Bohemia ( Czech Čechy , Latin Bohemia ) was one of the countries of the Bohemian Crown . As the former Kingdom of Bohemia , it forms the territory of today's Czech Republic with Moravia and the Czech part of Silesia , but is no longer an independent administrative unit. The historical capital of Bohemia is Prague , since 1918 the capital of Czechoslovakia or the Czech Republic. The Czech patron saint is St. Wenceslas , to whom the Wenceslas crown is dedicated. Another patron saint of the country is John of Nepomuk . The inhabitants are called Bohemia (plural of Böhme ) regardless of their nationality , but until the fall of the Habsburg monarchy, the Czech language was also referred to as "Bohemian".
coat of arms
The flag was white and red.
Bohemia's area is about 52,065 km². It borders on Silesia in the northeast, the historic Moravia region in the east, Austria in the south, Bavaria in the southwest and west and Saxony in the northwest . The Ďábel at Petrov was determined as the geometric center .
Bohemia is essentially limited by its four peripheral mountains:
- Bohemian Forest (southwest border to the Austrian Mühlviertel and Bavaria )
- Erzgebirge (north-western border with Saxony )
- Sudeten (northern and northeastern border with Upper Lusatia and Silesia )
- Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (eastern border with Moravia and southern with the Waldviertel )
Thus it forms a landscape basin , with a few small exceptions limited by the watershed of the catchment areas of Moldau (Vltava) and Elbe (Labe) (up to the border with Germany). The Eger (Ohře) also flows into the latter , whose headwaters are in the Fichtel Mountains in Franconia .
Bohemia comprises the western two thirds of the Czech Republic . Today, this includes the Czech capital Prague (Praha), the Central Bohemian Region (Středočeský kraj) that surrounds it and the regions around this region clockwise Reichenberg ( Liberecký kraj ), Königgrätz ( Královéhradecký kraj ), the larger part of the Pardubický kraj , the western half of the Kraj Vysočina , almost the entire South Bohemian region (Jihočeský kraj), the Pilsen region (Plzeňský kraj), the Karlovarský kraj , the Ústecký kraj around Ústí (Aussig) and the Jobova Lavahota region, which today belongs to the South Moravian region (Jihomoravský kraj) .
The current borders of Bohemia are well over 1000 years old, only the Egerland was added in the late Middle Ages . Bohemia is encompassed on three sides by mountain landscapes. It connects with the Fichtelgebirge to the central German terrace landscapes. Bohemia is so closely related to Moravia that one can see a shared Bohemian-Moravian terraced land in the space between Eger , Elbe and Danube on the one hand and March and Naab on the other.
The catchment areas of the Danube and the Oder amount to only 6.4% of the country's area (3184 km²), while the Elbe catchment area takes up 48,772 km². The river system of the Elbe also includes the Vltava , which flows into the Elbe at Mělník . In the far east there are some brooks that drain to the March , so the main European watershed goes through Bohemia.
- North Bohemian Basin
- Dolnooharská tabule
- Laun-Saaz plain
- Theresienstadt level
- Melniker level
- Nimburg Plain
- Pardubice plain
- South Bohemian valley basin
There are also numerous mountains here:
- Andělská hora ( Engelhäuser Hill 713 m)
- Úhošť ( Burberg , 591 m)
- Říp ( Georgenberg 455 m)
- Tok ( Tockberg 853 m)
- Třemšín ( Trschemschinberg 822 m)
- Boubín ( Kubany 1358 m)
Historical administrative structure
Old bohemian circles
Charles IV began to divide his kingdom into large administrative units in the middle of the 14th century. Such an administrative unit was called Kreis in German , kraj in Czech and circulus in Latin . There were seven to sixteen counties in Bohemia. In Moravia there were two to six districts, in Austrian Silesia there were two.
The number of circles and thus their size changed several times. This district division was in place until 1862, but shortly after the revolution of 1848 it played practically no role in the administration.
