|Name , symbol , atomic number||Tin, Sn, 50|
|Group , period , block||14 , 5 , p|
|Appearance||shiny silver (β-tin), gray (α-tin)|
|Mass fraction of the earth's envelope||35 ppm|
|Atomic mass||118.710 (7) et al|
|Atomic radius (calculated)||145 (145) pm|
|Covalent radius||139 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||217 pm|
|Electron configuration||[ Kr ] 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 2|
|1. Ionization energy||7th.343 918 (12) eV ≈ 708.58 kJ / mol|
|2. Ionization energy||14th.63307 (9) eV ≈ 1 411.88 kJ / mol|
|3. Ionization energy||30th.506 (3) eV ≈ 2 943.4 kJ / mol|
|4. Ionization energy||40.74 (4) eV ≈ 3 931 kJ / mol|
|5. Ionization energy||77.03 (4) eV ≈ 7 432 kJ / mol|
|Crystal structure||α-tin cubic ( diamond structure )
β-tin tetragonal ( structure type A5)
|density||5.769 g / cm 3 (20 ° C ) (α-tin)
7.265 g / cm 3 (20 ° C) (β-tin)
|magnetism||α-tin diamagnetic ( Χ m = −2.3 10 −5 )
β-tin paramagnetic ( Χ m = 2.4 10 −6 )
|Melting point||505.08 K (231.93 ° C)|
|boiling point||2893 K (2620 ° C)|
|Molar volume||16.29 10 −6 m 3 mol −1|
|Heat of evaporation||290 kJ / mol|
|Heat of fusion||7.03 kJ mol −1|
|Vapor pressure||5.78 · 10 −21 Pa at 505 K.|
|Speed of sound||2500 m s −1 at 293.15 K.|
|Work function||4.42 eV|
|Electric conductivity||8.69 · 10 6 A · V −1 · m −1|
|Thermal conductivity||67 W m −1 K −1|
|Oxidation states||(−4), 4 , 2|
|Normal potential||−0.137 V (Sn 2+ + 2 e - → Sn)|
|Electronegativity||1.96 ( Pauling scale )|
|For other isotopes see list of isotopes|
As far as possible and customary, SI units are used.
Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .
Tin is a chemical element with the element symbol Sn ( Latin stannum ) and the atomic number 50. In the periodic table it is in the 5th period and in the 4th main group , or 14th IUPAC group or carbon group . The silver-white, shiny and very soft heavy metal can be scratched with a fingernail. Tin has a very low melting point for metals . Its main use was earlier in the area of the production of dishes, which were made by pewter founders within the town's craft guilds until the 19th century as widespread utensils and ornaments as part of the bourgeois household. Modern use occurs in the field of electric soldering and tinning of food-safe canned goods or in medicine. Historically, people first used tin as an additive to copper as an alloying agent for the production of bronze .
The word tin ( ahd. , Mhd. Zin ) is perhaps related to ahd. Zein "rod", "rod", "branch" (see Zain ). The sec points out in this connection that the metal has previously been poured into rod form. Another explanation assumes that the main tin ore cassiterite (tin stone) also occurs in the form of needles or "sticks".
The metallurgical processing of tin began a little later than that of copper. While the smelting of copper for the Vinča culture dates back to 5400-4800 BC. Was dated in the Balkans, this is for the Middle East in the area of today's Iran and Turkey between 5200 and 5000 BC. Takes place. The oldest dated alloy of tin bronze from the tin mineral stannite was found in the Pločnik archaeological site in what is now Serbia to around 4650 BC. Dated. In the Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey , where tin ore could also have been mined, the Kestel mine and the Göltepe processing facility were discovered and dated to around 3000 BC. Dated. It remains open for the time being whether this was the source of the great tin consumption in the Middle East. Tin bronze, gold and copper were first used as jewelry only because of their color. The first metal smiths of the Vinča culture selected the tin-containing minerals presumably because of their black-green color, which resembled copper ores rich in manganese. The metal smiths of tin bronzes were aware of the specific properties of the new metal, which can be deduced from the techniques used to process the tin-rich ores.
