|State :||Czech Republic|
|Historical part of the country :||Bohemia|
|Region :||Ústecký kraj|
|Area :||2,377,4053 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||49,575 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||415 01|
|License plate :||U|
|Railway connection:||Ústí nad Labem – Chomutov|
|Lord Mayor :||Jaroslav Kubera (as of 2018)|
|Address:||náměstí Svobody 2
415 95 Teplice
|Location of Teplice in the Teplice district|
The city is located in northern Bohemia at the foot of the southern roof of the Ore Mountains , north of the Central Bohemian Mountains in the North Bohemian Basin , about 54 km south of Dresden . To the east rises the Doubravská hora ( Teplice Castle Hill ) (393 m).
The town of Teplice consists of the districts Hudcov ( Hundorf ), Nová Ves ( Neudörfel ), Prosetice ( Prasseditz ), Řetenice ( Settenz ), Sobědruhy ( Soborten ), Teplice ( Teplitz-Schönau ) and Trnovany ( Turn ). Basic settlement units are Bílá cesta, Doubravice, Doubravka, Gagarinova, Hudcov, Hudcov-sever, Lázně Šanov ( Bad Schönau ), Na Bramši, Na haldách, Na hvězdě, Na Letné, Na stínadlech, Nemocnice, Nová Ves., Nové Pro Prosetice-sever, Pod Doubravkou, Pod hvězdárnou, Pod Novou Vsí, Prosetice, Řetenice, Řetenice-sever, Sobědruhy, Šanov ( Schönau ), Šanov-západ, Teplice-střed, Trnovany, Třešňovka, Učerveného erv erv and , U lesní brány, U nádraží, U tří dubů, U vápenky, U vodojemu, U zámecké zahrady and Za Šanovem.
The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts of Hudcov, Nová Ves u Teplic, Prosetice, Sobědruhy, Teplice, Teplice-Řetenice and Teplice-Trnovany.
According to legend in 762 , the sources of Teplitz are said to have been discovered. The town was first mentioned in the 12th century and the baths in the 16th century. It was Queen Judith who founded a Benedictine monastery “ad aquas calidas” (near the warm waters) on the site of today's castle between 1158–1164 and furnished it richly. The Slavic root word for "warmth" can also be found in the place name, both in the Czech and in the German form derived from it. The monastery was destroyed in the Hussite Wars .
The rulership of Teplitz has been exercised by the Counts Kinsky since the 13th century . In 1467 Teplitz received city rights . Around 1630 the town and castle belonged to Wilhelm Kinsky von Wchinitz and Tettau , who was murdered in Eger together with Wallenstein in 1634 . Subsequently, Emperor Ferdinand II confiscated Kinsky's possessions and lent Teplitz in the same year to Field Marshal Count Johann von Aldringen , who fell near Landshut in 1634. The property came to his sister Anna, who was married to Hieronymus Freiherr von Clary. After disputes over inheritance, the new owners were finally confirmed in 1666, with Clary-Aldringen as the family name . Since then, the Clary-Aldringen family has been associated with Teplitz until 1945.
In Teplitz, Austria and Prussia agreed on the Teplitz puncture on August 1, 1819 .
In September 1835 the monarchs of Austria, Russia and Prussia, in autumn 1849 the emperor of Austria, the kings of Prussia and Saxony and on July 25, 1860 the emperor of Austria and the prince regent of Prussia had meetings in Teplitz. In 1862 the thermal baths' 1,100-year jubilee was celebrated and a memorial was unveiled.
A wall breakthrough in the Döllinger coal works near Dux on February 10, 1879, where the thermal water flowed from then on, called the existence of Teplitz as a spa and bathing resort into question. It didn't come to that; Thanks to building measures that were quickly initiated, it was possible to bring the thermal water back to the surface from its old outlets on March 3, 1879.
