Jablonec nad Nisou

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Jablonec nad Nisou
Coat of arms of Jablonec nad Nisou
Jablonec nad Nisou (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Historical part of the country : Bohemia
Region : Liberecký kraj
District : Jablonec nad Nisou
Area : 3,138.2278 ha
Geographic location : 50 ° 44 '  N , 15 ° 10'  E Coordinates: 50 ° 43 '40 "  N , 15 ° 10' 12"  E
Height: 475  m nm
Residents : 45,802 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 466 01
License plate : L.
Railway connection: Liberec – Tanvald
Status: Statutory city
Districts: 8th
Lord Mayor : Jiří Čeřovský ( ODS ) (as of 2019)
Address: Mírové náměstí 3100/19
467 51 Jablonec nad Nisou
Municipality number: 563510
Website : www.mestojablonec.cz

Jablonec nad Nisou (German: Gablonz an der Neisse ) is a town with 45,802 inhabitants (January 1, 2019) in the Gablonz district in the northern Bohemian Reichenberger Kreis in the Czech Republic . The Czech name of the city is derived from the Czech word jabloň (apple tree) and the Neisse (Czech: Lužická Nisa ).

Geographical location

Panorama of the city and its surroundings from the Jizera seen from

The city is located in northern Bohemia in the valley of the Lusatian Neisse , into which the Mšenský potok (Grünwald Water) flows in the city center and the White Neisse on the western outskirts . The cadastral area of the city is 3139 ha .


middle Ages

The first written mention was made in 1356. After the destruction by opponents of the Bohemian King George of Podebrady in August 1469, the settlement disappeared completely.

16th to 19th century

Gablonz was not permanently inhabited until the 16th century, when the first glassworks in Grünwald (Mšeno) was built. In the Thirty Years War Gablonz was burned again on May 2, 1643; After the end of the war, the Protestant residents were forcibly expelled. In 1808 Jablonec became a market town and in 1866 a decree by King Franz Josef I made it a town. In 1868 Gablonz became the seat of the district captain . The new political district of Gablonz consisted of the judicial districts Tannwald and Gablonz .

20th century

On October 28, 1918, the independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed. Gablonz was occupied by Czech units from Mladá Boleslav in the early morning of December 11th . The German people's armed forces did not offer any resistance. In the 1930 census, 79.5% of the Gablonz were German and 16.5% Czech .

After the Munich Agreement of September 29, 1938, the city, like the entire Sudetenland, was annexed to the German Reich . Until 1945 the city was the seat of the district of Gablonz an der Neisse , district of Aussig , in the Reichsgau Sudetenland . Most of the city's Jews had already fled in the summer of 1938, those who remained were persecuted and, from 1941/42, were deported and murdered. The Gablonzer Rabbi Georg Vida fled to Turnau , where he managed to save the Gablonzer Torah .

Many Czech-speaking Gablonz fled.

In Gablonz there was a satellite camp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp from January to May 1945 , in which women prisoners had to do forced labor for the aircraft factory Mitteldeutsche Motorenwerke . There was also a men's camp here since November 1944.

Expulsion of the Germans

After the end of the Second World War , most of the German-Bohemian residents were expelled due to the Beneš decrees . After 1945, founded expellees then municipalities named Neugablonz both in Kaufbeuren in Bavaria and Neugablonz in Enns in Upper Austria and the Gablonzer settlement in Kremsmünster , Upper Austria, to where the famous glass industry (Jablonec jewelery ) continue. Around 14,000 exiles, many of them from the Gablonz region, have also settled in the Gotha district in Thuringia . Especially around the towns of Friedrichroda and Ohrdruf , small businesses of the bag makers and jewelry belt workshops of button makers, glass designers and jewelry manufacturers were established there.

After 1945

After the Second World War, many new citizens from Central Bohemia, Slovakia, repatriates and Roma settled in Jablonec. Jablonec is the second largest city in the Liberec region , the largest city and seat of the Jablonec nad Nisou district and an industrial location . It forms the administrative, cultural and sports center of the Jizera Mountains ( Jizerské Hory ).


Until 1945 Gablonz on the Neisse was mainly populated by German Bohemia, which were expelled.