At the end of the 3rd millennium BC Year after year in the summer months, elites resident in the Elbe Valley dug through tin barley on the Rote Weißeritz near Schellerhau . The workers lived in simple leaf huts during the season, the tin was brought to the permanent settlements in the Elbe valley, which prospered and gained wealth and reputation. At that time the Ore Mountains developed into a central supplier for all of Europe. Tin was essential in bronze manufacture . The traces of mining discovered in Schellerhau by the Archeo Montan research project are currently the oldest in Europe.
Egypt, Middle Eastern and Asian high cultures
The bronze alloy , made up of copper and tin, made tin more important ( Bronze Age ). The use of tin in Egypt is confirmed by finds of small bronze statuettes from the time of the pyramids ( 4th dynasty , around 2500 BC). Objects made of tin were also found in an Egyptian tomb from the 18th dynasty (around 1500 BC). In India, bronze production was already around 3000 BC. Known. Since the 2nd millennium BC There is evidence that tin was mined to a greater extent in Central Asia on the route of the later Silk Road . From around 1800 BC In the 4th century BC ( Shang Dynasty ), tin is known in China. A written work about the arts of that time, the Kaogong ji ( Zhou dynasty , from 1122 BC), describes in detail the mixing ratios of copper and tin, which, depending on the type, are used for sacred vessels, gongs, swords and arrowheads, axes or Arable implements to be used bronze were different. It was probably already known earlier in the actual Asian deposits in Yunnan and on the Malacca peninsula . In the valley of the Euphrates since 2000 BC BC bronze devices and their manufacture become an important cultural factor; the technique was then further developed by the Greeks and Romans.
Early trade: Middle East and Central Asia, Phoenicians
The expansion of the trade in tin also confirms its early and extensive exploitation. It was first brought from Central Asia with caravans to the areas of what is now the Near and Middle East . The tin ore was obtained there from the 3rd millennium BC. From the deposits of the old kingdom of Elam east of the Tigris and from the mountains of Khorasan on the Persian border with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan . From there it seems to have been delivered to the land of the pharaohs . In the Bible , tin is mentioned for the first time in the 4th book of Moses ( Numbers 31,22 EU ).
The Phoenicians probably had connections by sea with the tin-rich Indian islands of Malacca and Bangka , without giving precise details. Later the Phoenicians transported the tin ore with their ships along the Spanish and French coastal areas to the islands in the North Sea . On these trips they discovered areas rich in tin on the so-called Tin Islands , which may include the Isle of Wight , and in the mountains of Cornwall , where they mined the ore and exported it to other countries. To a lesser extent, tin ore mining began to a commercial extent in France (including at Cap de l'Etain), in Spain (Galicia) and in Etruria (Cento Camerelle near Campiglia Marittima ).
Greeks and Romans
In the epics of Homer and Hesiod , tin inlays appear as ornaments on the chariots and shields of Agamemnon and Heracles ; pewter (probably "tinned") greaves are described for Achilles . Through Plautus , tin is mentioned for the first time as tableware for meals. It was probably not known to the Greeks as a utility metal for tableware. According to Herodotus , the tin that the Greeks used for bronze casting came from the Cassiterids , whose geographical location was unknown to him. These islands are also mentioned and described by Strabo , who locates them far north of Spain, near Britain .
The Roman writer Pliny called tin in his natural history plumbum album ("white lead"); Lead, however, was plumbum nigrum ("black lead"). He also describes the tinning of copper coins and reports of tin mirrors and ampoules and describes how lead water pipes were soldered with tin alloy. The high demand for the tin assigned to Jupiter in alchemy is even cited as a reason for the Roman occupation of Britain . In the south-western region of Cornwall was from 2100 BC. Mined tin ore until 1998. In ancient times it was an important supplier of tin to the Mediterranean and the largest in the world until the late 19th century. In Latin, tin means stannum , hence the chemical symbol (Sn).
During the Great Migration , the mining of tin ore ceased completely. Only a few cult objects were still made. In the Council of Reims (813), in addition to gold and silver, only tin is expressly permitted for the manufacture of such objects. The grave finds of Capetiennes confirm this insofar as it was customary at the time of the first crusades to bury priests with pewter goblets and bishops as well as abbots with pewter sticks.
