History of Bohemia

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The history of Bohemia extends from the first settlements in the area of Bohemia to the present day. In 1085 the bohemian royal dignity was created, which ended with the proclamation of democratic Czechoslovakia in 1919. Today Bohemia is part of the Czech Republic .

The bohemian lion as a coat of arms

Prehistory and early history

Venus from Dolní Věstonice

Very simple choppers, resembling the Oldowan tools, from the Beroun motorway site, the age of which was estimated by the explorers to be between 1.87 and 1.67 million years, were already considered natural formations, geofacts , a few years later and are now rejected .

The ancient Paleolithic sites of interest are Stránská skála near Brno and Přezletice near Prague, which are assigned to the Cromer warm period , which is dated to around 850,000 to 475,000 years ago. However, the status of the choppers and other stone tools as artifacts is sometimes controversial, so that the presence of people at this time can only be assumed.

The Middle Paleolithic settlement in the Saale Glaciation , more precisely in the Intra-Saale interglacial (about 200,000 years ago) is considered to be certain . Initially, the camps were mostly outdoors, and it was only at the beginning of the Würm Glaciation that people retreated into caves. The sites of Bečov in Northern Bohemia and the Kúlna Cave and Moravský Krumlov in Moravia were inhabited for a long time . The human remains found come from Neanderthals , the tools belong to the industries of the Acheuléen , Taubachien , Moustérien and Micoquien . From the Middle Paleolithic there are first indications of raw material imports from a greater distance and of non-utilitarian activities (paint residues, symmetrical engravings or a hand ax made of rock crystal). At the transition from the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic there are two industries that were particularly found in Moravia: the Szeletien , which was dated to 40,000-35,000 BP in Vedrovice , and the Bohunicien from Stránská skála near Brno.

Excavations at the Pavlov I site , 2014

In the Upper Paleolithic , the Aurignacian is the first culture that is associated with modern man ( Cro-Magnon man ). The Lautscher cave in Moravian Mladeč and the castle town of Hradsko near Mšeno are rich sites . Characteristic for this culture are bone tips of the so-called Lautscher type . The most important palaeolithic phenomenon in the country is the Gravettian or its local variant of the Pavlovian , a culture represented by the Moravian sites Dolní Věstonice and Pavlov and the Bohemian Předmostí . Their heyday was between 29,000 and 24,000 BP. The finds include several settlements, ritual burials, accumulations of mammoth bones , tools and works of art made of stone, bone, ivory or baked clay, which allow conclusions to be drawn about the material culture as well as the spiritual and religious world of the mammoth hunters. Stylized female figurines such as the Venus of Dolní Věstonice are particularly well known .

There are only a few sites from the Mesolithic , but these are scattered over the entire area of ​​Bohemia. A Mesolithic settlement of the high elevations of the Bohemian Forest around Horní Planá is technically interesting .

From 5300 to 4500 BC A far-reaching Neolithic settlement of Bohemia is documented. The most important linear ceramic settlements are Bylany near Kutná Hora , then Březno u Loun and Tušimice in Northern Bohemia. Settlements of the subsequent stitch band ceramics are Bylany near Kutná Hora , the nearby burial ground Miskovice, Plotiště nad Labem in East Bohemia, Prague-Bubeneč or the West Bohemian town of Vochov. The Oberlauterbach group is occupied in Pilsen -Křimice .

In the late Neolithic (called eneolitic in the Czech Republic and understood as an independent period between 4500 and 2300 BC), the funnel-beaker cultures , the spherical amphora culture and the Cham culture in the south and south-west are present. At the end of the period (2900 / 2800–2300 BC), the corded ceramics with several large burial fields in northern Bohemia and the bell-cup culture are represented.

The Aunjetitz culture is particularly noteworthy in the Bronze Age . Barrow cultures and the Lusatian culture follow . During the Latène period , Bohemia was settled by Celts . Remnants of their oppida were excavated near Závist, Stradonice, Hrazany , Nevězice, Třísov and České Lhotice. From her tribe of Boii the forwards Latin name Bohemia from, in turn, from the German name Bohemia can be derived. At the beginning of the 1st century AD, the Celts were followed by Germanic tribes, especially Marcomanni . According to archaeological and historical sources, there is talk of a depopulation of Bohemia during the Migration Period . Around 550 the Slavs immigrated from the east to Bohemia, which, from today's perspective, marks the beginning of the early Middle Ages .

Kingdom of Samo

The first ruler of the Slavs whose name is documented was a native of Franconia named Samo . He came from the area of ​​today's Sens , came to the country as a merchant and died in 658. The kingdom of Samo , in reality probably just a union of several tribes, comprised today's areas of Slovakia , Moravia , Lower Austria , and later probably also Bohemia, Lusatia ( on the Elbe) and temporarily also (historic) Carinthia .

Franconian influences

The terms Bohemia and Moravia first appeared in Franconian sources in the 9th century .

Charlemagne tried to conquer Bohemia, ultimately in vain. In 805 he invaded the country with three armies to occupy it. The first army, consisting of Swabians and Bavaria , marched in at Domažlice , the second and strongest, led by Karl, via Eger and a third, consisting of Franks and Saxons and Northern Western Slavs , from the north. The main army besieged the Canburg on the Eger for a long time in vain , which is what today's Kadaň is assumed to be. With the remaining two armies he finally allied in the area of Žatec , Litoměřice and Rakovník . The Bohemian warriors were far inferior to this superiority and retreated into deep forests in the poorly populated area. From there they attacked the intruders. Their leader Lech (not identical to the legendary Polish ancestor Lech ) is said to have died in one of these fights . After forty days, Charlemagne withdrew from the country because of the lack of food.

