 135 Xe is formed. If, on the other hand, the reactor is switched off, 135 Xe continues to be formed from the already existing fission products , while the degradation is slowed down by the missing neutrons. One speaks here of xenon poisoning , this also prevents the direct restart of a shutdown nuclear reactor. Attempting to compensate for this phenomenon with improper measures played a role in the Chernobyl disaster .

133 Xe is used in nuclear medicine, where it is used, among other things, to examine the blood flow to the brain, muscles, skin and other organs. 129 Xe is used as a probe in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the surface properties of various materials and biomolecules.


Xenon gas discharge lamp with 15 kW from an IMAX film projector

Xenon is mainly used as a filling gas for lamps. This includes the xenon gas discharge lamp , in which an arc is ignited in xenon , which reaches a temperature of around 6000 K. The ionized gas emits radiation that is comparable to daylight. These lamps are used, for example, in film projectors , flashlights and for lighting runways at airports. Xenon gas discharge lamps are also used in car headlights; this so-called xenon light is about 2.5 times as bright as a halogen lamp of the same electrical power. Incandescent lamps can be filled with xenon or xenon-krypton mixtures, which results in a higher temperature of the filament and thus a better light yield.

Xenon is a laser medium in excimer lasers . In this case, an unstable forms Xe 2 - dimer that the emission of radiation at a typical wavelength nm of 172 in the ultraviolet spectral region disintegrates. Lasers in which xenon is mixed with various halogens and Xe-halogen dimers are formed are also known. They have other emitted wavelengths, so the Xe-F laser emits light with a wavelength of 354 nm.

Test run of a xenon powered ion engine

Xenon is often used as a propulsion means (support mass) in ion drives . The ion thrusters, which generate only low thrust forces, are much more efficient than conventional chemical thrusters due to their high specific momentum and are therefore used in some satellites for correction engines or as the main drive for some space probes , which can thus achieve goals that would otherwise not be achievable for them. Xenon is used because, as a noble gas, it is easier to handle and more environmentally friendly than the possible cesium or mercury .

Xenon is used - up to a concentration of 35% in order not to have a narcotic effect - on a trial basis as a contrast medium in X-ray diagnostics , possibly supplemented by krypton to increase absorption. By inhaling hyperpolarized 129 Xe, the lungs can be easily visualized by MRI ( NMR ).

The low thermal conductivity of xenon compared to air, argon and krypton opens up special application possibilities in the area of ​​highly insulating multi-pane insulating glass . Due to its high price, xenon is only used as a filling gas in insulating glass units in special cases, e.g. B. when it comes to particularly high thermal insulation even with very thin insulating glass units with spaces between panes of less than 8 mm (insulating glass in a listed frame, small windows with high climatic loads).

Biological importance

Like the other noble gases, xenon does not enter into any covalent bonds with biomolecules due to its inertia and is also not metabolized. However , atoms in the gas can interact with biological systems via induced dipoles . For example, it has a narcotic effect through a mechanism that has not yet been fully understood, involving glutamate receptors .

Recent research suggests that neuroprotective and analgesic effects can also be observed under the influence of xenon .


Xenon has a narcotic effect and can be used as an inhalation anesthetic . It has been approved for use in ASA 1 and 2 patients in Germany since 2005 and in eleven other countries since 2007. Due to the high costs (€ 200–300 instead of € 80–100 for a two-hour operation), it was not yet able to establish itself in daily anesthesia until 2015.

In order to be economical with the xenon, which costs 15 € / liter, it is circulated with the exhaled gas as with a rebreather , in that the exhaled CO 2 is chemically removed and oxygen is added.

Due to its very low blood-gas partition coefficient, it flows in and out very quickly. When blowdown may like the nitrous oxide a diffusion hypoxia occur, it will therefore have to be washed with pure oxygen. Compared to the frequently used nitrous oxide, it has several advantages, for example it is safe to use and not a greenhouse gas . The hemodynamics are also more stable with xenon than with other volatile anesthetics, i.e. In other words, there is no drop in blood pressure, the heart rate increases somewhat. The disadvantage is that with xenon, because a relatively high concentration in the alveoli is required in order to have a narcotic effect ( MAC value in the range of 60 to 70%), only a maximum of 30 or 40% oxygen can be given in the breathing gas mixture. The main disadvantage of the xenon is its high price.


In the context of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi , research by WDR into the abuse of xenon as a doping agent attracted public attention. Since the 2004 Summer Games in Athens, Russian athletes have been trying to improve their performance by replacing half of the oxygen in the air with xenon gas during training. A corresponding study by the research and development facility called the Atom-Med-Zentrum was commissioned by the Russian state. According to this institution, xenon gas stimulates the production of EPO in the body . In animal experiments, EPO production rose to 160 percent within a day. One suspects similar effects in humans. In May 2014, WADA therefore put xenon, like argon, on the doping list. However, this doping method does not currently leave any traces in the blood.