The custom of wearing small portraits made of tin alloy, so-called pilgrim signs , on the chest probably also dates from the time of the Crusades. Depending on the region, these were St. Denis or St. Nicolas in central and southern France, and St. Thomas of Canterbury in England. The religious coins and vials, small bells and pipes brought home from the Palestinian pilgrimage sites were made of pewter. After the pilgrimage was recognized, they had to be thrown into rivers and lakes to avert possible abuse.
From 1100 the population in Europe gradually began to replace the previously made of clay and wood dishes with those made of the more stable tin. The artisanal processing of tin in tin foundries began in the larger cities around 1200 . The Venetians then maintained trade relations with the tin-rich Indies Malacca and Bangka .
Primary tin deposits include greisen , hydrothermal vein and, more rarely, skarn and volcanic exhalative deposits (VHMS) . Since the economically most important tin mineral cassiterite SnO 2 , also known as tin stone, is a very stable heavy mineral, a large part of tin production also comes from secondary soap deposits . In some primary deposits, the sulphide mineral stannite Cu 2 FeSnS 4 is also important for tin production. In primary tin deposits, the element often occurs in association with arsenic , tungsten , bismuth , silver , zinc , copper and lithium .
To obtain tin, the ore is first crushed and then enriched using various processes (slurrying, electrical / magnetic separation). After the reduction with carbon , the tin is heated just above its melting temperature so that it can flow off without impurities having a higher melting point. Today a large part is obtained through recycling, and here through electrolysis .
The current reserves for tin are given as 4.7 million tonnes, with an annual production of 289,000 tonnes in 2015. Over 80% of the production currently comes from soap deposits (secondary deposits) on rivers and in the coastal area, primarily from a region beginning in central China via Thailand to Indonesia . The largest tin deposits on earth were discovered in 1876 in the Kinta Valley ( Malaysia ). Around 2 million tons have been mined there to date. The material in the alluvial deposits has a metal content of around 5%. A melting process is only used after various steps to concentrate to around 75%.
In Germany there are greater resources in the Erzgebirge , where the metal was extracted from the 13th century until 1990. Examples are the Altenberg old deposit and the Pöhla skarn deposit . Various companies are currently exploring for tin in the Ore Mountains. In August 2012, the first investigation results published for the places Geyer and Gottesberg, a district of Muldenhammer , suggest deposits of around 160,000 tons of tin for both places. In principle, these figures also confirm information as estimated after prospecting carried out during the GDR era. According to Deutsche Rohstoff AG , it is the world's largest still undeveloped tin deposit. Since on the one hand the ore content of 0.27 percent for Gottesberg and 0.37 percent for Geyer is relatively low, and on the other hand the ore is relatively difficult to remove from the rock, it is unclear whether mining would be economically viable. Should this happen, zinc, copper and indium would also be produced as by-products .
The most important mining nation for tin is China, followed by Indonesia and Myanmar. In Europe, Portugal was the largest producer in 2009 , where it is extracted as a by-product of the VHMS Neves Corvo deposit .
The annual world consumption of tin is around 300,000 t. About 35% of this is used for solders , about 30% for tinplate and about 30% for chemicals and pigments . By switching from tin-lead solders to lead-free solders with a tin content of> 95%, the annual demand will increase by around 10%. World market prices have increased continuously in recent years. In 2003, the LME ( London Metal Exchange ) paid around 5,000 US dollars per ton, but in May 2008 it was already more than 24,000 US dollars per ton. The ten largest tin consumers (2003) worldwide are the USA, Japan, Germany, the rest of Europe, Korea, the rest of Asia, Taiwan, Great Britain and France in first place after China.
The global financial crisis that began in 2007 and weak economic growth in emerging and developing countries put the price under pressure. In August 2015, the price per ton fell briefly to below 14,000 US dollars. In October 2015, the price had recovered slightly to around 16,000 US dollars. Due to the strong US dollar, the low price is only partially popular in many consumer countries. Global production in 2011 was around 253,000 tons, of which 110,000 tons were extracted in China alone; another 51,000 tons came from Indonesia.