Around 1888, the two municipal bath springs Urquelle and Frauenbadquelle, 48 ° C, the stone bath spring 34.6 ° C, the Stephans spring 36.75 ° C, the sand bath spring 32.5 ° C and the meadow spring 32.7 ° C existed as healing springs in Teplitz . In addition, there was the Schlangenbad spring with 39 ° C and the Neubad spring with an outlet temperature of 44.75 ° C in Schönau. These sources usually led alkaline - a saline water, with only small solid particles, preferably carbonate of soda , mixed and fed ten bathhouses. The thermal water should primarily help against chronic joint diseases ( rheumatism , gout), paralysis, scrofulous swellings and ulcers, neuralgia, incipient spinal cord disorders, but also with secondary diseases from gunshot wounds and cut wounds and after bone fractures ("Warrior's Bath"). The original source also served as a drinking cure. The number of visitors to Teplitz-Schönau in 1887 amounted to 7,351 spa guests and 19,224 passers-by. The spa garden in the center of the city was used as a meeting place and entertainment venue for the bathing society, in which the new city theater, the drinking halls, the Kursalon and the palatial imperial bath are located; the garden and park of the Princely-Clary Castle; the 264 m high Königshöhe with the shooting house, the Schlackenburg and the monument to King Friedrich Wilhelm III. ; the Belvedere ; the Seumepark with the tomb of Johann Gottfried Seumes ; the Kaiserpark; the Payer and Humboldt plants; the 392 m high Schlossberg with castle ruins; the Turner and Propstauer Park.
The first uniform ranks in all fire departments in the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary have existed since 1892. They were decided here on the 5th fire department day. It was one of the first resolutions of the Standing Austrian Fire Brigade Committee , the predecessor of the Federal Fire Brigade Association.
In 1895 Teplitz was united with the seaside resort of Schönau (Šanov), which was elevated to a town in 1884. The city was given the double name Teplitz-Schönau.
From 1918 the Austrian town of Teplitz-Schönau belonged to Czechoslovakia until the end of the First World War . On December 1, 1930, it had 23,100 German and 5,300 Czech residents. Teplitz was the seat of numerous German-Bohemian and Sudeten German organizations, including the secretariat of the German Social Democratic Workers' Party (DSAP).
With the Munich Agreement , Teplitz-Schönau was added to the German Reich in 1938. On May 17, 1939, the city had 26,281 inhabitants. The largest synagogue in Bohemia stood in Teplice until the Second World War , and it was burned down on March 14, 1939.
Teplice was from 1938 to 1945 the district administration office of the district Teplice in the administrative district of Usti nad Labem in the Reich Sudetenland . On October 1, 1942, the town of Turn and the community of Settenz were incorporated into Teplitz-Schönau. The state school for ceramics and related trades in Teplitz-Schönau existed until 1945.
The majority of the German Bohemian population was expropriated and expelled in 1945 , as was the noble Clary-Aldringen family. In the following period, many migrants from the interior of the country, from Slovakia and "repatriants", members of Czech and Slovak minorities abroad, as well as many Roma moved here. In May 1947, 22,783 inhabitants were registered. In 1948 the town of Teplice-Šanov merged with the towns of Novosedlice , Proboštov , Řetenice, Trnovany, Sobědruhy and Malý Újezd to form the town of Teplice . 1954 the plans for "Velké Teplice" (Groß-Teplitz) were given up and some of the places got their independence back.
The cityscape of old Teplitz was redesigned during the socialist period. Only the Schloss-Platz (with the Holy Cross Church, Dean's Church, Trinity Column, castle and row of houses opposite) has been preserved to some extent. On the former market square (now Platz der Freiheit), many Wilhelminian-style houses were demolished to make room for a shopping center and the Telekom building. Since the 1990s there has been a large empty building in the city center that was part of the former Hotel Thermia.
|1830||2,091||in 310 houses|
|1900||24,420||with Schönau, German residents|
|1930||30,799||thereof 23,127 Germans, 5,332 Czechs and 1,736 foreigners|
|1939||25,996||2,833 Protestants, 21,277 Catholics, 130 other Christians and 264 Jews|
|year||1950 2||1961 3||1970 4||1980 5||1991 4||2001 5||2011 5|
Culture and sights
Thein the Kulturhaus on Friedensplatz and the on Freiheitsplatz project films with 3D technology.
- Teplitz Castle : The castle, the parts of which show late Gothic, Baroque and Classicist architectural styles, was owned by the Clary-Aldringen family (previously Wressowitz and Kinsky) for over 300 years until 1945 . The property was a meeting place for well-known people from politics and society, e. B. Giacomo Casanova , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt . The building, which is worth seeing, now houses the Teplice Regional Museum. This includes an extensive palace park and a theater.