Xenon (IV) fluoride

A large number of compounds of xenon in the oxidation states +2 to +8 are known. Xenon- fluorine compounds are the most stable, but compounds with oxygen , nitrogen , carbon and some metals such as gold are also known.

Fluorine compounds

Three compounds of xenon with fluorine are known: xenon (II) fluoride , xenon (IV) fluoride and xenon (VI) fluoride . The most stable of these and at the same time the most stable xenon compound of all is the linearly structured xenon (II) fluoride. It is the only xenon compound that is also used technically in small quantities. In laboratory synthesis, it serves as a strong oxidizing and fluorinating agent, for example for the direct fluorination of aromatic compounds.

While xenon (II) fluoride dissolves in water and acids without decomposition and hydrolyzes only slowly, the square-planar xenon (IV) fluoride and the octahedral xenon (VI) fluoride hydrolyze quickly. They are very reactive; xenon (VI) fluoride reacts with silicon dioxide and can therefore not be stored in glass vessels.

Oxygen compounds and oxide fluorides

With oxygen, xenon reaches the highest possible oxidation state +8 in xenon (VIII) oxide and the oxyfluoride xenon difluoride trioxide XeO 3 F 2 as well as in perxenates of the form XeO 6 4− . Further, xenon (VI) oxide and the oxyfluorides XeO 2 F 2 and XeOF 4 in the oxidation state +6 and xenon (IV) oxide and oxyfluoride XeOF 2 tetravalent Xenon known. All xenon oxides and oxyfluorides are unstable and many are explosive.

Other xenon compounds

Xenon (II) chloride is known as another xenon-halogen compound ; however, it is very unstable and can only be detected spectroscopically at low temperatures. Similarly, mixed hydrogen-halogen-xenon compounds and the hydrogen-oxygen-xenon compound HXeOXeH could also be produced by photolysis in the noble gas matrix and detected spectroscopically.

Organic xenon compounds are known with various ligands, for example with fluorinated aromatics or alkynes . An example of a nitrogen-fluorine compound is FXeN (SO 2 F) 2 .

Xenon is able to form complexes with metals such as gold or mercury under super acidic conditions . The gold is mainly found in the +2 oxidation state, gold (I) and gold (III) complexes are also known.

The category: Xenon connections provides an overview of xenon compounds .