Cassiterite was American US by the Securities and Exchange Commission SEC as so-called "conflict minerals" classified, its use is required to report for companies to the SEC. The reason given for this is the production sites in eastern Congo that are controlled by rebels and are therefore suspected of helping to finance armed conflicts.
|2015||2009 ( t )||2009 (%)||2015 ( t )||2015 (%)||2017 (t)|
|1||People's Republic of China||115,000||40%||110,000||38%||1,100,000|
|8th||Democratic Republic of Congo||9,400||3.3%||6,400||2.2%||110,000|
- α-tin ( cubic diamond lattice , 5.75 g / cm 3 ) is stable below 13.2 ° C and has a band gap of E G = 0.1 eV. It is classified as a semi-metal or a semiconductor, depending on the interpretation . Its color is gray.
- β-tin (distorted octahedral , 7.31 g / cm 3 ) up to 162 ° C, surface silver-white.
- γ-tin ( rhombic grid , 6.54 g / cm 3 ) above 162 ° C or under high pressure.
When bending the relatively soft tin, for example tin bars, a characteristic sound occurs, the tin scream (also tin scream). It arises from the friction between the β-crystallites. However, the noise only occurs with pure tin. Even low- alloy tin does not show this property; z. B. small admixtures of lead or antimony prevent the tin shouting. The β-tin has a flattened tetrahedron as a space cell structure , from which two connections are also formed.
The oxide layer with which tin is coated makes it very durable. However, concentrated acids and bases decompose it with the evolution of hydrogen gas . However, tin (IV) oxide is similarly inert to titanium (IV) oxide . Tin is reduced by less noble metals (e.g. zinc); elemental tin is deposited spongy or adhering to the zinc.
Tin has a total of ten naturally occurring isotopes . These are 112 Sn, 114 Sn, 115 Sn, 116 Sn, 117 Sn, 118 Sn, 119 Sn, 120 Sn, 122 Sn and 124 Sn. 120 Sn is the most common isotope with a 32.4% share of natural tin. Of the unstable isotopes, 126 Sn is the longest-lived with a half-life of 230,000 years. All other isotopes have a half-life of only a maximum of 129 days, but 121 Sn has a core isomer with a half-life of 44 years. The isotopes 113 Sn, 121 Sn, 123 Sn and 125 Sn are most frequently used as tracers . Tin is the only element to have three stable isotopes with an uneven mass number and with ten stable isotopes the most stable isotopes of all elements.
The luminous test is carried out as a qualitative detection reaction for tin salts : The solution is mixed with approx. 20% hydrochloric acid and zinc powder, which releases nascent hydrogen . The nascent, atomic hydrogen reduces part of the tin down to the stannane SnH 4 . A test tube filled with cold water and potassium permanganate solution is immersed in this solution ; the potassium permanganate only serves as a contrast medium. This test tube is held in the dark in the non-luminous Bunsen burner flame. In the presence of tin, a typical blue fluorescence occurs immediately , caused by SnH 4 .
Polarography is suitable for the quantitative determination of tin . In 1 M sulfuric acid, tin (II) gives a step at −0.46 V (against calomel electrode , reduction to the element). Stannate (II) can be oxidized to stannate (IV) (−0.73 V) or reduced to an element (−1.22 V) in 1 M sodium hydroxide solution. In the ultra-trace range , the graphite tube and hydride technology of atomic spectroscopy are ideal . With the graphite furnace AAS, detection limits of 0.2 µg / l are achieved. In hydride technology, the tin compounds in the sample solution are transferred into the quartz cuvette as gaseous stannane using sodium borohydride . There the stannane breaks down into the elements at approx. 1000 ° C, with the atomic tin vapor specifically absorbing the Sn lines of a tin hollow cathode lamp . Here 0.5 µg / l was given as the detection limit.
Metallic tin is inherently non-toxic even in large quantities. The toxicity of simple tin compounds and salts is low. Some organic tin compounds, on the other hand, are highly toxic. The trialkyl tin compounds (in particular TBT, English. " T ri b utyl t in" TBT ) and triphenyltin were several decades in paints used for ships to kill the the hulls caging microorganisms and mussels. This resulted in high concentrations of TBT in seawater in the vicinity of large port cities, which still affect the population of various marine life today. The toxic effect is based on the denaturation of some proteins through interaction with sulfur from amino acids such as cysteine .
Traditional uses and trades
Pure tin plate has been used extensively for production as organ metal in the visible area for centuries . These keep their silvery color for many decades. The soft metal is usually used in an alloy with lead, the so-called organ metal, and has very good vibration-damping properties for sound development. Temperatures that are too low are harmful to organ pipes because they are converted into α-tin; see tin plague . Many household items, pewter utensils (dishes), tubes, cans and even pewter figures were made entirely from pewter in the past, in keeping with the simpler processing technology of the time. In the meantime, however, the relatively valuable material has mostly been replaced by cheaper alternatives. Ornaments and costume jewelry are still made from tin alloys, pewter and Britannia metal.
Since the Middle Ages, the tin caster has been a special craft that has survived to this day, albeit to a very limited extent. Today he is legally incorporated into the job title of metal and bell founder . The task of the pewter cleaner was to clean mainly oxidized objects made of pewter with a cold water extract from the field horsetail , which is why it was popularly called horsetail . It was a rather less respected traveling trade and was practiced in the houses of middle-class or large-scale farmers.
As an alloy component, tin is used in many ways, alloyed with copper to form bronze or other materials. Nordic gold , the alloy of the gold-colored euro coins, contains, among other things, 1% tin. Algerian metal contains 94.5% tin.
As a component of metal alloys with a low melting point, tin is irreplaceable. Soft solder (so-called tin solder ) for connecting electronic components (for example on printed circuit boards ) is alloyed with lead (a typical mixture is around 63% Sn and 37% Pb) and other metals in a smaller proportion. The mixture melts at about 183 ° C. Since July 2006, lead-containing tin solder may no longer be used in electronic devices (see RoHS ); you now use lead-free tin alloys with copper and silver, z. B. Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 (melting temperature approx. 220 ° C).
However, since one does not trust these alloys ( tin plague and "tin whiskers" ), the production of electronic assemblies for medical technology, safety technology, measuring devices, air and ventilation systems is essential . For space travel as well as for military / police use, the use of leaded solders is still permitted. On the contrary, the use of lead-free solder in these sensitive areas is prohibited despite RoHS .
Highly pure tin single crystals are also suitable for the production of electronic components.
In float glass production, the viscous glass mass floats on a mirror-smooth molten tin until it solidifies.
Tin compounds are the plastic PVC admixed as stabilizers. Tributyltin is used as a so-called antifouling additive in paints for ships and prevents fouling on the hull, but it is now controversial and largely prohibited.
In the form of a transparent tin oxide-indium oxide compound, it is an electrical conductor in display devices such as LC displays . The pure, white, not very hard tin dioxide has a high light refraction and is used in the optical sector and as a mild polishing agent. In dentistry , tin is also used as a component of amalgams for filling teeth. The very toxic organic tin compounds are used as fungicides or disinfectants .
Tin powder was previously used under the name Argentin to produce fake silver paper and fake silver foil.
When rolled into thin foil, it is also called tinfoil , which is used for tinsel , for example . However, tin was replaced by the much cheaper aluminum in the 20th century . Tin is also used in some paint tubes and wine bottle stoppers.
Tin compounds occur in the oxidation states + II and + IV. Tin (IV) compounds are more stable because tin is an element of the 4th main group and the effect of the inert electron pair is not as pronounced as with the heavier elements of this group, e.g. B. the lead . Tin (II) compounds can therefore easily be converted into tin (IV) compounds . Many tin compounds are of an inorganic nature, but a number of organotin compounds ( organotin ) are also known.
Oxides and hydroxides
- Tin (II) oxide SnO
- Tin (II, IV) oxide Sn 2 O 3
- Tin (IV) oxide SnO 2
- Tin (II) hydroxide Sn (OH) 2
- Tin (IV) hydroxide Sn (OH) 4 , CAS number: 12054-72-7
- Tin (II) fluoride SnF 2
- Tin (II) chloride SnCl 2
- Tin (IV) chloride SnCl 4
- Tin (IV) bromide SnBr 4
- Tin (II) iodide SnI 2
- Tin (IV) iodide SnI 4
- Tin (II) sulfate SnSO 4
- Tin (IV) sulfate Sn (SO 4 ) 2
- Tin (II) nitrate Sn (NO 3 ) 2
- Tin (IV) nitrate Sn (NO 3 ) 4
- Tin (II) oxalate Sn (COO) 2
- Tin (II) pyrophosphate Sn 2 P 2 O 7
- Zinc hydroxystannate ZnSnO 3 3 H 2 O, CAS number: 12027-96-2
Organic tin compounds
- Dibutyltin Dilaurate (DBTDL) C 32 H 64 O 4 Sn
- Dibutyltin oxide (DBTO) (H 9 C 4 ) 2 SnO
- Dibutyltin diacetate C 12 H 24 O 4 Sn, CAS number: 1067-33-0
- Diphenyltin dichloride C 12 H 10 Cl 2 Sn
- Tributyltin hydride C 12 H 28 Sn
- Tributyl Tin Chloride (TBTCL) (C 4 H 9 ) 3 SnCl
- Tributyl tin fluoride (TBTF) C 12 H 27 FSn, CAS number: 1983-10-4
- Tributyl tin sulfide (TBTS) C 24 H 54 SSn 2 , CAS number: 4808-30-4
- Tributyltin Oxide (TBTO) C 24 H 54 OSn 2
- Triphenyltin hydride C 18 H 16 Sn
- Triphenyltin hydroxide C 18 H 16 OSn
- Triphenyltin chloride C 18 H 15 ClSn
- Tetramethyl tin C 4 H 12 Sn
- Tetraethyl tin C 8 H 20 Sn
- Tetrabutyl tin C 16 H 36 Sn
- Tetraphenyltin (H 5 C 6 ) 4 Sn
- Stannan SnH 4
- Sodium stannate Na 2 SnO 3
- Potassium stannate K 2 SnO 3 , CAS number: 12142-33-5
- Tin difluoroborate Sn (BF 4 ) 2 , CAS number: 13814-97-6
- Tin (II) -2-ethylhexanoate Sn (OOCCH (C 2 H 5 ) C 4 H 9 ) 2
- Tin (II) oleate Sn (C 17 H 34 COO), CAS number: 1912-84-1
- tin telluride SnTe
- Indium tin oxide , a mixed oxide usually made of 90% indium (III) oxide (In 2 O 3 ) and 10% tin (IV) oxide (SnO 2 )
- Ludwig Mory, E. Pichelkastner, B. Höfler: Bruckmann's Zinn-Lexikon. Munich 1977, ISBN 3-7654-1361-5 .
- Vanessa Brett: Tin. Herder, Freiburg 1983, ISBN 3-451-19715-4 .
- KA Yener, A. Adriaens, B. Earl, H. Özbal: Analyzes of Metalliferous Residues, Crucible Fragments, Experimental Smelts, and Ores from Kestel Tin Mine and the Tin Processing Site of Göltepe, Turkey. In: PT Craddock, J. Lang (Ed.): Mining and Metal Production Through The Ages. The British Museum Press, London 2003, ISBN 0-7141-2770-1 , pp. 181-197.
- Harry H. Binder: Lexicon of the chemical elements. S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-7776-0736-3 .
- The values for the properties (info box) are taken from www.webelements.com (tin) , unless otherwise stated .
- CIAAW, Standard Atomic Weights Revised 2013 .
- entry on tin in Kramida, A., Ralchenko, Yu., Reader, J. and NIST ASD Team (2019): NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1) . Ed .: NIST , Gaithersburg, MD. doi : 10.18434 / T4W30F ( https://physics.nist.gov/asd ). Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- entry on tin at WebElements, https://www.webelements.com , accessed on June 11, 2020.
- N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw: Chemistry of the elements. 1st edition. VCH, Weinheim 1988, ISBN 3-527-26169-9 , p. 482.
- David R. Lide (Ed.): CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics . 90th edition. (Internet version: 2010), CRC Press / Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds, pp. 4-142-4-147. The values there are based on g / mol and are given in cgs units. The value specified here is the SI value calculated from it, without a unit of measure.
- Yiming Zhang, Julian RG Evans, Shoufeng Yang: Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. In: Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data . 56, 2011, pp. 328-337, doi: 10.1021 / je1011086 .
- GG Graf: Tin, Tin Alloys, and Tin Compounds. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim 2005, doi : 10.1002 / 14356007.a27_049 .