Population development until 1945
year Residents Remarks
1802 01,976 in 411 houses
1827 03.126 in 512 houses
1830 03,209 in 523 houses
1837 03,548
1846 03,826
1857 04,553
1859 05,297 in 561 houses, including 1,100 strangers
1869 06,752 of which 3,874 locals and 2,878 foreigners
1900 21.091 German residents
1930 33,958 including 5,602 Czechs
1939 28,771 of which 3,503 Protestants, 22,071 Catholics, 1,801 other Christians and 53 Jews
Development of the number of inhabitants in relation to the current area
year former
urban area
based on
today's area
1830 03,000 -
1869 07,000 13,000
1890 15,000 23,000
1910 30,000 43,000
1930 34,000 50,000
1950 23,000 33,000
1970 34,000 42,000
1991 46,000 46,000
2001 45,000 45,000

The first number is the population in the urban area (cadastre) at that time, the second number in the present area (the city has grown, some villages have been incorporated).

Economy and Infrastructure

Initially, glassworks were located in the village as industrial companies . In the second half of the 17th century, the glass industry developed very quickly. Another advancement came to the city in the first half of the 18th century with the advent of jewelery - manufacturers .

Today, next to this branch of industry, Jablonec is an excellent starting point for tourist activities in the Jizera Mountains and the Giant Mountains . The location on the German and Polish borders favors trade activities with these countries.

In Jablonec and the surrounding area, 11,000 people are said to be employed in the jewelry and glass manufacture , although the production is largely export-oriented. The most important glass manufacturing companies - Ecoglass, Preciosa, Ornela, Bižuterie Česká mincovna (Czech Mint Bijouterie), Glass Tomeš - have merged to form the Bijou Terra association , which operates the export company Jappenx .

The Mint Bižuterie Česká mincovna (Czech Mint Bijouterie) produces Czech crowns for the whole country. It was founded after the collapse of Czechoslovakia because the Czechoslovak mint was in Kremnica , Slovakia .

In addition to jewelery and glass production, mechanical engineering , furniture production and the woodworking industry are also represented.

The Soliter company produces metal jewelry.

Jablotron , founded in 1991, produces alarm systems , garden technology , cell phones, etc. They caused a sensation with their "largest cell phone in the world". The "JABLOTRON GDP 02 Grand" device was originally intended for the elderly, but residents of regions with poor landline coverage also showed great interest . In 2010 Jablotron employed 450 people and generated a turnover of 1.36 billion crowns (approx. 57 million euros).

The LucasVarity company produces car brakes in Jablonec and the surrounding area under the name TRW Automotive Aftermarket CZ LUCAS Autobrzdy ; it uses equipment from the former Autobrzdy , later Ateso . One of the most important automotive suppliers is A. Raymond Jablonec sro , a subsidiary of the globally operating A Raymond .


The city lies on the railway line Liberec-Tanvald , it is also since 1955 by the narrow gauge interurban tram Liberec-Jablonec nad Nisou the tram Liberec with Liberec connected. From 1900 to 1965 Jablonec also had its own tram network .

The R10 expressway to Prague is about 7 km away.

Culture and sights

Market square with the old town hall
Anne's Church
City center
City Theater Jablonec nad Nisou
new town hall

In the Rýnovice district there is a House of Czech-German Understanding (Rieger House). A number of important buildings and districts are evidence of the city's former wealth. The most interesting are Art Nouveau buildings and private villas on what is now Podhorská ulice (Mountain Road) and 28. října (Josef Pfeifer Street). Magnificent functionalist buildings of the 1930s are the Villa Schmelowsky, the Villa Hásek (architect Heinrich Lauterbach ), the Villa Kantor (Adolf Loos student architect Heinrich Kulka ), the town hall (architect Karl Winter ) and the Catholic Church on Gewerbe-Platz (Architect Josef Zasche ).

