|Name , symbol , atomic number||Erbium, Er, 68|
|Group , period , block||La , 6 , f|
|Mass fraction of the earth's envelope||2.3 ppm|
|Atomic mass||167,259 (3) et al|
|Atomic radius (calculated)||175 (226) pm|
|Covalent radius||189 pm|
|Electron configuration||[ Xe ] 4 f 12 6 s 2|
|1. Ionization energy||6th.1077 (10) eV ≈ 589.3 kJ / mol|
|2. Ionization energy||11.916 (20) eV ≈ 1 149.7 kJ / mol|
|3. Ionization energy||22nd.70 (3) eV ≈ 2 190 kJ / mol|
|4. Ionization energy||42.42 (4) eV ≈ 4 090 kJ / mol|
|5. Ionization energy||65.1 (4) eV ≈ 6 280 kJ / mol|
|density||9.045 g / cm 3 (25 ° C )|
|magnetism||paramagnetic ( Χ m = 0.033)|
|Melting point||1802 K (1529 ° C)|
|boiling point||3173 K (2900 ° C)|
|Molar volume||18.46 · 10 −6 m 3 · mol −1|
|Heat of evaporation||280 kJ / mol|
|Heat of fusion||19.9 kJ mol −1|
|Electric conductivity||1.16 · 10 6 A · V −1 · m −1|
|Thermal conductivity||15 W m −1 K −1|
|Normal potential||−2.32 V
(Er 3+ + 3 e - → Er)
|Electronegativity||1.24 ( Pauling scale )|
|For other isotopes see list of isotopes|
As far as possible and customary, SI units are used.
Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .
Erbium is a chemical element with the element symbol Er and the atomic number 68. In the periodic table it is in the group of lanthanoids and is therefore also one of the rare earth metals . The name is derived from the Ytterby mine near Stockholm , as well as that of ytterbium , terbium and yttrium .
Erbium was discovered by Carl Gustav Mosander in 1843 . However, the supposedly pure oxide was a mixture of the oxides from erbium, scandium, holmium, thulium and ytterbium.
The chemists Marc Delafontaine and Nils Johan Berlin made a contribution to the later clarification . The French chemist Georges Urbain and the American chemist Charles James produced pure erbium oxide in 1905 .
Erbium is a rare metal (3.5 ppm ) that does not occur naturally in its pure form, but mainly in the mineral monazite.
Extraction and presentation
After a complex separation of the other erbium companions, the oxide is converted to erbium fluoride with hydrogen fluoride. Subsequently, calcium is used to reduce to metallic erbium with the formation of calcium fluoride . The removal of remaining calcium residues and impurities takes place in an additional remelting process in a vacuum .
The silver-white shiny metal of the rare earths is malleable, but also quite brittle.
Erbium turns gray in air, but is then quite stable. At higher temperatures it burns to the sesquioxide Er 2 O 3 . It reacts with water to form the hydroxide, producing hydrogen. It dissolves in mineral acids with the formation of hydrogen.
In its compounds it is in the +3 oxidation state, the Er 3+ cations form pink solutions in water. Solid salts are also colored pink.
Erbium-doped optical fibers are used for optical amplifiers that are able to amplify a light signal without converting it into an electrical signal beforehand. Gold as a host material doped with a few hundred ppm erbium is used as a sensor material for magnetic calorimeters for high-resolution particle detection in physics and technology.
Along with other rare earth elements such as neodymium or holmium, erbium is used for doping laser crystals in solid-state lasers (Er: YAG laser, see also Nd: YAG laser ). The Er: YAG laser is mainly used in human medicine. It has a wavelength of 2940 nm and thus an extremely high absorption in tissue water of approx. 12000 per cm.
- Erbium (III) oxide Er 2 O 3
- Erbium (III) fluoride ErF 3
- Erbium (III) chloride ErCl 3
- Erbium (III) bromide ErBr 3
- Erbium (III) iodide ErI 3
- Erbium (III) sulfate Er 2 (SO 4 ) 3 · 8 H 2 O: pink crystals
- Erbium (III) nitrate Er (NO 3 ) 3 · 5 H 2 O
- Harry H. Binder: Lexicon of the chemical elements. S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-7776-0736-3 .
- The values for the properties (info box) are taken from www.webelements.com (Erbium) , unless otherwise stated .
- CIAAW, Standard Atomic Weights Revised 2013 .
- entry on erbium in Kramida, A., Ralchenko, Yu., Reader, J. and NIST ASD Team (2019): NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1) . Ed .: NIST , Gaithersburg, MD. doi : 10.18434 / T4W30F ( https://physics.nist.gov/asd ). Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- entry on erbium at WebElements, https://www.webelements.com , accessed on June 13, 2020.
- NN Greenwood, A. Earnshaw: Chemistry of the elements. 1st edition. VCH, Weinheim 1988, ISBN 3-527-26169-9 , p. 1579.
- Robert C. Weast (Ed.): CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics . CRC (Chemical Rubber Publishing Company), Boca Raton 1990, ISBN 0-8493-0470-9 , pp. E-129 to E-145. Values there are based on g / mol and given in cgs units. The value specified here is the SI value calculated from it, without a unit of measure.
- Yiming Zhang, Julian RG Evans, Shoufeng Yang: Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. In: Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data . 56, 2011, pp. 328-337, doi: 10.1021 / je1011086 .
- The History of the Erbium .
- David R. Lide (Ed.): CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics . 90th edition. (Internet version: 2010), CRC Press / Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics; Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea, pp. 14-18.
- Gerd Hintermaier-Erhard: Everything is chemistry! The chemical elements and how we use them . Dorling Kindersley Verlag, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-8310-3339-3 .
- German Society for Nuclear Medicine - Guideline of Radiosynoviorthesis .