- Ludwig Bergmann, Clemens Schaefer, Rainer Kassing: Textbook of Experimental Physics . Volume 6: Solids. 2nd Edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-11-017485-5 , p. 361.
- Ludwig Mory: Beautiful pewter - history forms and problems . Bruckmann, Munich 1977, ISBN 3-7654-1416-6 , p. 11.
- Zinn at Duden online.
- Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Ernst Pernicka, Dušan Šljivar, Michael Brauns, Dušan Borić: On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe. In: Journal of Archaeological Science. Volume 37, Issue 11, November 2010, pp. 2775–2787 (PDF)
- Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Julka Kuzmanović-Cvetković, Marija Jovanović, Peter Northover: Tainted ores and the rise of tin bronzes in Eurasia, c. 6500 years ago. In: Antiquity. Volume 87, Issue 338, December 2013, pp. 1030-1045. (PDF)
- Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Julka Kuzmanović-Cvetković, Marija Jovanović: Why are there tin bronzes in the 5th millenium Balkans? In: Selena Vitezović, Dragana Antonović (Eds.): Archeotechnology: studying Technology from prehistory to the Middle Ages. Srpsko Arheološko Društvo, Belgrad 2014, pp. 235–256 (Academia.edu)
- Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Julka Kuzmanović-Cvetković, Marija Jovanović, J. Peter Northover: Tainted ores and the rise of tin bronzes in Eurasia, c. 6500 years ago. 2015, p. 1041.
- Saxony's history began much earlier than expected. In the Ore Mountains, researchers find mining that is thousands of years old. The history of Saxony must be rewritten. In: Sächsische Zeitung of November 2, 2018 (accessed November 2, 2018).
- Homer: Iliad 18,613.
- Ludwig Mory: Beautiful pewter - history forms and problems . Bruckmann, Munich 1977, ISBN 3-7654-1416-6 , p. 12.
- Strabo: Geography. 3,5,14.
- Jörg Barke: The language of the Chymie: using the example of four prints from the period between 1574-1761. (= German linguistics. 111). Tübingen 1991, p. 385.
- Ludwig Mory: Beautiful pewter - history forms and problems . Bruckmann, Munich 1977, ISBN 3-7654-1416-6 , p. 13.
- KH Wedepohl: The composition of the continental crust. In: Geochimica et Cosmoschimica Acta. 59/7, 1995, pp. 1217-1232; doi: 10.1016 / 0016-7037 (95) 00038-2 .
- USGS - Tin Statistics and Information - Mineral Commodity Summaries 2017 (PDF file; 29 kB).
- Tin chapter ( Memento of November 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 2.56 MB), p. 112.
- Christoph Seidler: Test drilling confirms huge tin deposits. In: Spiegel online. August 30, 2012, accessed on the same day.
- London Metal Exchange: Tin Prices ( Memento of May 14, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). Retrieved November 24, 2015.
- Tin price per ton .
- SEC, Conflict Minerals - Final Rule (2012), pp. 34–35. (PDF, 1.96 MB)
- SEC Adopts Rule for Disclosing Use of Conflict Minerals (Engl.), Accessed on September 3, 2012.
- USGS - Tin Statistics and Information - Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 (PDF file; 27 kB).
- G. Audi, O. Bersillon, J. Blachot, AH Wapstra: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. In: Nuclear Physics. Volume A 729, 2003, pp. 3-128. doi : 10.1016 / j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 . ( PDF ; 1.0 MB).
In the textbook of analytical and preparative inorganic chemistry , the cause of the luminous phenomenon is a - probably inapplicable - reduction to tin (II) chloride SnCl 2 .
Jander , Blasius : Textbook of analytical and preparative inorganic chemistry. 2006, ISBN 3-7776-1388-6 , p. 499.
- J. Heyrovský , J. Kuta: Basics of polarography. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1965, p. 516.
- K. Cammann (Ed.): Instrumental Analytical Chemistry. Spectrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin 2001, pp. 4–47.
- Entry on tin. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on March 19, 2014.
- Christian Wagner, Noreen Harned: EUV lithography: Lithography gets extreme . In: Nat Photon . tape 4 , no. 1 , 2010, p. 24-26 , doi : 10.1038 / nphoton.2009.251 .