  • The new town hall was built between 1931 and 1933 in a functionalist style based on a design by the Reichenberg architect Karl Winter.
  • The old town hall , a three-story building with a square tower, was built in 1867–1869 by the Reichenberg master builder Gustav Sachers .
  • The Art Nouveau glass and jewelery museum originally belonged to the export company Zimmer & Schmidt. Today it is the seat of the Museum of Glass and Jewelery. Its collections contain objects documenting the history of glassmaking, the manufacture of jewelry and bijouterie, and more recently medal art and coinage; everything in particular to the development in northern Bohemia .
  • The Roman Catholic Church of St. Anne , a single-nave rectangular baroque building with a polygonal presbytery, was built between 1685 and 1687.
  • The former rectory , a building from the beginning of the 18th century with a neo-renaissance facade from the end of the 19th century. The statue of St. Maria in front of the church and an approximately 1 m high reconciliation cross on the church wall from 1666.
  • The city ​​theater (Městské divadlo) was built in Art Nouveau style according to plans by the Viennese theater architects Fellner and Helmer 1906–1907 with the same floor plan as those in Gießen and Klagenfurt .
  • The Roman Catholic Herz-Jesu-Kirche is a three-aisled, rectangular brick building with a transept and a square tower, it was built in 1930–1931 based on a design by the Gablonz-born architect Josef Zasche (1871–1957).
  • The old Catholic cruciform church was built 1900–1902 in Art Nouveau style, the design also comes from the architect Josef Zasche.
  • The Protestant parish church is a neo-Gothic single - nave building with a rectangular tower on the front, it was built in 1892 by master builder Arwed Thamerus.
  • The Mšeno dam was built in 1906–1909 in the area of ​​the Lusatian Neisse . It is intended to prevent the regularly recurring floods. The dam is 513 m above sea level and holds 3 million cubic meters of water. This technical monument is also an attractive recreational area for the city.
  • The shooting club was the seat of the local shooting club, which was founded in 1761. The later center of Gablonzer sports and cultural life was built in the years 1870–1871.
  • Petřín (formerly called Nickelkoppe ) is an excursion restaurant with a 20 m high observation tower on the southern edge of the city, it was built in 1906.
  • Galerie Belvedere , a late Baroque two-story house with a mansard roof , is one of the oldest buildings in the city. The first mention comes from 1773.
  • Nad Prosečí (Proschwitzer Kamm) is a popular destination for walks between Jablonec and Liberec with a hut and a lookout tower.
  • The Schwarzbrunnwarte is a granite lookout tower with a hut and was built on the Schwarzbrunnberg (today Černá studnice ) in 1905 based on a design by the Gablonzer architect Hemmrich .
  • The source of the Neisse is located in the area of Nová Ves nad Nisou (Neudorf) , near the main road to Lučany nad Nisou (Wiesenthal) .

City structure

The town of Jablonec nad Nisou consists of the districts and cadastral districts of Jablonec nad Nisou (Gablonz on the Neisse), Jappencké Paseky (Bad Schlag), Kokonín (Kukan), Lukášov (Luxdorf), Mšeno nad Nisou (Green Forest on the Neisse), Proseč nisou Nisou (Proschwitz an der Neisse), Rýnovice (Reinowitz) and Vrkoslavice ( Waxwing ). Basic settlement units are Dobrá Voda (Gutbrunn), Dolina, Dolina-jih, Dolní Kokonín (Unterkukan), Horní Kokonín (Oberkukan), Horní Proseč (Oberproschwitz), Jablonec nad Nisou-střed, Jymbolcká přehrada, Jymbolcké Paseindkyi, Černé Studnici, Kerné Studnici -jih, K Jindřichovu-sever, Lukášov, Máchův park, Mánesova-Podzimní, Mšeno nad Nisou-Podlesí, Mšeno nad Nisou-U Jelena, Mšeno nad Nisou-U kapličky, Mšeno nad Nisou-U Navety nadly, Mšeno nad Nisou-U Navety , Na hutích, Na roli, Na Smetance, Na Střelnici, Na Východě, Nad poštou, Nad střelnicí, Novoveská, Pražská, Proseč nad Nisou, Proseč nad Nisou-Domovina, Prosečský hřeben (Proschwitzkammhäuser), Rýskovice-Novánovice-Janovice-Janovice , Rýnovice-průmyslový obvod, Rýnovice-Stará Osada, Sadová-Pasířská, Srnčí důl, Střední Kokonín (Middle Kukan ), Šumava, U Jappenckých Pasek, U nemocnice, U Nisy, U pily, U učilištěz, U pily, U učilištěz Vrkoslavice-Petřín ( Nickelkoppen Houses ), Vysoká, Za hrází, Zelené údolí and Žižkův vrch.