Web links

Wiktionary: Xenon  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Xenon  album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Harry H. Binder: Lexicon of the chemical elements. S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-7776-0736-3 .
  2. The values ​​for the properties (info box) are taken from www.webelements.com (Xenon) , unless otherwise stated .
  3. CIAAW, Standard Atomic Weights Revised 2013 .
  4. a b c d e Entry on xenon in Kramida, A., Ralchenko, Yu., Reader, J. and NIST ASD Team (2019): NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1) . Ed .: NIST , Gaithersburg, MD. doi : 10.18434 / T4W30F ( https://physics.nist.gov/asd ). Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  5. a b c d e Entry on xenon at WebElements, https://www.webelements.com , accessed on June 11, 2020.
  6. a b c Entry on xenon in the GESTIS substance database of the IFA , accessed on April 25, 2017(JavaScript required) .
  7. Robert C. Weast (Ed.): CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics . CRC (Chemical Rubber Publishing Company), Boca Raton 1990, ISBN 0-8493-0470-9 , pp. E-129 to E-145. Values ​​there are based on g / mol and given in cgs units. The value specified here is the SI value calculated from it, without a unit of measure.
  8. a b Yiming Zhang, Julian RG Evans, Shoufeng Yang: Corrected Values ​​for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. In: Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data . 56, 2011, pp. 328-337, doi: 10.1021 / je1011086 .
  9. ^ LC Allen, JE Huheey: The definition of electronegativity and the chemistry of the noble gases. In: Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry . 42, 1980, pp. 1523-1524, doi: 10.1016 / 0022-1902 (80) 80132-1 .
  10. ^ TL Meek: Electronegativities of the Noble Gases. In: Journal of Chemical Education . 72, 1995, pp. 17-18.
  11. N. Ackerman: Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in ^ {136} Xe with the EXO-200 Detector . In: Physical Review Letters . tape 107 , no. 21 , 2011, doi : 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.107.212501 .
  12. ^ A b William Ramsay: The Rare Gases of the Atmosphere . Nobel Prize Speech, December 12, 1904.
  13. ^ A b T. Marx, M. Schmidt, U. Schirmer, H. Reinelt: Xenon anaesthesia. In: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine . 93, 10, 2000, pp. 513-517, (PDF) ( Memento from March 27, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  14. Neil Bartlett: Xenon Hexafluoroplatinate (V) Xe + [PtF] - . In: Proceedings of the Chemical Society . 1962, p. 218, doi: 10.1039 / PS9620000197 .
  15. a b R. Hoppe: The valence compounds of the noble gases. In: Angewandte Chemie . 76, 11, 1964, pp. 455-463, doi: 10.1002 / anie.19640761103 .
  16. ^ AGW Cameron: Abundances of the elements in the solar system. In: Space Science Reviews . 15, 1970, pp. 121-146; (PDF)
  17. Svyatoslav S. Shcheka, Hans Keppler: The origin of the terrestrial noble-gas signature. In: Nature . Oct 25, 2012, pp. 531-534, doi: 10.1038 / nature11506 .
  18. a b c P. Häussinger, R. Glatthaar, W. Rhode, H. Kick, C. Benkmann, J. Weber, H.-J. Wunschel, V. Stenke, E. Leicht, H. Stenger: Noble Gases. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry . Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2006, doi: 10.1002 / 14356007.a17_485 .
  19. a b H. Hintenberger: Xenon in terrestrial and extraterrestrial matter (xenology). In: Natural Sciences . 59, 7, 1972, pp. 285-291, doi: 10.1007 / BF00593352 .
  20. How the hidden can be discovered. ORF.at, June 24, 2013.
  21. Ichiro Kaneoka: Xenon's Inside Story. In: Science . 280, 1998, pp. 851-852, doi: 10.1126 / science.280.5365.851b .
  22. Klaus Werner, Thomas Rauch, Ellen Ringat, Jeffrey W. Kruk: First detection of Krypton and Xenon in a white dwarf. In: The Astrophysical Journal . 753, 2012, p. L7, doi: 10.1088 / 2041-8205 / 753/1 / L7 .
  23. a b Patent EP1752417 : Process and apparatus for the production of krypton and / or xenon. Registered on September 20, 2005 , published on February 14, 2007 , applicant: Linde AG, inventor: Matthias Meilinger.
  24. Jean-Christophe Rostaing, Francis Bryselbout, Michel Moisan, Jean-Claude Parenta: Méthode d'épuration des gaz rares au moyen de décharges électriques de haute fréquence. In: Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IV - Physics. 1, 1, 2000, pp. 99-105, doi: 10.1016 / S1296-2147 (00) 70012-6 .
  25. BGR study on noble gases: Is helium really critical? Xenon market tight!
  26. K. Schubert: A model for the crystal structures of the chemical elements. In: Acta Crystallographica . 30, 1974, pp. 193-204.
  27. Entry on xenon (phase change data). In: P. J. Linstrom, W. G. Mallard (Eds.): NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69 . National Institute of Standards and Technology , Gaithersburg MD, accessed November 17, 2019.
  28. a b c d e Entry on Xenon. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on June 19, 2014.
  29. a b Christian Schittich, Gerald Staib, Dieter Balkow, Matthias Schuler, Werner Sobek: Glass Construction Manual . 2nd Edition. Walter de Gruyter, 2006, ISBN 3-0346-1553-1 , p. 127 .