The district structure (16 districts) between 1833 and 1849 according to Johann Gottfried Sommer was:
- Berauner Circle ( Beroun )
- Bydzov district ( Nový Bydžov )
- Budweiser Kreis ( Budweis )
- Boleslav region ( Mladá Boleslav )
- Caslav District ( Čáslav )
- Chrudimer Circle ( Chrudim )
- Elbogen circle ( Loket )
- Kaurim District ( Kouřim )
- Klattauer Kreis ( Klatovy )
- Hradec Kralove ( Hradec Králové )
- Leitmeritzer circle ( Litoměřice )
- Pilsen district ( Pilsen )
- Prachin District ( Písek , named after the Prácheň Castle )
- Rakonice District ( Rakovník , Slaný )
- Saaz circle ( Zatec )
- Tabor district ( Tábor )
Political and judicial districts 1850–1938
From 1850 in all areas of the monarchy except Hungary, the old large districts were replaced by political districts (administrative districts), each of which consisted of one or more judicial districts (the judiciary). This classification still exists in the Austrian federal states . Usually a political district (Czech: politický okres ) was smaller than a former old district, and a judicial district (Czech: soudní okres ) is smaller than a political district. There were 104 political districts in the crown land of Bohemia and 229 judicial districts therein. Moravia had 32 political districts and Austrian Silesia had nine.
Counties and districts under German occupation
By the Munich Agreement of September 29, 1938, against the will of Czechoslovakia, the predominantly German-speaking part of Bohemia was added to the German Reich and divided into urban and rural districts; overriding were administrative districts (the south-western parts came to the Reichsgau Oberdonau , the areas in the Bohemian Forest to Bavaria and the rest of them formed the Reichsgau Sudetenland ). The rest of Bohemia, which had been part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia since March 15, 1939 , remained divided into political and judicial districts, although several political districts were still amalgamated in a district councilor.
In the Reichsgau Sudetenland there were five urban districts and 52 rural districts. There were 67 Czech and 30 Moravian political districts in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. This administrative structure was in place until the end of the Second World War .
Bohemia has always been a European region in which religious and ethnic contrasts clashed. This created conflicts, but also productive interactions. The diversity of Bohemian culture is shaped by the interaction and clash of Czech, German and Jewish influences. For example, among the Luxembourgers , Prague played a key role in shaping the international art of the Parlerzeit . In the 19th and 20th centuries, writers such as Adalbert Stifter , Rainer Maria Rilke , Jaroslav Hašek , Franz Kafka , Max Brod , Karel Čapek , Franz Werfel , Johannes Urzidil and Friedrich Torberg as well as composers such as Bedřich Smetana , Antonín Dvořák , Leoš Janáček , Gustav created Mahler and Viktor Ullmann in their works from the rich cultural tradition of the country.
In the second half of the 19th century, an all-disciplinary Czech scientific and cultural scene emerged, the claim of which is expressed, among other things, in the Prague architecture around 1900. The German-Bohemian minority (almost completely expelled after 1945 ) was no less productive; it competed with the entire German-speaking area. The Prager Tagblatt was considered one of the best German-language newspapers of its time. The industry of Bohemia was leading in Austria-Hungary . The crown land became the wealthiest of Cisleithania .
The Bohemian cuisine , the Bohemian beer and the Bohemian brass music are famous . Typical for the Czech cuisine are dumplings, hearty meat dishes and sweet desserts (in the Austrian word meaning) for dessert. The cultural traditions of Bohemia are closely related to those in Bavaria and Austria - in Viennese cuisine, for example, Bohemian influences are unmistakable.
The term “ bohème ” is derived from the French name bohémien (from the 15th century) for the Roma coming from Bohemia. The character of the designation of origin was lost in French as well as in German, so that bohémien became a term for disorderly, dissolute customs or for the unsteady way of life in artist circles and no longer referred to ethnic affiliation.
