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H   Hey
Li Be   B. C. N O F. No
N / A Mg   Al Si P S. Cl Ar
K Approx Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mon Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CD In Sn Sb Te I. Xe
Cs Ba * Hf Ta W. re Os Ir Pt Au Ed Tl Pb Bi Po At Marg
Fr. Ra ** Rf Db Sg Bra Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Above
  * La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho He Tm Yb Lu  
  ** Ac Th Pa U Np Pooh At the Cm Bk Cf It Fm Md No Lr  
Halogens Noble gases other non-metals
Categorizations of non-metals
Reactive non-metals Noble gases
H, C, N, P, O, S, Se, F, Cl, Br, I He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Non-metals Halogens Noble gases
H, C, N, P, O, S, Se F, Cl, Br, I, At He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Firmly Liquid Gaseous
C, P, S, Se, I, At Br H, N, O, F, Cl, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Strongly electronegative
Noble gases
H, C, P, S, Se, I N, O, F, Cl, Br He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
elements (noble gases)
C, P, S, Se H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

Non-metals (formerly also called metalloids ) are chemical elements that lack the typical metallic properties such as good electrical and thermal conductivity , gloss , hardness and good malleability.

Non-metals according to the above definition are: hydrogen , carbon , nitrogen , phosphorus , oxygen , sulfur , selenium , the halogens ( fluorine , chlorine , bromine , iodine , astatine and Tenness ) and the noble gases ( helium , neon , argon , krypton , xenon , Radon and oganesson ).

The boundaries between semimetals and element semiconductors are fluid, which is due, on the one hand, to the different perspectives of the departments (chemistry and physics), and, on the other hand, to the fact that modifications of an element can have completely different properties, and thus in some cases properties similar to those of metals can have. The most famous modifications of carbon, graphite and diamond , are good examples of this. In contrast to diamond, graphite has very good electrical conductivity. The diamond, on the other hand, has a very high thermal conductivity (better than metals) despite its very poor electrical conductivity. The reason for this lies in the different mechanisms of heat transfer in diamond and in metals.

However, this is only the case with some of the non-metals. In some cases, the metallic modifications can only form under extreme conditions, for example hydrogen or iodine at high pressure.

The electron affinity of non-metals (with the exception of noble gases) is generally the highest among the chemical elements. This leads to the fact that unbound atoms strive to take up electrons in order to obtain a stable, fully occupied valence shell (see octet rule ) instead of giving up electrons like most metals. In addition to the noble gases mentioned, nitrogen is an exception.


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Wiktionary: Non-metal  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations