Physical geography of the Ore Mountains
|Highest peak||Klínovec (Keilberg) ( )|
|location||Germany , Czech Republic|
|rock||Gneiss , mica slate , phyllite , granite , rarely basalt , rhyolite , sedimentary rocks (incl. Coal )|
|Age of the rock||mostly carbon|
The Ore Mountains ( Czech ) is a low mountain range in Saxony and Bohemia . The German-Czech border runs just north of the ridge line . The highest peaks are the Keilberg ( Klínovec ) ( ) and the Fichtelberg ( ).
Since the first wave of settlement in the Middle Ages, the nature of the Ore Mountains has been intensively shaped by human intervention and has created a diverse cultural landscape . In particular, mining with heaps, dams, ditches and pings shaped the landscape and the habitats of plants and animals directly in many places. A selection of historically largely original technical monuments as well as individual monuments and factual groups related to the mining industry have been part of the UNESCO World Heritage as the Ore Mountains Mining Region since 2019 .
The higher altitudes from around Erzgebirge / Vogtland Nature Park - the largest of its kind in Germany with a length of 120 km. The eastern Ore Mountains are protected as the Osterzgebirge landscape protection area. Other smaller areas on the German and Czech side are protected by the state as nature reserves and natural monuments . In the ridges there are also several larger raised bogs that are only fed by rainwater . The Erzgebirge is a popular hiking area and there are winter sports areas in the high areas.on the German side belong to the
Regional geological framework
The Ore an asymmetrically prominent plaice ( panel plaice ), on the most part metamorphic Variscan basement pending . With the Fichtel Mountains , the Münchberger Masse , the Thuringian-Franconian-Vogtland Slate Mountains and the Saxon Granulite Mountains , it is combined to form the Franconian-Thuringian-Saxon Basement Mountains , which form the northwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif . Within the Variscan trending large troughs and calipers of the Fränkisch-Thüringisch-Saxon basement forms the Ore together with the Fichtelgebirge a saddle structure that Erzgebirgs-Fichtelgebirgshalle-anticlinorium whose saddle axis dives to the southwest. As a result, the older or tectonically deeper rocks bite out in the northeastern part of the Ore Mountains and the younger or tectonically higher rocks in the southwestern part. The Erzgebirge is two in the Mesozoic resulting shear zones crossed, the Gera Jáchymov- and Flöha- disorder .
The Ore Mountains are sharply demarcated from the Egergraben to the southeast by the Erzgebirge demolition and sharply to the northeast by the Central Saxon Fault against the southwestern edge of the Elbe zone with the Elbe Valley Slate Mountains and the Nossen-Wilsdruffer Slate Mountains. With the Döhlen Basin and the Elbe Chalk, rocks from the Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic overburden encroach on the Ore Mountains. Also along almost the entire north-western edge, Upper Paleozoic sediments, the remnants of the filling of the Vorerzgebirge basin , overlap the Erzgebirge crystalline. To the west, the Ore Mountains merge into the largely unmetamorphic basement units of the Thuringian-Franconian-Vogtland Slate Mountains and to the south-west the Ore Mountains continue in the Fichtel Mountains (geographically, these transition areas are no longer assigned to the Ore Mountains, but to the Vogtland or Elster Mountains ).
The Erzgebirge owes its formation to two mountain formations in particular : The Erzgebirge crystalline emerged from the Variscan mountain formation in the Upper Palaeozoic , from which the vast majority of the mountain body is built up. Today's morphology , the Pultschollen Mountains , arose in the wake of the Alpid mountain formation in the Tertiary . However, the history of the oldest rocks in today's Ore Mountains begins around 570 million years ago in the late Neoproterozoic ( Ediacarian ).
Early phase (Cadomian phase)
About 750 million years ago the supercontinent Rodinia , which comprised most of the then continental crust, began to disintegrate. From its fragments, the major continent Gondwana was formed between about 650 and 530 million years ago , in which the forerunners of today's continental crust blocks Africa-Arabia, South America, Antarctica, Australia and India were united, as well as the smaller northern continents Laurentia ("Ur-North America "), Baltica (" Ur-Europa ") and Sibiria (" Ur-Siberia ").
About 570 million years ago the West African craton was preceded by an island arc . Greywacke and volcanic sediments (pyroclastics) settled in the sea basin on the back of the arch of the island (backarc basin) . About 540 million years ago, at the transition from the Neoproterozoic to the Cambrian , this backarc basin was pushed together during the collision of the island arc with Gondwana, and the sediments were folded. Immediately thereafter, granitoids intruded into the folded rocks. These events are summarized under the term Cadomic orogeny . They created the so-called Cadomian basement of the Ore Mountains and adjacent areas of continental crust on the periphery of Gondwana, which were added (accreted) to the “primordial European” crust in the further course of the Paleozoic.
The Ore Mountains are part of the Saxothuringian , a geological zone in what is now Central Europe, which is palaeogeographically assigned to such a Cadomic pre-deformed, Perigondwanic crust segment ( Terran ) called Armorica ("Cadomia").
Pre-Variscan and Variscan phase (Lower Ordovician – Lower Carboniferous)
At the beginning of the Paleozoic, Armorica / Cadomia was at high latitudes in the southern hemisphere - thousands of kilometers away from its current position.
About 500 million years ago, on the threshold from the Cambrian to the Ordovician , the earth's crust in the immediate vicinity of the Saxothuringian was stretched, which initially led to the formation of a rift and subsequently to the detachment of the small continent of Avalonia . The Rhine Ocean opened up between Avalonia and Gondwana . The rift phase was accompanied by intense magmatism with the formation of granites and rhyolites . After the end of this phase in the Upper Lower Ordovician, the region was a rapidly sinking continental shelf . The deposition of clay - sandy and later calcareous , marine sediments coined this phase until the Silurian . Comparative studies of the geochemistry of Saxothuringian sedimentary rocks and metasediments show that the strata of the Ordovician sequence on the eastern flank of the Schwarzburger Saddle in Thuringia are found in different metamorphic units of the Western Ore Mountains. This is a clear indication of the close paleogeographical connection, the common deposition of these sediments on the Saxothuringian shelf.
In the Devonian , the Rhine Ocean began to close again, with its southern edge, including Armorica on the northern edge of Gondwana, advancing north. In the north, the Rhine Ocean was bounded by the large continent Laurussia , which had meanwhile formed from the crustal blocks Avalonia, Laurentia and Baltica (see → Caledonian Orogeny ). Towards the end of the Devonian Mountains, Gondwana and Laurussia finally met a few degrees of latitude south of the equator and triggered the Variscan mountain formation.
At the transition from the subduction of the Rheic Ocean to the collision of the continental blocks, the thinned continental crust of Armorica also came under Laurussia. The rocks affected by this were sunk very quickly and very deeply, but as the collision progressed they were transported ( exhumed ) again just as quickly to higher areas of the crust . The occurrence of tiny diamonds in rocks near the Saidenbach Dam in the Western Ore Mountains suggests that this material reached the upper mantle , at depths of 150 km. Scuttling and exhumation were short-lived. The mountains cooled to surface temperature shortly after orogeny. Radiometric age measurements on various rocks from different areas of the Ore Mountains consistently show around 340 million years ( Viséum ).
All the rocks in the Ore Mountains were metamorphosed and more or less heavily folded during the Variscan mountain formation . Dozens of kilometers wide areas of the earth's crust were pushed together to just a few kilometers. In the process, some scales of non-subducted oceanic crust also got into the paleozoic sediment pile. The gray gneisses of the Eastern Ore Mountains formed from the greywacke, pyroclastics and granitoids of the Cadomian basement (greywacke became paragneiss and granitoids became orthogneiss). The red gneisses of the Western Ore Mountains emerged from the granites and rhyolites of the Cambro-Ordovician rift phase, but some red gneiss raw materials may still be Cadomian (Reitzenhain gneiss dome). The marine paleozoic sediments were converted into phyllite , garnet phyllite , mica schist or paragneiss , depending on the depth of the sinking, and the clods of oceanic crust in them were converted into amphibolite or eclogite . A peculiarity of the Erzgebirge Variscence is shown in the fact that the Cadomian basement of the Lausitz - also part of the Saxothuringian basement - which is located east of the Elbe zone , did not undergo any metamorphosis, as did the old Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, basaltoids and rhyolithoids of the Thuringian- Friarian region west of the Erzgebirge Slate mountains .
Late and post-variscan phase (Upper Carboniferous and Permian)
In the late phase of the Variscan orogeny, the large granite complexes of Eibenstock - Nejdek and Kirchberg began to intrude about 327 to 318 million years ago . The Osterzgebirge experienced an explosive volcanism, whose rhyolite-ignimbritic ejecta material u. a. has been preserved in the calderas of Altenberg - Teplice and Tharandt . Both structures are well over 10 km in diameter.
At the latest with the beginning of the elevation of the “Ur-Erzgebirge” in the Upper Carboniferous, it was increasingly subject to weathering and erosion. The removed material, so-called molasses , was sedimented together with the volcanic production products in depressions , namely in the Vorerzgebirgs depression and in the Döhlen basin , which are located north of today's Erzgebirge. Molasses of the same age (upper Upper Carboniferous to Middle Permian ) interspersed with volcanic rocks can also be found in other areas of Central Europe. It is generally summarized under the name Rotliegend (but in some cases the molasses sedimentation begins in the higher Lower Carboniferous). The only noteworthy molasse basins directly in the Ore Mountains are the comparatively small structures of Olbernhau and Brandov, each with an outcrop area of around 4 km² (partially covered by Quaternary deposits) . In all of these depressions, hard coal was formed, although it was only of historical economic importance. After the end of the uplift and subsidence of volcanism, the “Ur-Erzgebirge” was finally eroded down to a gently undulating hilly landscape, the Permian Hull . Meanwhile, it was a few degrees north of the equator, in a central position in the western half of the supercontinent Pangea .
Towards the end of the Permian Pangea began to break apart again. The Tethys Ocean , protruding like a gulf from the east into the supercontinent , opened like a zipper further to the west and increasingly separated the northern part ( Laurasia ) from the southern part (Gondwana). The terrane formerly located on the periphery of Gondwana, and thus also the Saxothuringian, remained connected to the northern continent.
In the Cenomaniac , in the early Upper Cretaceous, there was a significant global rise in sea levels . At that time the Ore Mountains were part of the Central European Island (Rheinisch-Böhmische Insel). This island was already formed in the lower Cretaceous ( Apt and Alb ) in the course of rising global sea levels and, with a length of around 800 km, it represented one of the larger areas in the European part of Laurasia that was not covered by the sea. It separated the boreal waters of the North German Chalk Basin from a subtropical marginal sea of the western Tethys. In the east the smaller West Sudetian island was upstream. a. included part of today's Lausitz. The intervening strait had roughly the NW-SE direction extending the same zone and joined the North German Cretaceous Basin with the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin . Initially, however, this strait was still largely dry: There are no deposits from the Untercenoman and the conglomeratic and sandy sediments of the middle Cenoman were predominantly terrestrial (deposits of the "Niederschöna River System"). With the further advance of the sea, the terrestrial sedimentation was finally replaced by marine sedimentation in the Upper Scenoman, whereby in the Dresden area due to the increasing distance to the mainland, sandy sediments were replaced by generally finer-grained and more carbonate sediments (“Pläner” facies, marl facies). However, mainly sands were still deposited between Pirna and Děčín . These are open to a large extent in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains and include a sequence from Obercenoman to Unter coniac . Also in the eastern Ore Mountains are u. a. Elbe sandstones have been preserved locally in the Tharandt Forest , in the Dippoldiswald Heide and in the Bohemian Ore Mountains south of Petrovice (there at about 650 m above sea level), but only the deepest parts of the sequence, mainly from the Middle Cenoman (Niederschöna Formation), to a lesser extent Scope also from the Obercenoman (Oberhäslich formation).
After Africa-Arabia had drifted north for a long time with the closure of the western Tethys, the collision of Africa with the southern edge of Europe from around 80 million years ago finally led to the formation of the Alps . In the course of the Tertiary in Central Europe, not only did the Alps emerge , but the crust north of the Alps was also tectonically revived ( Saxon clod tectonics ). As a result, the north-eastern edge of the Bohemian Massif experienced several phases of narrowing and stretching. The first narrowing around 80–40 million years ago (Upper Cretaceous Eocene ) had only minor effects. The Karsdorf fault on the eastern edge of the Ore Mountains, a postponement with jumping heights of up to 300 m, is attributed to this. About 40-16 million years ago (Eocene- Miocene ) crust expansion caused the sinking of the Eger Trench south of the Ore Mountains with simultaneous elevation of the Ore Mountains. With this opposite movement, the north of the Erzgebirgsscholle was only slightly raised, while on the southern edge, at the Erzgebirge Abort, jump heights of up to 1000 m were reached. This phase was accompanied by intense, mostly basaltic volcanism in the Egergraben, with the peak of volcanic activity around 20 to 30 million years ago. His foothills extended into the Erzgebirge: how strung on a string of pearls can be found in today's ridge area's many mountains and basalt - outcrops , the remains of former volcanoes are. The volcanic phenomena were varied. The Hammerunterwiesenthal maar with a diameter of 2 km in EW and 1.4 km in NS direction was formed around 30 million years ago near Hammerunterwiesenthal . In the central Ore Mountains, thin-flowing lava poured into the river valleys of the time over several kilometers. The up to 40 m thick sediments below the basalt cover are evidence of rivers that flowed from the Bohemian region to the brown coal swamps in the Halle-Leipzig area ( Altenburg-Zwickau river ). (a) Spring crests prevailed in the eastern Ore Mountains .
Subsequently, narrowing took place again, which led to the tipping of the shed clod about 15 million years ago. With the revival of the relief, the erosion increased. In the case of the basalts there was a reversal of the relief , i.e. That is, the basalt-filled, former river valleys we encounter today as the table mountains Bärenstein , Pöhlberg and Scheibenberg . The last phase of uplift is often dated to around 2 million years and younger.
During the Elster Cold Age of the Pleistocene around 400,000 years ago, the Scandinavian inland ice penetrated to the edge of the Ore Mountains and came to a standstill there. The so-called flint line , which marks the maximum advance of the Elster ice sheet, runs directly in front of or slightly on the foot of the Erzgebirge. Traces of the Pleistocene Ice Age can also be found in the Ore Mountains, which lay in the periglacial , the foreland of the glacier. During the Vistula Glaciation (100,000–12,000 years ago) the ice edge ran around 100 km north of the edge of the Ore Mountains. Strong down winds blew fine dust from there to the south and deposited it as loess on the northern flank of the Ore Mountains . Originally calcareous, this weathered to loess clay . Frost pattern floors and ice wedges are evidence of the permafrost prevailing at the time .
Only in the course of the Quaternary did the current shapes and courses of the river valleys emerge. For example , during the Pleistocene, Müglitz , Weißeritz , Lockwitzbach and Freiberger Mulde temporarily drained into the United Eastern Ore Mountains River instead of into the Elbe , which, after leaving the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, took a course further east. Melting periods cut a deep valleys and created wide gravel - terraces .
With the beginning of the present warm period , the Holocene , about 12,000 years ago the weathering of the rocks and the sediments near the surface intensified, and the formation of today's soils began. Depending on the underground rock , different soils developed: partly relatively sandy brown earth over gneiss, especially in the Eastern Ore Mountains , loamy podsol brown earth over mica slate and phyllite, especially in the central and western Ore Mountains, and brown earth podsol over granite. The intermediate product of the weathering of gneiss and granite or the soil formation on these rocks is weathered gravel . Raised bogs formed on gently sloping surfaces in the area of the Erzgebirge ridge .
The Ore Mountains are a crystalline complex or it can be considered part of the larger crystalline complex of the Bohemian Massif. As such, it is typically built up from metamorphic and plutonic rocks . The igneous rocks are represented in the west with large granite bodies , while in the east rhyolite / "quartz porphyry" (among others on the Kahleberg ) predominates. Among the metamorphic rocks, phyllites and mica schist dominate in the west (together with the contact metamorphic rocks in the vicinity of the granites ) and various gneisses in the east. In the area of the ridge there are also numerous smaller basalt islands ( Pleßberg / Plešivec, Scheibenberg , Bärenstein , Pöhlberg , Großer Spitzberg / Velký Špičák, Haßberg / Jelení hora, Geisingberg ), but they do not belong to the crystalline complex because they are much later than the other rocks of the Erzgebirge (for the history of the origins of the Erzgebirge and its rocks, see above ).
A natural area classification that is valid for the entire Ore Mountains does not exist, as the definition and characterization of natural areas is carried out by the states and federal states , so that the Ore Mountains have different structures for the Saxon and Czech parts. The western and eastern boundaries are largely coordinated with one another. The total area is about 5262 km².
Saxon Ore Mountains
The most detailed natural classification of Saxony and thus also of the Saxon Ore Mountains was developed between 1965 and 2007 by the “Natural Balance and Territorial Characteristics” department of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig . This divides Saxony into geochores , which are called micro-, meso- and macrogeochores with increasing aggregation of uniform areas. An independent natural area designation "Ore" is not stand there, but the Makrogeochoren Westerzgebirge , KME and Osterzgebirge . The borders between these are formed by the slopes of the deeply cut rivers Schwarzwasser / Zwickauer Mulde (between the western and central Ore Mountains) and the Flöha (between the central and eastern Ore Mountains ). Together with the natural areas Vogtland , Elstergebirge , Saxon Switzerland , Oberlausitzer Bergland and Zittauer Gebirge , these three form the natural region of Saxon Bergland and Mittelgebirge . The bordering natural areas are from west to east: Vogtland, Ore Mountains Basin , Mulde-Lösshügelland , Eastern Ore Mountains Foreland and Saxon Switzerland. The three Ore Mountains macrogeochors are divided into a total of 51 mesogeochores and 318 microgeochores. The total area for the Saxon Ore Mountains is then 3655.45 km².
|Macro geochore||Area [km²]||Mesogeochores||Microgeochores [number]|
|Western Ore Mountains||777.64||Au valley basin with ridge, Bockauer plateau, Eibenstocker mountain ridge, north-west edge of the Ore Mountains, west edge of the Ore Mountains near Auerbach, west edge of the Ore Mountains near Markneukirchen, west edge of the Ore Mountains near Schöneck, high and ridge areas around the Auersberg and Aschberg, plateaus near Schönberg, plateaus near Schneeberg , Kirchberg Basin, Kuhberg-Steinberg-Backland, Schönheider Plateau, Klingenthaler Ridge, Hartensteiner Muldeland||86|
|Middle Ore Mountains||1383.26||Flöhatal , Grünhainer plateau, Geyerscher Wald , plateaus and ridges around the Fichtelberg , Marienberger plateaus, ridges near Annaberg-Buchholz, ridges at Lengefeld, ridges on the upper Preßnitz, slope on the Schwarzwasser, plateaus around Scheibenberg, ridge plateaus near Kühnhaide, Stollberger north edge of the Ore Mountains, northern edge of the Ore Mountains near Chemnitz, Thumer Höhenrück, Wolkensteiner Riedelland, Zwönitz plateau, Zschopauer Riedelland, Zwönitztal||109|
|Eastern Ore Mountains||1494.55||Dippoldiswalder Riedelland, Frauensteiner plateaus and Riedel, Freiberger and Oederaner plateaus, Muldeland near Lichtenberg, Muldeland near Nassau, high and ridge areas around the Kahleberg , high and ridge areas near Seiffen, high areas near Rechenberg-Bienenmühle, plateau ridge near Schmiedeberg, Riedelland near Lengefeld, Saydaer ridge and Riedelland, Tharandt forest , valley of the Wild Weißeritz , slope near Kipsdorf and Bärenstein, Reinhardtsgrimmaer plateaus, Liebstädter Riedelland, Fürstenau-Oelsener plateaus, plateaus at Glashütte||123|
The Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology chooses a different aggregation of the microgeochores for the creation of land use plans and divides the Ore Mountains into six landscapes by introducing a height graduation.
|Lower Western Ore Mountains||276.12|
|Upper Western Ore Mountains||509.10|
|Lower Central Ore Mountains||1038.57|
|Upper Middle Ore Mountains||341.80|
|Lower Eastern Ore Mountains||1256.71|
|Upper Eastern Ore Mountains||236.58|
In the older natural classification of Germany by the former Federal Institute for Regional Studies , which was published between 1953 and 1962 and took into account the whole of Germany and neighboring areas, the Ore Mountains represent the main unit group 42 with five subdivisions. However, there was no mapping, only a description of the natural spaces. The border between the Upper and Lower Western Ore Mountains on the one hand and the Upper and Lower Eastern Ore Mountains on the other hand also formed the Flöha, so that in this structure the border of the Western Ore Mountains was significantly further to the east. This subdivision was simplified by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation in 1994 for the evaluation of protection purposes ( FFH areas , nature reserves ) . The subdivisions were combined, but the Erzgebirge remained a main unit group under the key D16 with practically unchanged boundaries. The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation has further subdivided these and issues corresponding profiles for the individual areas.
|Federal Institute for Regional Studies||Federal Agency for Nature Conservation|
|420||Southern roofing of the Ore Mountains||42000||Southern roofing of the Ore Mountains||73|
|421||Upper Western Ore Mountains||42100||Upper layers on the northern roof of the West and Central Ore Mountains||698|
|42101||Lower layers of the Western Ore Mountains||270|
|422||Upper Eastern Ore Mountains||42200||Upper layers of the Osterzgebirge||327|
|423||Lower Western Ore Mountains||42300||Lower layers of the Middle Ore Mountains||1087|
|424||Lower Eastern Ore Mountains||42400||Lower layers of the Osterzgebirge||1285|
The geomorphological division of the Czech Republic divides the Czech territory into a total of ten hierarchical levels. This classification is based less on landscape and natural space aspects than on geomorphology , i.e. the relief . The unit corresponding to the Bohemian Ore Mountains is called, like the Czech name for the entire Ore Mountains, Krušné hory . This main unit forms the 6th level of classification with 92 others, which usually include natural landscapes. Superordinate are:
- Hercinský systém → Hercynská pohoří ( "Herzyniden" ) → Česká vysočina ( Bohemian mass ) → Šumavská subprovinice → Krušnohorská subprovincie → Krušnohorská hornatina .
Krusne hory borders the following main geomorphological units from east to west: Děčínská vrchovina ( Bohemian Switzerland ), Mostecká pánev ( North Bohemian Basin ), Doupovské hory ( Duppov Mountains ), Sokolovská pánev ( Falkenauer Basin ) and Chebská pánev ( Eger Basin ).
The subordinate units are:
|Podcelek (subunit)||Area [km²]||Okrsek (district)||Podokrsek (subdistrict)||mountains|
|Klínovecká hornatina||775||Přebuzská hornatina (Early Penitent Neudek Mountains )||Rolavská vrchovina, Kraslická hornatina, Hamerská hornatina, Zaječická hornatina||Zaječí hora ( Rammelsberg , 1010 m), Tisovský vrch ( Peindlberg , 977 m), Jeřábí vrch ( pole height , 965 m)|
|Jáchymovská hornatina||Božídarská hornatina, Abertamská hornatina, Vykmanovská hornatina, Českohamerská hornatina||Klínovec ( Keilberg , 1244 m), Božídarský Špičák ( Gottesgaber Spitzberg , 1115 m), Tetřeví hora ( Hahnberg , 1006 m)|
|Jindřichovická vrchovina||Bublavská vrchovina, Olovská vrchovina, Nejdecká vrchovina||Počátecký vrch ( Mountain of Origin , 819 m)|
|Krajkovská pahorkatina||without||K Rozhledne (625 m)|
|Loučenská hornatina||832||Přísečnická hornatina||Vejprtská vrchovina, Jelenohorská vrchovina, Prísecnická kotlina, Medenecká hornatina, Novodomská hornatina||Jelení hora ( Haßberg , 994 m), Velký Špičák ( Großer Spitzberg , 965 m), Mědník ( Kupferhübel , 910 m)|
|Rudolická hornatina ( Bärenstein Mountains )||Nacetínská vrchovina, Brandovská vrchovina, Mezihorská hornatina||Medvědí skála ( Bear Stone , 924 m), Čihadlo ( Lauschhübel , 842 m)|
|Novoveská hornatina||without||Mračný vrch ( Göhrenberg , 852 m)|
|Flájská hornatina, Meziborská hornatina, Novomestská hornatina||Moldavská vrchovina ( Wieselstein Mountains )||Loučná ( Wieselstein , 956 m), Oldřišský vrch ( Walterberg , 878 m)|
|Cínovecká hornatina ( Bornhauer Mountains )||without||Pramenáč ( Bornhauberg , 909 m)|
|Nakléřovská vrchovina||Telnická hornatina, Petrovická vrchovina||Rudný vrch ( Zechberg , 796 m); Špičák ( Sattelberg , 723 m)|
|Bolebořská vrchovina||Místecká vrchovina, Brezenecká vrchovina||Pavlovský Špičák (695 m)|
Area, neighboring landscapes and borders
The Ore Mountains are about 150 km long in the (south) west (north) east direction and an average of 40 km wide. From a geomorphological point of view, it is divided into western , central and eastern Ore Mountains , separated by the valleys of Schwarzwasser and Zwickauer Mulde or Flöha (" Flöhalinie "), whereby the division of the western part along the Schwarzwasser is more recent. The Eastern Ore Mountains are mainly characterized by extensive, slowly rising plateaus, which are smaller in the more indented and greater heights in the central and western parts and are also intersected by valleys that change direction more frequently. The ridge of the mountain itself forms, in all three segments, a sequence of plateaus and individual mountains.
The Elbe Sandstone Mountains join to the east, the Elster Mountains and other Saxon parts of the Vogtland to the west. South (east) east of the Central and Eastern Ore Mountains lies the North Bohemian Basin , immediately to the east of it the Bohemian Central Mountains , which are formed by the narrow foothills of the above-mentioned. Basin is separated from the Osterzgebirge. South (east) east of the Western Ore Mountains lie the Falkenau Basin , the Egergraben and the Duppau Mountains . To the north the border is blurred because the Erzgebirge, as a typical representative of the Pultschollengebirge , slopes very gently.
The scenic transition zone from the West and Middle Ore Mountains to the loess hill country between Zwickau and Chemnitz to the north is known as the Ore Mountains Basin , and that north of the East Ore Mountains as the Ore Mountains Foreland . The Erzgebirgsvorland between Freital and Pirna is called the Dresdner Erzgebirgsvorland or the Bannewitz-Possendorf-Burkhardswalder Plateau . Geologically, the Ore Mountains with the Windberg near Freital and the Karsdorfer Fault extend to the city limits of Dresden . The notched valleys of the Osterzgebirge break through this fault and the valley shoulder of the Elbe valley .
The Erzgebirge is one within the Central Upland Range on the one hand to the Bohemian Massif mentioned mountain range , which also made the Upper Palatinate Forest , the Bohemian Forest , the Bavarian Forest , Lusatian Mountains , Jizera , the Giant Mountains and the inner Bohemian mountains there. Likewise, with the Upper Palatinate Forest, Bohemian Forest, Bavarian Forest, Fichtel Mountains , Franconian Forest , Thuringian Slate Mountains and Thuringian Forest, it forms a ypsilon-shaped mountain complex, which does not have a proper name, but is to be assessed quite uniformly in terms of climate.
Following the tradition of the cultural areas, Zwickau is still historically part of the Ore Mountains, Chemnitz is historically just outside of it and Freiberg is again included. The presumed border of the Ore Mountains runs further southwest of Dresden towards the Elbe Sandstone Mountains . The main character, i.e. flat plateaus with an ascent to the ridge and incisive notch valleys , continues to the southern edge of the Elbe valley . North of the Ore Mountains, the landscape gradually merges into the Saxon Loess Field . The cultural transition to the Elbe Sandstone Mountains is very blurred at the level of the Müglitz and Gottleubatals .
The highest mountain in the Ore Mountains is the Klínovec (Wedge Mountain ) with 1,244 meters in the Bohemian part of the mountains. The highest elevation on the German side and at the same time the highest mountain in Saxony is the 1,215 meter high Fichtelberg . In the Ore Mountains there are about thirty elevations with a height of more than 1000 meters above sea level, but not all of them are striking mountains. Most of them can be found around the Keilberg and the Fichtelberg. About a third of this is on the Saxon side.
The Saxon and Bohemian Ore Mountains are completely part of the Elbe catchment area . Caused by the strong panel Schollen but -character exists an elongated ridge line . This acts as a watershed and separates the north from the south draining rivers. This line runs mostly just south of the state border between Germany and the Czech Republic and only extends a little deeper into Germany in the area of the Elster Mountains .
|Rödelbach||Crinitzer water||Hirschfelder water|
|Black water||Great Mittweida||Oswaldbach|
|Great Striegis||Little Striegis|
|Bílina||Ždírnický potok||Zalužanský potok||Modlanský potok|
|Catchment areas: Location outside the Ore Mountains > 500 km 2 100–500 km 2 50–100 km 2 20–50 km 2
In the north, the Zwickauer Mulde and Freiberger Mulde , which unite outside the Ore Mountains to form the Mulde , are the main rivers. Its catchment area covers most of the Saxon Ore Mountains and the foreland. The most important tributaries of the Zwickauer Mulde are the Schwarzwasser and the Chemnitz , which arise from the confluence of the Würschnitz and Zwönitz rivers beyond the edge of the Ore Mountains . The most important tributary of the Freiberg Mulde is the Zschopau with its tributary Flöha . In the east, Wilde Weißeritz and Rote Weißeritz drain directly into the nearby Elbe Valley via the Vereinigte Weißeritz , Müglitz and Gottleuba . In the extreme western part of the Western Ore Mountains, some streams drain into the river system of the White Elster .
To the south, Zwota (Svatava) , Rolava (Rohlau) , Bystřice (Wistritz) , Chomutovka (Komotau) and several smaller streams flow into the Eger, which runs outside the Ore Mountains . In the southeast, the Bílina (Biela) is the most important river.
Due to the water-intensive mining and timber industry , numerous artificial and raft ditches were dug , which were often many kilometers long. With the Revierwasserlaufanstalt Freiberg was since 1558 in the south of Freiberg one to 80 km long network systematically built such art trenches, which is still almost unchanged in operation today. The Marienberger Revier supplied the approximately 20 km long Reitzenhainer Zeuggraben and the Altenberger Revier u. a. the ash pit . In the Bohemian Ore Mountains, the 12.9 km long Plattner Kunstgraben was of great importance.
The rivers in the upper reaches close to the ridge line often have a gradient of around 50 m per km and have cut deeply into the landscape. Their water flow varies greatly; even locally limited storms can lead to severe flooding. However, the effects are much stronger than those of the 2002 flood , where heavy rainfall of up to 400 liters per m² per day in the Ore Mountains led to a flood of the Elbe. Due to the irregular water flow, none of the rivers is navigable.
Also due to the morphology, the Ore Mountains do not have any larger natural lakes. Raised bogs can be found comparatively often in the ridges . The large and small Kranichsee lakes as well as the Georgenfelder Hochmoor and the Mothäusheide are important .
That is why the tightening of fishing ponds began at an early stage. The Greifenbach reservoir, which was dammed up around 1396, is also an early evidence of the creation of artificial ponds for mining. These should ensure a constant supply of impact water. The network of the Revierwasserlaufanstalt was supplemented by numerous artificial ponds in order to guarantee a constant inflow for the mining industry. Eleven of these ponds are still managed for the purpose of providing drinking and industrial water .
Since the end of the 19th century, numerous dams have been built to provide drinking water and to protect against flooding . The largest dams in the Saxon Ore Mountains are those of Eibenstock , Saidenbach , Lehnmühle , Klingenberg , Rauschenbach , Lichtenberg and Gottleuba . In the Bohemian Ore Mountains the Přísečnice , Fláje and Horka dams are worth mentioning.
Climate and weather
The Erzgebirge lies at the 51st degree north latitude. This causes significant, seasonal temperature fluctuations, which even on the Fichtelberg are still 16.6 Kelvin between winter and summer. Depending on the climate classification, it belongs to the cool-temperate zone with sub-oceanic character (III / 3 according to Troll / Paffen ), while Köppen / Geiger classify it in the beech climate of warm-temperate rainy climates (Cfb). The altitudes, on the other hand, are already assigned to the birch climate of the boreal subarctic climates (Dfc), i.e. H. less than 4 months have average temperatures above 10 degrees Celsius.
Compared to places on the same latitude in North America or Asia, the climate is much milder. The reason for this are mostly westerly winds, which bring humid air masses from the Atlantic , which is warmed up by the Gulf Stream . The influence of these air masses and thus the maritime climate decreases in the Ore Mountains from west to east, while the continental climate increases in this direction. As a result, the winters tend to be colder in the Eastern Ore Mountains, the annual temperature fluctuations are more pronounced and the precipitation is lower. In contrast, in the western Ore Mountains, the heat-storing effect of the humid air masses has a stronger effect, i.e. H. there the day / night and summer / winter differences are smaller.
With a west-north-westerly air flow, the Ore Mountains lie in the rain shadow of the Thuringian Forest , Harz and even the Rothaar Mountains , and with a south-westerly also the Fichtelgebirge and Franconian Forest . As a result, the amount of precipitation is lower than that of other low mountain ranges in Germany.
The temperatures are throughout the year significantly lower than in the lowlands and the summer is considerably shorter and often provides a cool day. The annual mean temperatures only reach values of 3 to 5 ° C. At Oberwiesenthal , located above , only occurs about 140 frost-free days per year on average.
According to the reports of older chroniclers, the climate in the upper Ore Mountains must have been even rougher than it is today. Sources from this period tell of harsh winters in which the cattle froze to death in the stables and in April so much snow fell that houses and cellars were covered with snow. The population was regularly cut off from the environment. The Upper Ore Mountains were therefore often given the nickname Saxon Siberia in the past .
The ridge clod of the mountains rising from northwest to southeast, which enables long-term downpouring as damming rain in west and north-west weather conditions , causes almost twice the amount of precipitation compared to the lowlands , which increases to over 1,100 mm in the ridge areas. Since a large part of the precipitation falls as snow , a thick blanket of snow forms over many years that lasts into April. The ridges of the Ore Mountains are among the most snow-reliable areas in the German low mountain range. It can foehn winds , but also the so-called Bohemian wind at special Südwetterlagen occur.
Due to this climate and the large amounts of snow, there is a statute , in the area of the border with Bohemia, at almost a natural mountain pine area . For comparison: in the Alps mountain pines only come from 1,600 to before.
The nature of the Ore Mountains has always been intensively shaped by its inhabitants since the wave of settlement in the Middle Ages. This was done in particular by clearing large areas of the originally dense forest in order to meet the enormous demand for wood in the mining and metallurgical industries. The newly emerging settlements and agriculture also needed space. However, mining with heaps, dams, ditches and pings directly shaped the landscape and the habitats of plants and animals in many places. As early as the 19th century there were first signs of local forest death through smelting smoke, before some mountain ridges in exposed, climatically unfavorable ridges were deforested in the 20th century under the influence of emissions from modern industry, especially from nearby Czech lignite power plants. Therefore, in recent years, instead of the previously prevailing spruce - monocultures , again preferred site-appropriate mixed forests planted, which are more resistant to weather and pests.
Flora and fauna
Nevertheless, human interventions in particular have created a diverse cultural landscape since time immemorial . It offers a large number of typical biotopes that are worthy of protection, such as mountain and wet meadows or rocky ridges , some of which have become rare . Even mining remains now provide a habitat for many plants and animals. In addition, there are huge contiguous forest areas in the Western Ore Mountains, but all of them are used for forestry up to the highest elevations. The Erzgebirge / Vogtland Nature Park is 61 percent covered by forest. There are also several larger raised bogs here , fed only by rainwater . In many of these different areas placed under protection find rare and demanding species such as Alpenflachbärlapp , tiger lily , various gentian and orchid species , pygmy owl , Kingfisher or freshwater pearl mussel , a retreat. In addition, several occurrences of alpine animal and plant species are known at the high altitudes of the mountains, the next proven occurrence of which can only be found in the Giant Mountains and the Alps . In the first years of the 21st century, after their living conditions improved, animal species that had once been displaced, such as the eagle owl and the black stork , were able to recapture the Ore Mountains.
The upper western part of the Ore Mountains belongs to the Ore Mountains / Vogtland Nature Park . The eastern Ore Mountains are under landscape protection as LSG Osterzgebirge . Other smaller areas are under state protection as nature reserves and natural monuments .
- Germany (selection)
- SPA Western Ore Mountains
- FFH area Tal der Große Bockau
- Large- scale nature conservation project mountain meadows in the Eastern Ore Mountains
- NSG Geisingberg , 314.00 ha
- NSG Georgenfelder Hochmoor , 12.45 ha
- NSG Fürstenauer Heide ( black grouse protected area near Fürstenau ), 7.24 ha
- NSG Kleiner Kranichsee , 28.97 ha
- NSG Großer Kranichsee , 611.00 ha
- NSG Hermannsdorfer Wiesen , 185.00 ha
- Czech Republic (selection)
Historical and cultural-historical aspects
Etymology of the name
In the 12th century the term Saltusbohemicus appeared. In the German language, the Bohemian Forest , Beheim Forest , Behmerwald or Bohemian Forest was also used, in Czech Český les . The latter names are used today for the southwestern border mountains of the Czech Republic ( see: Bohemian Forest ).
Older research also regarded other designations appearing in isolated places in older written sources as the names of the Ore Mountains. However, the names HircanusSaltus ( Herzynischer Wald) or Fergunna , which appeared in the 9th century, were only used generally for the extensive forests of the low mountain range. Often the term Miriquidi , which appeared only in two places in the 10th and early 11th centuries, was directly related to the Ore Mountains, but these sources do not allow any identification with the entire primeval forest that formerly covered the Ore Mountains foreland and the Ore Mountains.
After the discovery of large ore deposits , further renaming took place in the 16th century. Petrus Albinus first used the name Erzgebirge in 1589 in his chronicle. At the beginning of the 17th century, the name Meißen Mountains was also used temporarily . A quarter of a century later, the term Erzgebirge and in Czech Rudohoří became established . The Czech toponym today is Krušné hory , which means something like "arduous mountains". Outside of Germany, the term Erzgebirge has other landscapes.
The first tin mining activities took place in the 2nd millennium BC. Near Schellerhau by elites of the tribes living in the Elbe valley who lived in simple leaf huts in the mountains in the summer months.
Since the time of the first wave of settlement, the history of the Ore Mountains has been particularly influenced by economic development, especially that of mining.
The settlement of the Ore Mountains was slow at the beginning, especially on the Bohemian side. The harsh climate and the short vegetation periods prevented the cultivation of agricultural products. The settlement, promoted by the noble family of the Hrabischitz , took place mostly from the foot of the mountains and ran along the mountain rivers into the deep forests.
As a result of the settlement beginning in the 12th century at the northern foot of the Ore Mountains, the first silver ore was discovered in the area around present-day Freiberg in 1168 , where the first mountain cries arose. Almost at the same time, the first tin ore was found at the southern foot of Bohemia.
In the 13th century the mountain was only sporadically settled along the Bohemian Way ( antiqua Bohemiae semita ). Here was Sayda , a station on the trade route from Freiberg Einsiedl , Johnsdorf and Brüx to Prague, in the so-called Sayda Salzweg add thrust, that of Halle on Oederan led also to Prague. Since the second half of the 13th century, glass manufacturing found its way into the region. The emergence of this branch of industry was favored by a surplus of wood, which arose from clearing and new settlements and which could meet the high demand of the glassworks. Monks from the Waldsassen monastery had brought knowledge of glass manufacturing to the Ore Mountains. Most of the glassworks were in the area of Moldau , Brandau and in the Frauenbachtal . Ulmbach is the oldest glassworks location . However, this wood-intensive branch of the economy lost its importance again with the flourishing of mining, which was privileged over that.
Mining on the Bohemian side probably started in the 14th century. An indication of this is a contract between Boresch von Riesenburg and the Ossegger Abbot Gerwig, in which the division of the income from mined ores was agreed. Pewter grains ( barley ) were extracted in Seiffen mining and gave the Bohemian mountain town Graupen (Czech: Krupka ) its name.
With the further settlement of the Ore Mountains in the 15th century, new, rich ore deposits were finally discovered around Schneeberg , Annaberg and St. Joachimsthal (Jáchymov). The second mountain roar arose and triggered a huge wave of settlement. In quick succession, new, planned mining towns were built in the entire Ore Mountains in the vicinity of other newly discovered ore deposits. Typical examples are the towns of Marienberg , Oberwiesenthal , Gottesgab (Boží Dar), Sebastiansberg (Hora Sv. Šebestiána) and Platten (Horní Blatná). At that time, however, only silver , copper , bismuth and tin ores were used economically . At that time, silver mining in the Ore Mountains established the wealth of Saxony. As a coin metal, silver was processed into money on site in the mining towns. The Joachimstaler minted in Joachimsthal have become famous . After the end of the Hussite Wars , the economic upswing (hindered by them) continued in Bohemia.
In the 16th century the Ore Mountains became the center of mining in Central Europe. The new finds attracted more and more people, and the number of inhabitants on the Saxon side continued to rise rapidly. In addition to immigration from its interior, Bohemia was also able to detect strong migration, especially German miners who settled in the settlements of the Ore Mountains and in the cities at its foot.
Under Emperor Ferdinand II an unprecedented recatholicization began in Bohemia in 1624–1626 . A large number of Bohemian Protestants then fled to the neighboring Electorate of Saxony . As a result, many Bohemian villages were devastated and deserted, while on the Saxon side these emigrants founded new places, such as the mountain town of Johanngeorgenstadt .
Ore mining largely came to a standstill in the 17th century, especially after the Thirty Years' War . As a result of the very sharp decline in mining and the unsuccessful search for new ore deposits, the Ore Mountains had to switch to other industries. Agricultural cultivation, however, was not very productive, and the demand for wood also decreased due to the closure of huts. Many residents were already active in textile production at that time. However, since this was not enough for a living either, the manufacture of wooden goods and toys developed, especially in the Eastern Ore Mountains. The craftsmen were obliged to buy the wood in Bohemia due to the wood regulations issued by the Elector in August 1560. The wood from the Saxon Ore Mountains was still needed for mines and smelters in Freiberg. This wood export led, among other things, to the construction of the cross-border Neugraben rafts on the Flöha river. Because of the decline in industrial production during this period, people without ties migrated to the interior of Germany or Bohemia.
With the beginning of the production of cobalt blue at the beginning of the 16th century, mining revived. Especially in Schneeberg, cobalt was mined, which was processed into cobalt blue in the blue paint works. It was possible to keep the production secret for a long time, so that the blue color works held the world monopoly for around 100 years. The Weißerdenzeche St. Andreas bei Aue supplied the kaolin for the porcelain manufactory in Meißen for almost 150 years . An export outside the country was forbidden by the elector under threat of severe penalties up to and including death.
After the Seven Years' War , the rétablissement (Electoral Saxony) ensured a renewed upswing of the manufactories. Of the at least 150 factories founded by 1800, nine were primarily between Zwickauer and Freiberger Mulde. At that time still dependent on hydropower, the locations were concentrated on larger rivers in the mountain regions and their foreland - especially the Ore Mountains. In the industrial revolution that began in 1800, Saxony played a leading role, particularly in the cotton industry. When in 1780 the linen weaver Johann Gottlieb Pfaff from Zschopau invented a carding machine for the production of cotton yarn, this meant an enormous leap in quality. As a result, a large number of cotton spinning mills were founded, especially in the Chemnitz area.
In Harthau , the British spinning master and mechanical engineer Evan Evans was using specially developed spinning machines to transform the Bernhardt spinning mill into what was then the largest mechanical spinning mill in the world. In 1806 Evans founded the first mechanical engineering workshop for the production of spinning machines in Dittersdorf . The workshop was relocated to Geyer in 1809. Evans machines spread quickly in the Ore Mountains and Vogtland. From 1812 he had his own cotton spinning mill in neighboring Siebenhöfen , the machines of which were for the first time operated entirely with water power. The further mechanization of the branches of the economy continued unabated. The first mechanical cotton loom was installed in the factory of Johann Jacob Bodemer in Zschopau as early as 1818 . He was driven by a peg of horse. In metallurgy, the most important development was the transition from hammer to rolling mill. The first Saxon rolling mill was built between 1812 and 1816 in the Rodewisch brass works , in the following years this development was also taken over by the iron hammers from the Erzgebirge and Vogtland. In 1823 the first sheet iron mill was built in Pfeilhammer .
Mining slowly came to a standstill towards the end of the 19th century. The ever more costly drainage led since the mid-19th century to the continuing decline in yield, despite the advance deeper Erbstollen and development of Gräben- and Roesch systems for supplying the required premium water from the crest of the mountain, as the ground water flow Institute of the Freiberg mining area or the Reitzenhainer Zeuggraben . Few pits were able to generate profits over a long period of time. One of them was the Himmelsfürst Fundgrube near Erbisdorf , which in 1818 looked back on a 50-year continuous profit phase with the publication of its first exploitation thaler, which lasted until 1848. The Assumption Treasure Trove later became the most profitable Freiberg mine in the 19th century as a result of rich ore mining.
But even the excavation of the Rothschönberger adit as the largest and most important Saxon adit, which served to drain the entire Freiberg mining area, could not stop the decline of mining. Because even before this technical masterpiece was completed, the gold currency was introduced in the German Reich in 1871 . The resulting rapid decline in the price of silver made all of the silver mining in the Ore Mountains unprofitable. Even short-term rich finds in individual pits or the state purchase of all Freiberg mines and their incorporation into the state enterprise of the Royal Ore Mines, founded in 1886, could not change this situation. In 1913 the last silver mines were shut down and the company was dissolved.
Mining in the Ore Mountains was revived to extract raw materials during the war years of the First and Second World Wars . It came in the era of National Socialism also the resumption of silver mining. After that, the manufacture of wooden goods and toys was again important for the population , especially in the Eastern Ore Mountains. The watch industry has a focus in Glashütte . In the Western Ore Mountains there were economic alternatives through mechanical engineering and the textile industry .
The chemical element uranium was discovered in the pitchblende from Johanngeorgenstadt in 1789 . From around 1820 uranium ore was mined in the city , which was then used, among other things, to dye glass. Even richer deposits were found in St. Joachimsthal , from whose samples Marie Curie and her husband Pierre were able to isolate radium and postulate polonium in 1898 . After the discovery of nuclear fission at the end of the 1930s, uranium ore became very important for military purposes. The entire production of uranium was confiscated after the Sudetenland was annexed to Germany in 1938. Since the use of the American atomic bomb in Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union has worked feverishly on the development of nuclear weapons. Shortly afterwards, the mining of uranium ore for the Soviet Union in the Ore Mountains started under the code name SAG Wismut .
For the third time in history, thousands of people flocked to the Ore Mountains to build a new life for themselves. Centers of mining, which was associated with serious health consequences for the miners, were Johanngeorgenstadt , Schlema , Aue and the now Czechoslovak St. Joachimsthal. The mining also left major environmental damage, among other things as a result of a dam breach on a uranium ore spoil lake near Lengenfeld in 1954: 50,000 cubic meters of spoil poured up to 4 kilometers into the valley. Uranium ores were mined in Aue- Alberoda , Dresden -Gittersee and Pöhla until 1991 .
In Freiberg , mining, which had been in operation since 1168, ended after exactly 800 years, while in Altenberg and Ehrenfriedersdorf mining continued on tin ore until 1991 . The smelting of ores found among others in Muldenhütten place until the early 1990s. In Sankt Egidien and Aue there were important sites for nickel smelting . In Pöhla in the Western Ore Mountains , exploration work for the SDAG Wismut found new, rich tin ore deposits in the 1980s. The test mines that were made at that time are now considered the largest tin chambers in Europe. Other well-known places for tin production were Zinnwald-Georgenfeld , Geyer and Seiffen . Seiffen also developed into a center for the manufacture of wooden goods and toys , the products of which became known as the Erzgebirge folk art . In Zwickau , Lugau , Oelsnitz and Freital , hard coal was mined until the penultimate third of the 20th century .
The to the late 11th and early 12th century fully with forest -lined mountains was the mining and colonization almost completely to the cultural landscape transformed. The population density is high up to high altitudes in the mountains . For example, Oberwiesenthal is Germany's highest town in the Ore Mountains and the neighboring Boží Dar (Gottesgab) on the Czech side is even considered the highest town in Central Europe . Only in the relatively inaccessible, climatically less favorable ridge locations are larger contiguous forest areas that have been used for forestry since the 18th century . Due to the high demand of mining and metallurgy for mine wood and fuel, large-scale deforestation took place since the 12th century; even the sovereign forests could no longer meet the growing demand for wood. In order to preserve the forests, the use of coal as fuel has been encouraged since the 18th century and finally ordered in the 19th century. Already at the beginning of the 1960s, the first signs of forest dieback in the Osterzgebirge near Altenberg and Reitzenhain were found, after local damage to the forests from smelter had become visible since the 19th century .
Depending on its delimitation, between 800,000 and over 1.2 million people live in the Ore Mountains. The largest cities on the German side include Freiberg (40,000 inhabitants), Annaberg-Buchholz (21,000), Schwarzenberg (18,000), Marienberg (18,000) and Aue (17,000). In the narrow strip on the Czech side are the largest cities Krupka (13,000), Nejdek (8,200) and Kraslice (6,900). Larger cities can be found at the foot of the Ore Mountains, only part of which is in the Ore Mountains: Chomutov (49,000), Litvínov (25,000) and Jirkov (20,000). For several centuries it has been one of the most densely populated mountain regions in Europe, which is primarily due to its tradition as an ore mining area. Most of the larger cities are located on the southern slopes of the Ore Mountains. On the German side, the population density from the Western Ore Mountains, with its many small towns, to the rural Eastern Ore Mountains is constantly decreasing. The population has decreased by an average of 17 percent since reunification, which is due to the generally difficult economic situation. In 2004, the population density was around 210 inhabitants per km² (roughly national average), which will continue to decrease due to emigration and a large excess of deaths.
Until the end of the First World War in 1918, Bohemia was part of Austria-Hungary as crown land and then came to the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic (→ History of Czechoslovakia ). Therefore, until the end of the Second World War in 1945, the Bohemian part of the Ore Mountains was largely inhabited by a German-speaking population . After their expulsion , the Presidential Decree No. 27/1945 of July 17, 1945 (→ Beneš Decrees ) established the Settlement Office for the uniform control of inland settlement. In addition to advertising campaigns for the resettlement of Czechs and Slovaks from Polish, Romanian, Ukrainian and Hungarian areas, some of which had been at home for several hundred years, tens of thousands of Roma came from the Carpathian-Ukraine in addition to the Slovaks . In addition to the above-mentioned population groups, Hungarians and Greeks were also settled. The people were either lured with promises or arbitrarily relocated. Hardly any of them had the opportunity to choose a place of residence.
Around 288,400 people lived in the Bohemian mountainous region in 1930; after the Germans were expelled, the figure was around 148,600 in 1950. In 2011 there were around 139,000 people.
About 42 percent of the population of the Saxon Ore Mountains belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church . In addition, various Christian free churches , such as the United Methodist Church in the Western Ore Mountains, are traditionally strongly represented. In contrast to the Saxon part, the Bohemian side of the mountains was predominantly Catholic , although most of the Czech residents are now non-denominational. In Pockau the community in Christ Jesus ("Lorenzianer") has its central shrine, the Eliasburg ; in Freiberg , one of the two German temple which is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ( Mormons ), the Freiberg Germany Temple .
The culture of the Erzgebirge was mainly due to, since the Middle Ages operated, mining lasting influence. The old saying “Everything comes from the mine!”, Coined here, refers to large areas of life in the region, from the landscape to handicrafts, industry to folk art and living traditions. The visitor can do this already on arrival with the greeting formula " Glück Auf!" " detect.
Christian Gottlob Wild is considered to be the first important dialect poet of the Ore Mountains in the early 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, Hans Soph , Stephan Dietrich and above all Anton Günther worked , whose works have a lasting impact on the Erzgebirge songs and writings. Ore Mountain dialect songs were later spread by various home groups. Among the best known are the Pressnitz musicians , the Caldarelli siblings , the Zschorlau nightingales , the Erzgebirge ensemble Aue and Joachim Suss and his ensemble . Since the beginning of the 21st century it has mainly been De Randfichten, but also groups like Wind, Sand und Sterne , De Ranzn , De Krippelkiefern , De Erbschleicher and Schluckauf , who sing in the Ore Mountains dialect.
In addition to the Christmas markets and other smaller traditional and more modern folk festivals, the Annaberger Kät is a well-known and large Ore Mountains folk festival. Founded in 1520 by Duke Georg the Bearded , it has taken place annually since then.
The Erzgebirge cuisine , which is simple, but also rich in traditions, is also interesting.
Since 1998, the Erzgebirge has been aiming for the status of world cultural heritage as the " Ore Mountains Mining Region " . Since July 2019, a selection of technical monuments that have largely been preserved in their original state, as well as individual monuments and objects related to the mining industry, have been part of the UNESCO World Heritage .
The German part of the Ore Mountains is one of the most important business locations within Saxony, which has developed from ore mining that has lasted for over 800 years and the subsequent processing industries. With 104 industrial employees per 1,000 inhabitants, the region has the second highest industrial density in Saxony. Contrary to the nationwide trend, the number of industrial employees has increased by around 28 percent since 2000. The predominantly small, medium-sized, often owner-managed businesses are typical of the Ore Mountains. The overwhelming share of 90 percent is held by micro and small businesses with fewer than ten employees who are subject to social security contributions. The region is accordingly characterized by a small economy. Only a few (0.2 percent) of the approx. 16,500 companies in the Erzgebirgskreis are large companies and have more than 250 employees.
The economic strengths of the Erzgebirge lie in the manufacturing industry. 33 percent of employees subject to social security contributions work in the manufacturing industry, which is also the largest and dominant branch of the economy. 67 percent of the employees work in the metal and electrical industry as well as in mechanical engineering. The electrical and metal trades as well as the construction and finishing trades have by far the highest proportion of regional craft businesses. The textile and clothing industry (six percent of industrial value added) and food production, which used to determine the structure, are of little importance. The branches of chemistry, leather, plastics and the companies traditionally based in the Erzgebirge in the fields of wood, paper, furniture, glass and ceramics each contribute around 14 percent to the regional added value. The export quota is rather low at 28 percent, but has more than doubled since 1990. After the end of numerous industrial companies as a result of German reunification, tourism as an economic factor is playing a growing role in both the German and the Czech part of the Ore Mountains, but is only structurally determinant in certain areas. Only 3.1 percent of employees subject to social security contributions work in the tourism industry. Day tourism is economically significant, with 92,000 daily tourists visiting the Ore Mountains.
The mining, which has been in continuous operation from the settlement until 1990, was the essential basis for the industrial development of the Ore Mountains. After the fall of the Wall, all mines were shut down with one exception. At present, mining in the Ore Mountains is of little economic importance.
In Kalkwerk Hammerunterwiesenthal marble is encouraged. The river and barite - Precipitation mine near Oberwiesenthal is the first newly opened mine in Germany in decades. The annual output of around 135,000 tons is processed in Aue .
Occurrences and deposits
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the mineral deposits in the Ore Mountains have been reevaluated.
A deposit in Geyer contains 44,000 tons of tin.
History, development, general
In the 19th century, when several Ore Mountain passes were expanded to include roads and the upper Ore Mountains were also opened up by rail , tourism developed. Otto Delitsch is considered one of the first sponsors . In 1860 he was the first summer guest to visit Wildenthal . His essays on the Ore Mountains have encouraged further travel and hiking.
In the Saxon part, only the Erzgebirge baths Tharandt , Grünthal , Hohenstein , Ottenstein near Schwarzenberg , Bad Reiboldsgrün near Auerbach , Einsiedel near Seiffen , Wiesenbad and Selva were used as summer retreats.
The Erzgebirgsverein was founded on May 5, 1878, and ten first branch associations were established in the region in the year it was founded. To achieve his goal of making the landscape better known for hikers from near and far, among other things were. a. Hiking trails marked and hiking maps issued. In many places, mountain inns and / or observation towers were built on the highest elevations, beginning at the end of the 19th century, which significantly promoted tourism to the Ore Mountains at the turn of the 20th century. With the Kammweg , opened in 1904 , one of the first long-distance hiking trails was created, which began on the Hainberg near Asch in the west and followed largely along the ridge line of the mountains on the Bohemian side. Skiers already used the snow-sure ridges back then. With the Fichtelberg suspension railway , the first cable suspension railway in Germany was built in 1924 , which still transports visitors to the highest mountain in Saxony.
Based on the historic Silberstraße and Silberwagenweg , the 140-kilometer holiday route Silberstraße was created after 1990 between Zwickau and Dresden between Zwickau and Dresden and which opens up important sights in relation to the centuries-old mining and metallurgy industry. These include visitor mines, educational mining trails , technical and local history museums and a large number of other small attractions, above all the medieval city centers of the old mining towns and their important church buildings, such as Freiberg Cathedral , St. Anne's Church in Annaberg-Buchholz or the Schneeberger St. Wolfgang Church .
With over three million overnight stays in 2016, tourism is an important economic factor in the region. From 2003 to 2017 the Tourismusverband Erzgebirge eV offered the ErzgebirgsCard , with which over 100 museums and other sights could be visited free of charge. At the same time, the ErzgebirgsCard was valid as a ticket on all bus and tram lines as well as the local trains of the VMS .
There are around 5000 kilometers of marked hiking trails in the Ore Mountains. With the European long-distance hiking trail E3 and the international mountain hiking trail of friendship Eisenach – Budapest as well as the ridge trail Erzgebirge – Vogtland , two internationally and one nationally significant long-distance hiking trail cross the Ore Mountains.
The Erzgebirge – Vogtland ridge trail, which was handed over in 2011, was awarded the “ Quality Trail Wanderable Germany ” seal of quality by the Association of German Mountain and Hiking Clubs in the same year . There are also some "Quality Hosts for Wanderable Germany" on the long-distance hiking trails and in the immediate vicinity.
To go biking
Nationally known bike routes are the steep sections of the Mulderadweg at the source rivers Freiberger and Zwickauer Mulde as well as the Zschopautalradweg from Fichtelberg to the confluence with the Freiberger Mulde. There are also some signposted, low-gradient routes on disused railway lines, for example between Wilischthal and Thum and Wolkenstein and Steinbach .
The 170-kilometer “Krušnohorská magistrála” (“Erzgebirgsradmagistrale”) runs mainly along the ridge on the Czech side. The route has medium fitness requirements and leads from Děčín , located on the Elbe, to Jelení , where there is a connection to the “Karlsroute” (“Karlova stezka”). The Euregio Egrensis long-distance cycle path crosses borders and crosses the mountain ridge .
In May 2001, the “Miriquidi Bike Trails”, the first mountain bike network in Saxony, was opened. It comprises more than 200 kilometers of signposted paths and trails. Especially in recent times, the development of the potential as a cycling tourism region has been promoted. Essentially, this is done by signposting routes on existing roads and paths. The spectrum ranges from classic bike tours for day trippers and beginners to special tours for e-bikes to sporty tours with mostly high fitness standards. There are also rail connections with bicycles up to the ridges.
On June 29, 2013, Germany's first single trail park was inaugurated in the sports park on the Rabenberg near Breitenbrunn . It covers an area of 800 hectares and offers a total of 50 kilometers of routes on four routes of different lengths and degrees of difficulty.
The currently most physically demanding designated mountain bike route in the Ore Mountains is the “ Stoneman Miriquidi ”. There are 162 kilometers of route and 4400 meters of altitude to master. The route crosses borders and leads over nine mountain peaks.
The Ore Mountains are also the cradle of competitive mountain bike sports in Germany. The annual Erzgebirgs-Bike-Marathon has been held in and around Seiffen since 1993 , and the number of participants exceeded the 1000 mark for the first time in 2000. The multi-day mountain bike stage race Mad East Challenge 500 has been taking place in Altenberg since 2000 .
With relatively wooded, snow-sure high and ridge slopes, the Ore Mountains offer ideal conditions for winter sports. The most important area for alpine skiing is the Fichtelberg-Keilberg massif, with the towns of Oberwiesenthal , Boží Dar and Loučná pod Klínovcem . There are also larger slopes around the Plešivec near Abertamy , the Bouřňák near Nové Město and Mikulov v Krušných horách , the Hemmschuh near Rehefeld-Zaunhaus and the Komáří hůrka near Krupka . Other ski resorts with longer ski runs are Nové Hamry , Johanngeorgenstadt , Jáchymov , Měděnec , Jöhstadt , Mezihoří , Pyšná , Seiffen , Klíny , Český Jiřetín , Holzhau , Altenberg , Geising and Telnice .
The network of trails for cross-country skiing offers more than 1000 kilometers of groomed trails during the season. The Erzgebirge / Krušné hory ski artery is a German-Czech long-distance ski trail across the entire Erzgebirge ridge. The 36 kilometer long ridge trail included in it was awarded the title "excellent trail" and, with its numerous connecting trails, is one of the most attractive cross-country skiing areas in Germany. Another ski hiking trail is the Erzgebirge ski artery .
In addition to many smaller areas in the middle and upper mountain ranges on the Saxon and Bohemian side, there are u. a. larger cross-country skiing areas in the regions around Carlsfeld , Johanngeorgenstadt and Breitenbrunn in the Western Ore Mountains , around the Fichtelberg-Keilberg Massif, the Geyerschen Wald and Marienberg in the Middle Ore Mountains and around Holzhau, Hermsdorf, Nassau and Altenberg in the Eastern Ore Mountains.
In addition, the Fichtelbergschanzen and the Sparkassen-Skiarena for cross-country skiers and biathletes are located on the premises of the Oberwiesenthal branch of the Chemnitz / Dresden Olympic base . On the grounds of the Altenberg branch there is another ski stadium as well as the Altenberg racing sledge and bobsleigh track, one of the most demanding artificial ice rinks in the world.
During the Advent and Christmas season, the Ore Mountains and Christmas usually form an inseparable unit from the outside world. From the centuries of mining that have shaped the region, diverse traditions and customs emerged, which are intensively cultivated in the Advent and Christmas season - sometimes transformed into tourist festive events. These include mountain parades , hat evenings , the public pyramid pushing and Mettenschicht celebrations .
Erzgebirge folk art , in the form of Incense , Christmas pyramids , candle arches , nutcrackers , or miners' and angels, is used as Christmas decorations mostly in the private sector use. The places in the Upper Ore Mountains are transformed into a "sea of lights" at Christmas time through their decorated windows.
The Ore Mountains are touched in the northwest by the federal motorway 72 / European route 441 and in the east by the federal motorway 17 - Dálnice 8 / European route 55 , the latter also crossing the ridge at a height of about 600 meters. At the foot of the southern roof, between Karlovy Vary and Teplice, the Silnice I / 13 / European road 442, which has been developed in several lanes, touches the mountains.
The most important central crossing of the Ore Mountains in terms of traffic is the federal road 174 - Silnice I / 7 , which is also multi-lane in sections , over the Reitzenhainer Pass, which is also the shortest road connection between the Leipzig-Halle conurbation and Prague . Other important mountain crossings are the federal road 95 - Silnice I / 25 via the border crossing Oberwiesenthal - Boží Dar and the federal road 170 - Silnice I / 8 via the border crossing Altenberg - Cínovec in the Eastern Ore Mountains.
Central parts of the Ore Mountains on the German side can currently be reached via a relatively dense railway network with regular local rail transport. The Erzgebirgsbahn four, as well as the Freiberg railway and the Saxony urban railway each serve one railway line , which mainly runs through river valleys to the ridges. In addition, the most important winter sports area around the Fichtelberg-Keilberg massif can be reached daily from Germany with the steam-powered Fichtelbergbahn . The Weißeritztalbahn also runs daily in the Eastern Ore Mountains, and has been back to Kipsdorf since 2017 .
On the Czech side, České dráhy currently only regularly operates the Karlovy Vary – Johanngeorgenstadt railway line . Via the latter and in continuation with the Johanngeorgenstadt – Schwarzenberg and Schwarzenberg – Zwickau railway lines on the German side, there is currently a single, cross-border and daily train connection (with a change in Johanngeorgenstadt) between the larger cities of Zwickau on the north and Karlovy Vary on the southern edge of the Ore Mountains . On the Chomutov – Vejprty railway line, scheduled operation is limited to the months of May to the end of September. On the Most – Moldava railway line , the continuous train service to the Ore Mountains ridge is geared towards tourist needs.
The preserved or rebuilt steam-powered narrow-gauge railways have also established themselves as popular tourist attractions.
- Erzgebirge cuisine
- List of landscapes in Saxony
- Natural areas in Saxony
- Large natural regions of Germany
- Saxon uplands and low mountain ranges
- Manfred Blechschmidt , Klaus Walther , Christoph Georgi (photos): Erzgebirgs-Lexikon . Chemnitzer-Verlag, Chemnitz 1991, ISBN 3-928678-01-9 .
- Walter Fröbe : A millennium of Erzgebirge history - local history in pictures , 1st edition 1933, 2nd edition 1965.
- Martina Schattkowsky (ed.): Erzgebirge. (= Cultural Landscapes of Saxony , Volume 3), Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 2010, ISBN 978-3-361-00645-4 .
- Siegfried Sieber : The Ore Mountains. Landscape and People , W. Jess, Dresden 1930.
- Moritz von Süßmilch : The Ore Mountains in prehistory, past and present. Annaberg: Hermann Graser Verlag 1889, 2nd edition 1894 ( digitized version of the Saxon State Library - Dresden State and University Library ).
- Johannes Zemmrich, Karl Gäbert: The Ore Mountains (= landscape pictures from the Kingdom of Saxony ), HW Schlimpert, Meißen 1911.
- Andreas Christl: Shifts in the height limits of prehistoric and early historical settlement in the Ore Mountains . Old European research. Work from the Institute for Prehistoric Archeology of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg NF 5, Langenweißbach: Beyer & Beran 2004, ISBN 3-930036-81-9 .
- Hauke Kenzler : The high and late medieval settlement of the Ore Mountains. Strategies for the colonization of an unfavorable agricultural area . Bamberg Writings on the Archeology of the Middle Ages and Modern Times 4, Bonn: Rudolf Habelt 2012, ISBN 978-3-7749-3742-0 .
- Viktor Karell : The Bohemian Ore Mountains. Volume 1, Verl. Das Viergespann, Frankfurt / Main, 1968, FRG. (On the history and regional history of the Bohemian Ore Mountains)
- Ulrich Sebastian: The geology of the Ore Mountains . Springer Spectrum, Berlin, Heidelberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8274-2976-6 .
- Otfried Wagenbreth , Walter Steiner: Geological forays. Landscape and geological history between Cape Arkona and Fichtelberg . 1st edition. German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1982, DNB 821136712 , Das Erzgebirge, p. 134-146 .
On behalf of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, landscape profiles were drawn up as part of the project “Dissemination and endangerment of landscapes worthy of protection in Germany”. The BfN has published these descriptions for the Ore Mountains:
- Southern roofing of the Ore Mountains
- Upper layers on the northern roof of the West and Central Ore Mountains
- Lower layers of the Western Ore Mountains
- Lower layers of the Middle Ore Mountains
- Upper layers of the Osterzgebirge
- Lower layers of the Osterzgebirge
- Tharandt Forest (in the north of the Osterzgebirge)
Source: Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation .
According to the assessment by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, all of the landscapes described belong to the second most valuable category within the five value levels - after "Landscape particularly worthy of protection" - "Landscape worthy of protection" with this definition: "In contrast to the landscapes of the highest assessment level, these landscapes have a lower proportion of protected areas or, with a similar proportion of the protected area, are more severely cut up by traffic routes. "
- Reinhard Wolf et al. : Superposition of burial and hydrothermal events: post-Variscan thermal evolution of the Erzgebirge, Germany . In: Terra Nova . tape 27 , 2015, p. 292–299 (English, PDF; 1.7 MB ).
- Ulf Linnemann: Ediacaran rocks from the Cadomian basement of the Saxo-Thuringian Zone (NE Bohemian Massif, Germany): age constraints, geotectonic setting and basin development. In: Geological Society, London, Special Publications. Vol. 286, 2007, pp. 35–51, doi: 10.1144 / SP286.4 ( PDF; 1.63 MB )
- Birgit Mingram: Geochemical signatures of the metasediments of the Erzgebirge crust pile . In: Scientific Technical Report . STR 9604. Giessen 1995 ( PDF; 4.08 MB - Inaugural dissertation).
- Hans Massonne, Allen Kennedy, Lutz Nasdala, T. Theye: Dating of zircon and monazite from diamondiferous quartzofeldspathic rocks of the Saxonian Erzgebirge - hints at burial and exhumation velocities . In: Mineralogical Magazine . tape 71 , no. 4 , 2007, p. 407-425 ( PDF; 2.5 MB ).
- Marion Tichomirowa: The Gneisses of the Ore Mountains - highly metamorphic equivalents of neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic Grauwacken and granitoids of the Cadomids. Habilitation thesis for obtaining the academic degree doctor rerum naturalium habilitatus. Faculty of Geosciences, Geotechnics and Mining, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 2001 ( online )
- Markus Wilmsen, Birgit Niebuhr: The chalk in Saxony . In: Geologica Saxonica . tape 60 , no. 1 , 2014, p. 5, Fig. 2b ( PDF; 2.8 MB ).
- Karl-Armin Tröger: The Cretaceous of the Elbe valley in Saxony (Germany) - a review. Carnets de geology. Item No. 2003/03, 2003 ( online )
- Jaromír Ulrych et al .: Recurrent Cenozoic volcanic activity in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic) . In: Lithos . tape 123 , no. 1-4 , pp. 133-144 (English).
- Soil nature trail Tharandt Forest. Excursion guide. (PDF; 3.0 MB) State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, March 2010, accessed on April 20, 2015 .
- Final report. Workplace “Natural Balance and Territorial Character”. 1965–2007 ( PDF; 6.7 MB )
- Landscape structure of Saxony (LfULG)
- Axel Ssymank: New requirements in European nature conservation. The Natura 2000 protected area system and the EU Habitats Directive . In: Nature and Landscape . tape 69 , no. 9 , 1994, pp. 395-406 .
- Landscape (BfN)
- Landscape the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, southern roofing of the Ore Mountains
- Landscape the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Obere Lagen on the northern roof of the West and Middle Ore Mountains
- Landscape the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Untere Lagen des Westerzgebirge
- Landscape the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Obere Lagen des Osterzgebirge
- Landscape the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Untere Lagen des Mittelerzgebirge
- Landscape the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Untere Lagen des Osterzgebirge
- Rolf Haake: Climate and Weather in the Ore Mountains . In: Treatises of the Meteorological Service of the German Democratic Republic . tape 104 = 13 . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1973, p. 80 .
- Manfred Hendl: Ground plan of a climate science of the German landscapes . Teubner, Leipzig 1966, p. 35 .
- Christian Lehmann : Of cold winters . In: Historical scene of their natural attractions in the Meißnischen Ober-Ertzgebirge . Friedrich Lankischen's heirs, Leipzig 1699, p. 301-309 ( digitized version ).
- German Weather Service, normal period 1961–1990
- Ore Mountains / Vogtland Nature Park, profile ( Memento from August 3, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Reiner Groß : History of Saxony . 5th expanded and updated edition. Edition Leipzig in the Seemann Henschel GmbH & Co. KG, Leipzig 2012, p. 171–173 (special edition of the Saxon State Center for Political Education Dresden / Leipzig 2012).
- Ursula Forberger : Evans, Evan . In: Institute for Saxon History and Folklore (Ed.): Saxon Biography .
- Reiner Groß : History of Saxony . 5th expanded and updated edition. Edition Leipzig in the Seemann Henschel GmbH & Co. KG, Leipzig 2012, p. 173–176 (special edition of the Saxon State Center for Political Education Dresden / Leipzig 2012).
- Peter Diehl: Old sites of uranium mining in Saxony. 2003 ( PDF; 30 kB ).
- The company in the Sudetenland after 1945. In: antikomplex.cz. Retrieved February 13, 2018 .
- Historický lexikon obcí České republiky - 1869-2015. Český statistický úřad, December 18, 2015, accessed on September 28, 2016 (Czech).
- State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony, Statistical Report of May 31, 2015. Accessed on April 12, 2017.
- rebirth of an old tradition - mining in the Ore Mountains , accessed on November 14, 2013.
- Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , November 9, 2013, page 15.
- Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung of August 31, 2012.
- Martin Bertau, Matthias Fuhrland, Carsten Pätzold, Nadja Schmidt, Broder Merkel, Kai Bachmann, Jens Gutzmer, Hans-Georg Jäckel, Thomas Leißner, Urs Peuker, Peter-Paul Sittig, Sonja Meisenzahl, Michael Höck, Anke Hertam, Wolfgang Voigt, Jens Weber, Horst Brezinski, Jan Ehrig, Michael Scheel, Michael Stelter: Final report on the project “Hybrid Lithium Production” - Funded as a WK Potential project within the “Company Region” program of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF. TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute for Technical Chemistry, Freiberg 2013 ( PDF 7.41 MB), p. 12; see also literature cited therein
- Berlet: Guide through the Saxon-Bohemian Ore Mountains Annaberg 1877, p. 8.
- Media information of the Tourisverband Erzgebirge eV: balance travel year 2016 - Erzgebirge popular with tourists. , accessed April 12, 2017.
- Tourismusverband Erzgebirge eV, media information 2017. Accessed on April 12, 2017.
- Topic “Hiking” on erzgebirge.de , accessed on July 23, 2013.
- Internet presence wanderbaren-deutschland.de , accessed on July 23, 2014.
- Ore Mountains Cycle Route - The ridge on the Bohemian side. ( Memento of May 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed January 30, 2015.
- 10 years of Miriquidi Bike Trails - the first signposted MTB trail network in Saxony. May 12, 2011, accessed July 22, 2014.
- Erzgebirge wants to attract more bike tourists with various ideas. , accessed July 22, 2014.
- Erzgebirge has the first single trail park in Germany. , accessed July 22, 2014.
- shot for the "Stoneman Miriquidi" on the Fichtelberg. , accessed July 22, 2014.
- Internet presence bikerevier-erzgebirge.de , accessed on July 22, 2014.
- Internet presence wintersport-im-erzgebirge.de , accessed on July 29, 2014.
- Topic "Cross-country skiing" on erzgebirge.de ( memento from July 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on July 29, 2014.
- Krippenweg Erzgebirge. Accessed September 30, 2018 (German).
- Erzgebirgsbahn : Timetables 2016 , accessed on January 4, 2016.
- Freiberg Railway : Timetables 2016 ( Memento from May 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) , accessed on January 4, 2016.
- Saxony urban railway : route timetable Heidenau - Glashütte - Altenberg , accessed on February 13, 2018.
- Sächsische Dampfeisenbahngesellschaft : Annual timetable , accessed on February 13, 2018.
- Sächsische Dampfeisenbahngesellschaft: Annual timetable , accessed on February 13, 2018.
- SŽDC : Annual timetable 2015-2016 Karlovy Vary dolní nádraží - Johanngeorgenstadt , accessed on January 4, 2016.
- SŽDC: Annual timetable 2015-2016 Chomutov - Vejprty , accessed on January 4, 2016.
- SŽDC: Annual timetable 2015-2016 Most - Moldava v Krušných horách , accessed on January 4, 2016.
- Museumsbahn Schönheide e. V .: Fahrtage 2016 ( memento from May 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) , accessed on January 4, 2016.
- IG Preßnitztalbahn e. V .: Annual timetable 2016 ( memento of January 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) , accessed on January 4, 2016.
- Maps . Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wiktionary||- Dictionary entries|
|Wikivoyage||- Travel Guide|
- Animation on the geological formation of the Ore Mountains
- UNESCO World Heritage "Ore Mountains Mining Region"
- Private page on geological backgrounds
- Ore Mountains na Krusnohorsky.cz