|N / A||Mg||Al||Si||P||S.||Cl||Ar|
|Categorizations of non-metals|
|Reactive non-metals||Noble gases|
|H, C, N, P, O, S, Se, F, Cl, Br, I||He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn|
|H, C, N, P, O, S, Se||F, Cl, Br, I, At||He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn|
|C, P, S, Se, I, At||Br||H, N, O, F, Cl, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn|
|H, C, P, S, Se, I||N, O, F, Cl, Br||He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn|
elements (noble gases)
|C, P, S, Se||H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I||He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn|
Non-metals (formerly also called metalloids ) are chemical elements that lack the typical metallic properties such as good electrical and thermal conductivity , gloss , hardness and good malleability.
Non-metals according to the above definition are: hydrogen , carbon , nitrogen , phosphorus , oxygen , sulfur , selenium , the halogens ( fluorine , chlorine , bromine , iodine , astatine and Tenness ) and the noble gases ( helium , neon , argon , krypton , xenon , Radon and oganesson ).
The boundaries between semimetals and element semiconductors are fluid, which is due, on the one hand, to the different perspectives of the departments (chemistry and physics), and, on the other hand, to the fact that modifications of an element can have completely different properties, and thus in some cases properties similar to those of metals can have. The most famous modifications of carbon, graphite and diamond , are good examples of this. In contrast to diamond, graphite has very good electrical conductivity. The diamond, on the other hand, has a very high thermal conductivity (better than metals) despite its very poor electrical conductivity. The reason for this lies in the different mechanisms of heat transfer in diamond and in metals.
The electron affinity of non-metals (with the exception of noble gases) is generally the highest among the chemical elements. This leads to the fact that unbound atoms strive to take up electrons in order to obtain a stable, fully occupied valence shell (see octet rule ) instead of giving up electrons like most metals. In addition to the noble gases mentioned, nitrogen is an exception.
- Thomas Klapötke , Iris C. Tornieporth-Oetting: Non-metal chemistry , Weinheim: VCH-Verlagsgesellschaft 1994, ISBN 3-527-29052-4
- Ralf Steudel : Chemistry of Non-Metals: From Structure and Bond to Application. Walter de Gruyter, 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-019448-7