- List of Bohemian rulers
- Bohemia by the sea , according to a location in Shakespeare's "Winter Tale"
- Bohemian language conflict
- Manfred Alexander : Small history of the bohemian countries. Reclam, Ditzingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-15-010655-6 ( table of contents - current overview).
- Joachim Bahlcke , Winfried Eberhard and Miloslav Polívka (eds.): Handbook of the historical sites of Bohemia and Moravia . Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 978-3520329011 .
- Joachim Bahlcke : History of the Czech Republic. From the Middle Ages to the present. Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66179-2 .
- Karl Bosl (Hrsg.): Handbook of the history of the Bohemian countries. Four volumes. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1966–1974; ISBN 978-3-7772-6707-4 , ISBN 978-3-7772-7414-0 , ISBN 978-3-7772-6827-9 or ISBN 978-3-7772-7012-8 ( table of contents - detailed standard work on the research status of the 1960s).
- Collegium Carolinum (ed.): Biographical lexicon for the history of the Bohemian countries. Four volumes, three published so far. Oldenbourg / Munich 1979 ff .; ISBN 978-3-486-49491-4 , ISBN 978-3-486-52551-9 u. ISBN 978-3-486-55973-6 ( table of contents ).
- Collegium Carolinum (Ed.): Local dictionary of the Bohemian countries. 1910-1965. Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 1983, ISBN 3-486-51761-9 .
- Jörg K. Hoensch : History of Bohemia. From the Slavic conquest to the present day (Beck's historical library). 3rd, updated and supplemented edition. Beck, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-41694-2 (standard scientific work).
- Walter Kosglich , Marek Nekula , Joachim Rogall (eds.): Germans and Czechs. History - Culture - Politics (Becksche Reihe, 1414). 2., through Ed., Beck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-406-45954-4 .
- Jan Křen : The conflict community. Czechs and Germans 1780–1918 (= publications of the Collegium Carolinum, Volume 71). Translator Peter Heumos. 2nd Edition. Study ed. Oldenbourg, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-486-56449-8 (standard work).
- Heinrich Kunstmann : Bohemia's primeval slaves and their Trojan legacy. From the prehistory of the Přemyslids. Publishing house Dr. Kovač , Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-8300-0102-9 .
- Friedrich Prinz : Bohemia in Medieval Europe. Early, high Middle Ages, colonization epoch. Beck, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-406-30228-9 (standard scientific work on the medieval history of Bohemia).
- Friedrich Prinz: History of Bohemia 1848–1948. Langen Müller, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-7844-2190-3 (standard work).
- Friedrich Prinz: Bohemia and Moravia (= German history in Eastern Europe). Siedler, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-88680-202-7 (popular science, but on a broad scientific basis).
- Bernd Rill : Bohemia and Moravia - history in the heart of Central Europe . Two volumes. Katz, Gernsbach 2006, ISBN 3-938047-17-8 (detailed, popular science).
- Ferdinand Seibt : Germany and the Czechs. History of a neighborhood in the middle of Europe (= Piper series, 1632). 3rd, updated edition. Piper, Munich / Zurich 1997, ISBN 3-492-21632-3 (standard work on neighborly relations).
- Erich Bachmann , Karl Schwarzenberg a . a. (Ed.): Romanesque in Bohemia. History, architecture, painting, sculpture and applied arts. Prestel, Munich 1977, ISBN 3-7913-0391-0 .
- Jiří Holý : History of Czech Literature in the 20th Century. Trans. V. Dominique Fliegler u. Hanna Vintr. Edition Praesens , Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-7069-0145-5 .
- Antonín Měšt'an : History of Czech Literature in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Böhlau, Cologne / Vienna 1984, ISBN 3-412-01284-X .
- Hugo Rokyta : The Bohemian Lands. Handbook of monuments and memorials of European cultural relations in the Czech lands. Three volumes. Vol. 1: Prague. 2., revised. and exp. Edition. Vitalis, Prague 1995, ISBN 80-901621-7-7 ; Vol. 2: Bohemia. 2., revised. and exp. Edition. Vitalis, Prague 1997, ISBN 80-85938-23-5 .
