|Name , symbol , atomic number||Lawrencium, Lr, 103|
|Group , period , block||Ac , 7 , f|
|Atomic mass||266 u|
|Electron configuration||[ Rn ] 5 f 14 6 d 1 7 s 2 (?)
[Rn] 5f 14 7s 2 7p 1 (?)
|1. Ionization energy||4th.96 (8) eV ≈ 479 kJ / mol|
|2. Ionization energy||14th.54 (4) eV ≈ 1 400 kJ / mol|
|3. Ionization energy||21st.80 (4) eV ≈ 2 100 kJ / mol|
|4. Ionization energy||43.6 (4) eV ≈ 4 210 kJ / mol|
|5. Ionization energy||56.0 (1.9) eV ≈ 5 400kJ / mol|
|For other isotopes see list of isotopes|
|Hazard and safety information|
As far as possible and customary, SI units are used.
Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .
Lawrencium ( chemical element with the element symbol Lr and the ordinal number 103. In the periodic table it is in the group of actinides ( 7th period , f-block ) and is also one of the transuranic elements . Lawrencium is a radioactive metal, which, however, has not been represented as a metal due to the small quantities available. It was discovered in 1961 when californium was bombarded with boron cores. This element was named after Ernest Lawrence . He is the inventor of the cyclotron , a particle accelerator that was an important prerequisite for the discovery of many transuranic elements. The name was finally confirmed by the IUPAC in 1994 .) is an exclusively artificially produced
Lawrencium was first produced in 1961 by the American scientists Albert Ghiorso , Torbjørn Sikkeland , Almon E. Larsh and Robert M. Latimer by bombarding californium isotopes with nuclei of boron atoms. On February 14, 1961, they announced the successful synthesis of the element.
Initially, the symbol “Lw” was chosen. In 1963 it was changed to "Lr" by IUPAC ( International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry ).
In the periodic table , the Lawrencium with the ordinal number 103 is in the series of the actinides and closes them off. Its predecessor is nobelium , the subsequent element is rutherfordium , which, however, already belongs to the transactinoids and is a d element. Its analogue in the series of lanthanides is the lutetium , which also closes this.
Lawrencium is a radioactive and very short-lived metal. Twelve isotopes are known with half-lives ranging from a few seconds to 11 hours. Little is known about other properties of the element, as the short half-life makes empirical studies almost impossible.
The position of Lawrencium in the periodic table is controversial, since recent measurements show that the element has an extremely low ionization energy.
Classifications according to the CLP regulation are not available because they only include chemical hazard, which plays a completely subordinate role compared to the hazards caused by radioactivity . The latter also only applies if the amount of substance involved is relevant.
- Robert J. Silva: Fermium, Mendelevium, Nobelium, and Lawrencium , in: Lester R. Morss, Norman M. Edelstein, Jean Fuger (Eds.): The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements , Springer, Dordrecht 2006; ISBN 1-4020-3555-1 , pp. 1621-1651 ( doi: 10.1007 / 1-4020-3598-5_13 ).
- Entry to Lawrencium. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on January 3, 2015.
- Stephen M. Trzaska: Lawrencium , Chemical & Engineering News, 2003.
- The values of the atomic and physical properties (infobox) are, unless otherwise stated, taken from: Robert J. Silva: Fermium, Mendelevium, Nobelium, and Lawrencium , in: Lester R. Morss, Norman M. Edelstein, Jean Fuger ( Ed.): The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements , Springer, Dordrecht 2006; ISBN 1-4020-3555-1 , pp. 1621-1651.
- entry on lawrencium in Kramida, A., Ralchenko, Yu., Reader, J. and NIST ASD Team (2019): NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1) . Ed .: NIST , Gaithersburg, MD. doi : 10.18434 / T4W30F ( https://physics.nist.gov/asd ). Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- entry on lawrencium at WebElements, https://www.webelements.com , accessed on June 13, 2020.
- The hazards emanating from radioactivity do not belong to the properties to be classified according to the GHS labeling. With regard to other hazards, this element has either not yet been classified or a reliable and citable source has not yet been found.
- Names and Symbols of Transfermium Elements (IUPAC Recommendations 1994). (PDF; 172 kB).
- Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, Robert M. Latimer: New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic Number 103 , in: Phys. Rev. Lett. , 1961 , 6 (9), pp. 473-475 ( doi: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.6.473 ).
- Periodensystem-online.de: The History of the Lawrencium , accessed on February 13, 2011.