Statutory city (Czech Republic)
Statutory cities ( Statutární město ) are in the Czech Republic "cities with special status". In 2012, 25 cities had this status. Statutory cities existed in the area of today's Czech Republic between 1850 and 1939, 1945 and 1948 and from 1968 and, from today's perspective, from 1990. Between 1949 and 1967 there were no statutory cities in Czechoslovakia . In 1968, Law No. 69/1967 “On National Committees” gave the cities of Brno , Moravian Ostrava , Pilsen and Košice (Slovakia) this status, but were not explicitly designated as statutory cities.
Statutory cities are "cities with special status" according to the Czech law on municipalities. The urban area of these cities can be divided into city districts ( městský obvod ) or city districts ( městská část ) with their own self-government. The statute is a statutory regulation of the city and is issued by the city council. The statute regulates the structure of the city's organs and their powers, contains the city's budget statute, determines the procedure for enacting the city's legislature, the design and use of city symbols and other matters. In the case of statutorily structured cities, the statute regulates the division of the city into self-governing territorial units, their powers and position vis-à-vis the city.
The organs of a statutory city are: city council ( zastupitelstvo města ), city council ( rada města ), mayor ( primátor ) and magistrate. In statutory cities with a subdivision of the city area, the city districts (or city districts) have their own similar structures: Representation of the city district / city district, council of the city district / city district, mayor, office of the city district / city district. The city districts / city districts are established and dissolved by resolution of the city council.
Originally the most important feature of a statutory city was that it formed its own political district and was thus "district-free" (compare: independent city ). According to § 26/4 of Act No. 69/1967 Coll., The city administrations (national committees) of the cities of Brno , Ostrava , Plzeň and Košice (Slovakia) also performed the tasks of a district. The urban area of these cities formed an independent district ( okres ) and the cities were thus "district-free". The statutory cities created after 1990 were not designed as “district-free”. After the administrative reform of 2000–2003, the districts were dissolved as administrative units on January 1, 2003, and the formerly “district-free” statutory cities also lost this property. From January 1, 2007, only the urban area of the city of Brno coincides with the area of the Okres Brno-město ( Brno-city district ). The Okres Ostrava-město ( district of Ostrava-city ) and the Okres Plzeň-město ( district of Pilsen-city ) were expanded to include additional municipalities on January 1, 2007. The city of Prague has a special status, but has de facto characteristics of a statutory city.
Compared to other forms of administration
The Czech statutory city developed from the Austrian administrative model and therefore has similarities to the Austrian statutory city . The statutory cities are often compared with the independent cities in Germany. From an administrative point of view, however, after the administrative reform 2000–2003 at the latest, it is no longer a district or, in the Czech Republic, “district-free” cities, since the districts ( okres ) were dissolved as administrative units on January 1, 2003. Historically, only the cities of Brno , Ostrava , Plzeň and or Košice previously took on the administrative tasks of a district. The statutory cities created after 1990 were not “district-free” even before the administrative reform. This also distinguishes the Czech statutory city from the Austrian one.
Statutory cities until 1928
|Czech name||German name||Administrative unit at that time|
|Praha||Prague||Kingdom of Bohemia|
|Liberec||Reichenberg||Kingdom of Bohemia|
|Brno||Brno||Margraviate of Moravia|
|Jihlava||Iglau||Margraviate of Moravia|
|Kroměříž||Kremsier||Margraviate of Moravia|
|Olomouc||Olomouc||Margraviate of Moravia|
|Uherské Hradiště||Hungarian Hradish||Margraviate of Moravia|
|Znojmo||Znojmo||Margraviate of Moravia|
|Opava||Troppau||Duchy of Silesia|
|Frýdek-Místek||Friedek||Duchy of Silesia|
|Bílsko||Bielitz (from 1920 as Bielsko to Poland)||Duchy of Silesia|
Statutory cities after the administrative reform of 1928
|Czech name||German name|
Statutory cities between 1945 and 1948
|Czech name||German name|
Statutory cities from 1968
|Czech name||German name|
The fourth place in Act 69/1967 Coll. On the National Committees is Košice (Kaschau; now Slovakia).
Statutory cities from 1990
|Czech name||German name||since|
|České Budějovice||Ceske Budejovice||1990|
|Ústí nad Labem||Aussig||1990|
|Jablonec nad Nisou||Gablonz on the Neisse||2012|
- ↑ The status of the cities was specified in the later Acts No. 175/1968 Sb. "On the City of Brno", 40/1969 Sb. "On the City of Ostrava" and 41/1969 Sb. "On the City of Pilsen".
- ↑ The city of Prague has a special status, but has de facto characteristics of a statutory city.
- ↑ Czech law on municipalities: Zákon č. 128/2000 Sb., O obcích (obecní zřízení)