- Lillian Schacherl : Bohemia. Cultural image of a landscape. Prestel, Munich 1966.
- Walter Schamschula : History of Czech Literature. Three volumes. Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 1990–2004; ISBN 3-412-01590-3 , ISBN 3-412-02795-2 or ISBN 3-412-07495-0 .
- Ferdinand Seibt (Ed.): Bohemia in the 19th century. From classicism to modernity. Propylaea, Berlin / Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-549-05448-3 .
- Ferdinand Seibt, Božena Borgesa-Kormundová u. a. (Ed.): Renaissance in Bohemia. History, science, architecture, sculpture, painting, handicrafts. Prestel, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-7913-0737-1 .
- Jürgen Serke : Bohemian Villages. Wanderings through a deserted literary landscape. Zsolnay, Vienna / Hamburg 1987, ISBN 3-552-03926-0 (popular scientific standard work on the German-language literature of the Bohemian countries).
- Karl Maria Swoboda (Ed.): Baroque in Bohemia. Prestel, Munich 1964.
- Karl Maria Swoboda (Ed.): Gothic in Bohemia. History, social history, architecture, sculpture and painting. Prestel, Munich 1969.
- Ivonna Balgova (translator): Bohemian villages ...? Questions about German-Czech history. Documentation of the Potsdam Forum on October 2, 2002 in the Old Town Hall in Potsdam. German Cultural Forum for Eastern Europe e. V., 2nd edition, Potsdam 2006, ISBN 978-3-936168-39-6 .
- FC Watterich v. Watterichsburg: Concise dictionary of regional studies of the Kingdom of Bohemia . Prague / Leitmeritz 1862, new edition ( full text ).
- Bohemistik.de, Bohemistik (center against expulsions)
- Administrative divisions in Bohemia until 1945 (old districts; districts; city / rural districts)
- Map: Kingdom of Bohemia around 1619: Historical maps (House of Bavarian History)
- Old maps of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia
- State Law Gazette for the Kingdom of Bohemia 1848–1918
- Prachiner district map
- Asch, Eger, Graslitz, Neudek, St. Joachimsthal, Falkenau, Elbogen, Karlsbad, Marienbad, Tepl, Plan, Tachau, Mies, Bischofteinitz, Taus, Preßnitz, Komotau, Kaaden, Podersam, Luditz, Kralowitz, Pilsen, Presnitz, Klattau , Brüx, Dux, Teplitz-Schönau, Bilin, Saaz, Laun, Rakonitz, Horowitz, Rokitzan, Blatna, Strakonitz, Aussig, Tetschen, Schluckenau, Leitmeritz, Raudnitz, Melnik, Kralup, Schlan, Kladno, Prague, Beraun, Pribram, Sedltschan , Mühlhausen, Pisek, Moldauthein, Prachatitz, Böhmisch Krumau, Rumburg, Warnsdorf, Deutsch Gabel, Böhmisch Leipa, Münchengrätz, Jungbunzlau, Brandeis ad Elbe, Böhmisch Brod, Ritschan, Eule, Beneschau, Tabor, Wittingau, Budweis, Kaplitz, Friedland, Reichenberg , Gablonz, Semil, Turnau, Starkenbach, Jitschin, Nimburg, Neu Bydschow, Podenbrad, Kolin, Kuttenberg, Tschaslau, Ledetsch ad Sasau, Gumpolds, Pilgram, Kamnitz ad Linde, Neuhaus, Hohenelbe, Trautenau, Königinhof, Königgrätz, Pardubitz, Chrudim, Chotebor, Deutsch Brod, Braunau, Nachod, Neustadt ad Mettau, Reichenau, Senftenberg, Hohenmauth, Landskron, Leitomischl, Politschka
- See keyword “Boheme” in: Duden. Etymology, Mannheim 1963, p. 75.