  30. ^ A b A. F. Holleman , E. Wiberg , N. Wiberg : Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry . 102nd edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-017770-1 , pp. 417-429.
  31. T. Pietraß, HC Gaede, A. Bifone, A. Pines, YES Ripmeester: Monitoring xenon clathrates hydrates formation on Ice Surfaces with Optically Enhanced 129 Xe NMR. In: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 28, 1995, pp. 7520-7525, doi: 10.1021 / ja00133a025 .
  32. R. Meier hazel, M.Holz, W. Marbach, H.Weingärtner Water Dynamics near a Dissolved Noble gas. In: J. Physical Chemistry . 99, 1995, pp. 2243-2246.
  33. M. Holz: Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation as a Selective Probe of Solute - Solvent and Solute - Solute Interactions in Multi-component Mixtures. In: J. Mol. Liquids . 67, 1995, pp. 175-191.
  34. Michael Frunzi, R. James Cross, Martin Saunders: Effect of Xenon on Fullerene Reactions. In: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 43, 2007, pp. 13343-13346, doi: 10.1021 / ja075568n .
  35. G. Audi, O. Bersillon, J. Blachot, AH Wapstra: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. In: Nuclear Physics. Volume A 729, 2003, pp. 3-128. doi : 10.1016 / j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 . ( PDF ; 1.0 MB).
  36. Wolfgang Demtrader: Experimental Physics 4: Nuclear, Particle and Astrophysics. 3. Edition. Springer Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-642-01597-7 , pp. 232-233.
  37. Jeremy I. Pfeffer, Shlomo Nir: Modern physics: an introductory text. Imperial College Press, 2000, ISBN 1-86094-250-4 , pp. 421-422.
  38. Christopher I. Ratcliffe: Xenon Nmr. In: Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy . 36, 1998, pp. 123-221.
  39. Thomas J. Lowery, Seth M. Rubin, E. Janette Ruiz, Megan M. Spence, Nicolas Winssinger, Peter G. Schultz, Alexander Pines, David E. Wemmer: Applications of laser-polarized 129 xe to biomolecular assays. In: Magnetic Resonance Imaging . 21, 2003, pp. 1235-1239.
  40. ^ Hans-Hermann Braess, Ulrich Seiffert: Vieweg handbook automotive technology. 5th edition. Vieweg + Teubner Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8348-0222-4 , pp. 674-676.
  41. ^ G. Ribitzki, A. Ulrich, B. Busch, W. Krötz, J. Wieser, DE Murnick: Electron densities and temperatures in a xenon afterglow with heavy-ion excitation. In: Phys. Rev. E . 50, 1994, pp. 3973-3979, doi: 10.1103 / PhysRevE.50.3973 .
  42. European Space Agency : Ion Thrusters: The Ride on Charged Particles . As of September 2003, accessed on September 26, 2009.
  43. Insulating glass with gas fillings - WECOBIS - ecological building material information system of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety and the Bavarian Chamber of Architects. Retrieved October 20, 2017 .
  44. Modeling the energy transport through glazing. In: researchgate.net. May 3, 2019, accessed May 3, 2019 .
  45. ^ Glashütte Lamberts Waldsassen GmbH: Special insulating glass for monument protection. Retrieved October 20, 2017 .
  46. ^ B. Preckel, NC Weber, RD Sanders, M. Maze, W. Schlack: Molecular Mechanisms Transducing the Anesthetic, Analgesic, and Organ-protective Actions of Xenon. In: Anesthesiology . Vol. 105, No. 1, 2006, pp. 187-197.
  47. Safety data sheet ( Memento of May 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (Xenon; PDF file; 72 kB), Linde AG, as of August 4, 2006.
  48. E. Esencan, S. Yuksel, YB Tosun, A. Robinot, I. Solaroglu, JH Zhang: XENON in medical area: emphasis on neuroprotection in hypoxia and anesthesia. In: Med Gas Res. 3 (1), Feb 1, 2013, p. 4. PMID 23369273 .
  49. M. Giacalone, A. Abramo, F. Giunta, F. Forfori: Xenon-related analgesia: a new target for pain treatment. In: Clin J Pain. 29 (7), Jul 2013, pp. 639-643. PMID 23328329 .
  50. a b Xenon, an almost ideal anesthetic gas Deutschlandfunk Kultur, archive, broadcast on October 9, 2011, accessed on March 25, 2018
  51. Löwenstein Medical: Anesthesia with Xenon - Löwenstein Medical , accessed on March 25, 2018
  52. ^ W. Jelkmann: Xenon Misuse in Sports - Increase of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors and Erythropoietin, or Nothing but "Hot Air"? In: Dtsch Z Sportmed. 65, 2014, pp. 267–271, doi: 10.5960 / dzsm.2014.143 .
  53. Doping: Xenon and Argon explicitly prohibited. In: Pharmaceutical newspaper . May 21, 2014.
  54. Athletic enhancement: Breathe it in . In: The Economist . Pre-published February 8, 2014, accessed February 24, 2014.
  55. Entry on xenon connections. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on June 19, 2014.
  56. David S. Brock, Gary J. Schrobilgen: Synthesis of the Missing Oxide of Xenon, XeO 2 , and Its Implications for Earth's Missing Xenon. In: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 16, 2011, pp. 6265-6269, doi: 10.1021 / ja110618g .
  57. ^ Leonid Khriachtchev, Karoliina Isokoski, Arik Cohen, Markku Räsänen, R. Benny Gerber: A Small Neutral Molecule with Two Noble-Gas Atoms: HXeOXeH. In: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 19, 2008, pp. 6114-6118, doi: 10.1021 / ja077835v .
  58. In-Chul Hwang, Stefan Seidel, Konrad Seppelt: Gold (I) and mercury (II) -xenon complexes. In: Angewandte Chemie . 115, 2003, pp. 4528-4531, doi: 10.1002 / anie.200351208 .
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on March 7, 2010 in this version .