- Castle Church "To the Holy Cross" (Zámecký kostel "Povýšení sv. Kříže"): The church dates from 1586 and received its current romantic shape during renovations from 1798 to 1806. Since 1950, the church has been used by supporters of the Czech Orthodox Church Countries and Slovakia used.
- Deanery Church of John the Baptist (Děkanský kostel sv. Jana Křtitele): The exact time of the construction of the church on the Palace Square is unknown. The tower dates from 1594. The church received its current baroque appearance during a renovation between 1700 and 1703. The furnishings include paintings by Peter Johann Brandl and Wenzel Lorenz Reiner . The church also houses the gravesites of the Wchynsky, Aldringen and Clary-Aldringen families .
- Church of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary ( Kostel svaté Alžběty Uherské ): neo-Gothic hall church
- Trinity or Plague Column : The column on the Schlossplatz is by Matthias Bernhard Braun .
- Erzgebirge Theater: The building built between 1921 and 1924 based on a design by the Dresden architect Rudolf Bitzan and with the assistance of the stage technician Adolf Linnebach was the second largest theater in Czechoslovakia after Prague. Its elegant interior shows stylistic influences from Expressionism and Art Deco .
- Kolostuj Tower (Kolostujovy věžičky) - former Renaissance summer palace, built by Radslav Vchynský (1600).
- Beuron chapel (Beuronská kaple) of the Teplice grammar school, designed by the Beuron Art School (1888–1889).
- The monument to Mozart was removed from Schlossplatz after 1945 and given a different location.
- Doubravská hora : On the Teplice Castle Hill, east of the town, there is a Gothic castle ruin with fortifications.
- The house "Zur Harfe", bathing place no. 75: Ludwig van Beethoven lived here from August 4th to September 18th, 1811 . The house contains a memorial plaque and inside a very original restaurant with numerous pictures of Beethoven autographs and portraits of the composer.
The city fortifications were torn down in 1810.
Medieval city gates in Teplitz:
- Bath gate (Lázeňská brána), demolished after a fire in 1793
- Castle Gate or Bilin Gate (Zámecká / Bílinská brána), demolished in 1810
- Forest Gate (Lesní brána), demolished in 1846
- Graupner or Dresdner Tor (Krupská / Drážďanská brána), demolished in 1826
- Annual opening of the course season at the end of May.
- Bohemian-Saxon Music Festival
Economy and Infrastructure
In the middle of the 19th century, hard lignite mining began on a large scale in the area around Teplice . The city had developed into an important industrial and trading center, benefiting from the rich brown coal deposits in the area. Textile, metal, porcelain, glass, food and chemical industries settled here. Since the end of the 20th century, Teplice has been a place that mainly produces glass and ceramics.
It primarily treats diseases of the cardiovascular system, problems related to cancer, metabolic disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and nervous diseases. Public spas are
- the Imperial Bath (Císařské lázně)
- the spa house Beethoven (Lázeňský dům Beethoven) with the park bath (Sadové lázně)
- the stone bath (Kamenné lázně)
- the New Bath (Nové lázně)
- the snake bath (Hadí lázně)
- the military bath (Vojenské lázně)
- the Theresienbad (Tereziny lázně) in Dubí (Eichwald)
As in other cities in the Czech Republic, the transport companies gave up the old meter-gauge tram in favor of the Teplice trolleybus in the 1960s .
The 398 intercity bus connects Teplice with the nearby town of Altenberg on the German side.
sons and daughters of the town
Sorted by year of birth
- Joseph Freiherr von Smola (1764–1820), Major General and Commander of the Military Order of Maria Theresa
- Alfred Meißner (1822–1885), writer and physician
- Camill Heller (1823-1917), zoologist
- Anton von Radziwill (1833–1904), Prussian general
- Anton Tausche (1838–1898), traveling teacher, politician
- Gustav Karl Laube (1839–1923), geologist, paleontologist, explorer, Ehrenburger von Teplitz-Schönau
- Julius von Payer (1842–1915), polar and alpine researcher, cartographer and professor at the military academy
- Robert Gersuny (1844-1924), surgeon
- Otto Perutz (1847–1922), chemist and industrialist
- Franz Carl Stradal (1847–1901), President of the Aussig-Teplitz Railway
- Karl Pohlig (1858–1928), conductor and composer
- August Stradal (1860–1930), piano virtuoso, arranger and music teacher
- Karl Panzner (1866–1923), conductor and municipal music director in Düsseldorf
- Gustav Jirsch (1871–1909), architect
- Emanuel Kudela (1876–1920), racing cyclist
- Maximilian Preibisch (1877–1940), Austrian sculptor, born in Prasseditz
- Emil Lehmann (1880–1964), Sudeten German nationality fighter, born in Turn
- Emanuel Strubich (1887–1922), mountaineer
- Maximilian Rauer (1889–1971), Catholic theologian
- Anton Franz Schmid (1893–1955), playwright
- Michal Mareš (1893–1971), Czech journalist, poet and columnist
- Hugo Hantsch (1895–1972), Benedictine monk, Roman Catholic pastor, university professor, historian, and victim of Nazi persecution
- Melchior Vischer (1895–1975), writer and director
- Franziska zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (1897–1989), Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg, wife of Archduke Maximilian Eugen of Austria
- Humbert Achamer-Pifrader (1900–1945), SS standard leader
- Paul Kohner (1902–1988), film producer
- Friedrich Kohner (1905–1986), writer and screenwriter
- Adolf Siegl (1908–1999), chemist and student historian
- Edward Rothe (1909–1978), director and actor
- Karl Löb (1910–1983), cameraman
- Oskar Willner (1910–1987), actor and theater director
- Harald Kurz (1912–2002), transport scientist and university professor
- Walter Janowitz (1913–1997), actor
- Maxi Böhm (1916–1982), actor and cabaret artist
- Georg Kafka (1921–1944), writer
- Harald Schwarz (1921–1995), puppeteer
- Hans Kindermann (1922–2018), lawyer
- Jiří Majer (1922–2008), Czech mining historian
- Karl Richard Tschon (1923–1993), writer and radio play author
- Doris Jannausch (1925–2017), writer, theater actress and cabaret artist
- Irene Goß (1928–2015), singer and politician (SPD)
- Gerhard Feix (* 1929), lawyer, criminologist and author
- Walter Hanel (* 1930), caricaturist
- Rudolf E. Kaiser (* 1930), chemist (analyst)
- Peter Dittrich (1931–2009), caricaturist and filmmaker
- Rolf Massin (1939–2020), author and philosopher
- Simon Dittrich (* 1940), painter and graphic artist
- Herbert Werner (* 1941), politician (CDU), member of the Bundestag for Ulm, 1991–98 chairman of the Ackermann community
- Hildegard Alex (* 1942), theater, film and television actress
- Lothar Rechtacek (1943–2013), painter, graphic artist and sculptor
- Wolfgang Kunert (* 1943), District President of the Upper Palatinate
- Helmut Pfleger (* 1943), chess player
- Reinhold Andert (* 1944), songwriter, author and historian
- Wolf Schmid (* 1944), Slavist
- Peter K. Fraps (1945–2015), Bundeswehr doctor
- Ilja Srubar (* 1946), sociologist
- Peter Kral (* 1947), jazz musician
- Jiří Brázda (* 1952), painter, graphic artist and ex-libris artist
- Jaromír Kohlíček (* 1953), politician and member of the European Parliament
- Milan Špalek (* 1966), musician, founded the band Kabát in 1983 in Teplice
- Robert Lang (* 1970), ice hockey player
- Radek Bečka (* 1979), cyclist
- Jakub Mareš (* 1987), football player
- Lucie Voňková (* 1992), soccer player
People related to the city
- Adam Adamandy Kochański (1631–1700), Polish mathematician, died here
- Johann Christoph Sachse (1762–1822), writer and library clerk at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library in Weimar, died here
- Johann Gottfried Seume (1763–1810), writer and poet, died here
- Charlotte von Ahlefeld (1781–1849), writer, died here
- Franz Wenzl Tobisch (1788–1873), Catholic clergyman, worked in Teplitz from 1818 to 1873 and died here
- Eduard Tobisch (1840–1927), lawyer and kk Hofrat, died here (nephew of Franz Wenzl Tobisch)
- Theodor Grohmann (1844–1919), large industrialist, large landowner, councilor and patron
- Hermann Rudolph (1846–1924), architect, mine owner and patron
- Reginald Czermack (1847–1929), entrepreneur and fire department official
- Herman Bang (1857–1912), Danish poet, completed his city novel Stuk in Teplitz from the end of August to November 7, 1887
- Otto Tetens (1865–1945), a natural scientist specializing in astronomy, died here
- Josef Brechensbauer (1867–1945), educator and local researcher
- Oscar Straus (1870–1954), Austrian operetta composer
- Johann Wenzel Hocke (1871–1940), professor of aircraft construction, painter and sculptor
- Ferdinand Josef Schneider (1879–1954), literary historian, attended grammar school here
- Theodor Veidl (1885–1946), composer
- Kurt Eichhorn (1908–1994), conductor
- Franz Stoss (1909–1995), Austrian actor and theater director, 1933/34 director at the Stadttheater
- Hanna Kohner (1919–1990), Holocaust survivor, grew up here
- Fritz Baier (1923–2012), politician (CDU)
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- Georg Delhaes: The thermal baths and mud baths to Teplitz-Schönau (Bohemia). In their physiological and therapeutic effects. A balneological study based on 15 years of experience. 3. Edition. Dominicus, Prague et al. 1878.
- Hugo Gerold: Studies on the baths at Teplitz. Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna 1886.
- Hermann Fischer: Bad Teplitz as it is now. A handbook for spa guests. Verlags-Comptoir, Grimma 1839 ( E-Kopiet ).
- Ludwig Friedenthal: The Curort Teplitz-Schönau in Bohemia. Topographically and medically shown. Alfred Hölder, Vienna 1877.
- Hermann Hallwich : Töplitz. A German-Bohemian city history. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1886.
- Rudolf Hemmerle : Teplitz-Schönau. In: Rudolf Hemmerle: Sudetenland Lexicon. For everyone who loves the Sudetenland (= German Landscapes in Lexicon. Vol. 4). 2nd, expanded edition. Kraft, Mannheim 1985, ISBN 3-8083-1163-0 .
- Raimund Klaus: The memorable events in the area of Teplitz and Kulm from 722 to 1838. Medau, Prague et al. 1838 ( e-copy ).
- Mattheus Leder: Kurtze Description of the healing warm bath of the Hoch-Gräffl. Clarian city, Töplitz, located in the Kingdom of Bohemia, Leitomiritz district. Kuhfus, Freiberg 1717, ( E-Copy ).
- Josef von Löschner (Ed.): Teplitz and the neighboring Curorte from the natural history, medical-historical and therapeutic standpoint (= contributions to balneology. 2, ). Dominicus, Prague et al. 1867 ( e-copy ).
- Adolf Lustig (ed.): Karlsbad and Teplitz-Schönau. Balneotherapy presented for those in need of drinking and bathing. 2nd, significantly changed edition. Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna 1886.
- August Em. Reuss : The thermal baths of Teplitz. Medau, Prague 1844 ( e-copy ).
- J. Scheider: Bad Teplitz-Schönau and the surrounding area. Handy guide for travelers. Advice for spa guests (= Grieben travel guide. 44, ). 12th edition, revised. Goldschmidt, Berlin 1907.
- Gottfried Schmelkes: Teplitz and his Minaral sources with special regard to their value as remedies : Dresden, Leipzig and Prague 1841 ( e-copy ).
- City and district of Teplitz-Schönau. Our unforgettable home, working group Heimatbuch Stadt und Kreis Teplitz-Schönau, Amberg 1994
- A. Voigt: Teplitz and its surroundings. A guide for strangers . Dresden 1826 ( e-copy ).
- Official website of the spa town of Teplitz
- Historical map of the Toeplitz rule with different views of the town (Zürner, Amsterdam 18th century)
- Audio educational trail through the city
- Teplitz - Little Paris
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Základní sídelní jednotky: Územně identifikační registr ČR. Retrieved February 11, 2019 .
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- Teplitz-Schönau (Bohemia) , From the history of the Jewish communities in the German-speaking area, accessed April 5, 2015.
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- Andreas Schlueter : Say goodbye and recover ... To the evocation of spirits in Teplice in northern Bohemia. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , December 2, 2010.
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