  • 1881–1918 Adolph Heinrich Posselt
  • 1918–1934 Karl Richard Fischer ( DNSAP )
  • 1934–1938 Gustav Petrovsky ( SdP )
  • 1938–1942 Oswald Wondrak ( NSDAP , 1942–1945 as punishment at the front)
  • 1942–1945 (May) Karl Lehmann (NSDAP, as deputy)
  • May 8, 1945 - May 21, 1945 Karel Šimon (Democrat)
  • May 21, 1945 - 1950 Karel Šilhán ( communist )
  • 1990–1994 Jiří Musil ( Citizens' Forum , later Social Democrats )
  • 1994-2006 Jiří Čeřovský ( ODS )
  • 2006–2010 Petr Tulpa (independent association Domov nad Nisou - "Home on the Neisse")
  • since November 2010 Petr Beitl ( ODS )

Town twinning


sons and daughters of the town

People connected to the place

  • Gustav Leutelt (1860–1947), German writer and poet, lived in Gablonz as a pensioner from 1922
  • Rudolf Medek (1890–1940), Czech writer and colonel, began his career as an officer in Gablonz
  • Konrad Henlein (1898–1945), National Socialist politician, studied in Gablonz
  • Jan Železný (* 1966), Czech javelin thrower, three-time Olympic champion, competed for the Gablonzer athletics club TJ Liaz for a while


in reverse chronological order
  • Alfred Hübner and Walburga Wowkova: Family book for the town of Gablonz an der Neisse (1650-1870) based on the family sheets from 1993. Copy of the family cards . Leipzig: German Central Office for Genealogy 1994; 4 volumes, 3740 families
  • Adolf Benda: History of the city of Gablonz and its surroundings, Gablonz an der Neisse, 1877, 607 p. As digitized version
  • Carl Joseph Czoernig: Topographical-historical-statistical description of Reichenberg. In addition to an appendix containing the description of Gablonz . Vienna 1829, pp. 199-216 .

Web links

Commons : Jablonec nad Nisou  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. http://www.uir.cz/obec/563510/Jablonec-nad-Nisou
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. Jüdische-gemeinden.de: Gablonz / Neisse (Bohemia)
  4. ^ Rudolf M. Wlaschek: Jews in Böhmen . Munich: Oldenbourg, 1990, p. 152
  5. ^ Helga Raschke: Expelled: In Gotha the Gablonzer started again. Mood of optimism and final decline of the Sudeten German glass and jewelry industry. In: Thuringian General . Gotha 1999.
  6. ^ Carl Joseph Czoernig: Topographical-historical-statistical description of Reichenberg. In addition to an appendix containing the description of Gablonz . Vienna 1829, p. 207 .
  7. Adolf Benda: History of the city of Gablonz and its surroundings . Gablonz an der Neisse 1877, p. 81 .
  8. Yearbooks of the Bohemian Museum of Natural and Regional Studies, History, Art and Literature . Volume 2, Prague 1831, p. 196, item 1).
  9. Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 2: Bunzlauer Kreis , Prague 1834, pp. 331-332, item 22).
  10. a b Adolf Benda: History of the city of Gablonz and its surroundings . Gablonz an der Neisse 1877, p. 84 .
  11. a b Adolf Benda: History of the city of Gablonz and its surroundings . Gablonz an der Neisse 1877, p. 103 .
  12. Adolf Benda: History of the city of Gablonz and its surroundings . Gablonz an der Neisse 1877, p. 105 .
  13. ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 7, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 250 .
  14. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Gablonz district on the Neisse. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  15. ^ Dějiny obyvatelstva českých zemí (History of the Population of the Bohemian Lands). Mladá fronta, Prague 1996, pp. 397, 398
  16. The millionaire in the prefabricated building. Sächsische Zeitung (Pirna edition) from 21./22. May 2011
  17. http://www.uir.cz/casti-obce-obec/563510/Obec-Jablonec-nad-Nisou
  18. http://www.uir.cz/katastralni-uzemi-obec/563510/Obec-Jablonec-nad-Nisou
  19. http://www.uir.cz/zsj-obec/563510/Obec-Jablonec-nad-Nisou
  20. Liberecký kraj: Starostou Jablonce bude ještědský hoteliér Petr Beitl.