A year later, the Franks attacked the country a second time. The looted and burned land had to surrender and commit to paying tributes.

The rivalry and loose dependence on the powerful neighbor to the west persisted well into the 9th century. After Rastislav's victory over Ludwig the German in 855, this dependency loosened again, and from the 870s the Great Moravian Empire dominated the Bohemian region. In 890 the Moravian prince Svatopluk I had the guardianship of the deceased Bořivoj's sons Spytihněv I and Vratislav I legitimized by the East Franconian King Arnolf of Carinthia on the Omuntesperch, and thus the supremacy over Bohemia. After Svatopluk's death in 894, a year later in 895 a delegation of all Bohemian greats under the leadership of the Přemyslid Spytihněv I and the Slavnikid Vitislav Arnolf of Carinthia paid homage in Regensburg and paid tribute for military protection.

Moravian Empire

Approximate borders of Moravia and the Moravian sphere of influence under Svatopluk I.

The Moravian Empire (Czech mostly Velká Morava , i.e. Greater Moravia ), which emerged in the eastern part of the country from around 830, was also able to defend itself militarily against the East Franconia, but Prince Svatopluk I sought a compromise with Ludwig the German in the Forchheim Peace of 874 . The Moravian principality also established diplomatic relations with Byzantium and Italy .

Moravia developed into a hegemonic power in the region and in the 880s also added Bohemia to its dominion. At the end of the 9th century it was severely weakened by a civil war as well as attacks by the Hungarians , Bavaria and Bohemia and went under at the beginning of the 10th century (between 903 and 906).

Czech tribes

Inside, the preliminary stages of the later Bohemian state developed in the ninth century. According to older research, Bohemia was divided among about eleven different tribes. In addition to the Czechs or Bohemians, it should be

have given.

The more recent historical research rejects the tribal theory and assumes that there has only been one tribe (Latin: gens ) in the Bohemian Basin since the Slavic conquest , that of the Bohemians. He was represented externally by several princes (duces) who were administrators of Burgward districts inside .

The Burgward theory is also controversial. What is certain is that there was no “central power” in the 9th century, but that several princes with apparently equal rights always appeared as national representatives in negotiations with foreign powers. 14 of them stood before Ludwig the Germans in 845.

In Moravia, on the other hand, the Mojmirid dynasty rose to become a central power, and Svatopluk also brought Bohemia under his power in the 880s.

The first historically tangible prince of the Přemyslid dynasty, Bořivoj I , ruled in Bohemia as Svatopluk's deputy.

Duchy of Bohemia

Duchy of Bohemia in the 11th century

His sons Spytihněv I and Vratislav I freed themselves from Moravian influence. In 895, Spytihněv I, along with Vitislav and other Bohemian greats , submitted to the king of eastern France , Arnulf of Carinthia, in Regensburg .

At the end of the 9th and beginning of the 10th centuries, the first Přemyslids began to take control of the rest of the Bohemian princes. Their sphere of influence was initially limited to the Central Bohemian region with the centers in Prague and Levý Hradec .

Christianization also began in the 9th century . The mission started on the one hand from the Franconian Empire , especially from Regensburg and Passau . On the other hand, the work of the "Slav apostles" Methodius and Kyrill of Saloniki brought Moravia and partly also Bohemia into the sphere of influence of the Eastern Church. The first church buildings and the development of the Old Church Slavonic written language date from the 9th century .

The high level of development of Moravian culture is shown by rich grave goods, especially weapons and jewelry, which can also be found in the royal tombs of Bohemia. Moravia was connected to the European long-distance trade network and exported raw materials, metal products and slaves. In both parts of the country, a network of castles developed in the 9th century , which as political, economic and cultural centers formed the basis of state organization.

Kingdom of Bohemia under Ottokar II.

The first historically documented Přemyslid is Bořivoj I. His grandson, Duke Wenceslaus of Bohemia , was murdered by his brother Boleslav in 935 and later became the country's patron saint.

In 973, Emperor Otto I gave Bohemia its own diocese based in Prague . Until then, Bohemia was part of the Regensburg diocese.

From the 10th century at the latest, an important German and Jewish community lived in Prague.

In 1003 Bolesław I of Poland briefly conquered Bohemia. In 1038 Břetislav I of Bohemia invaded Poland.

Kingdom of Bohemia

The royal dignity of Bohemia, personally bestowed on Vratislav II in 1085 , hereditary since 1198 under Ottokar I Přemysl , demonstrated the special position of Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire . For a long time the most powerful prince in the empire, the Bohemian king was intermittently a member of the electoral college and took part in the election of the Roman-German king , whose royal title was traditionally associated with entitlement to the Roman-German empire .

Intensive settlement by German settlers and miners began in some parts in the 13th century. Also in many cities of Inner Bohemia lived from the 12./13. Century Germans and Czechs together.

Ottokar II. Přemysl used the weakness of the Babenberg duchess and her son to appropriate their territory: even before his coronation as King of Bohemia (1253), he became Duke of Austria in 1251 . In 1261 he became Duke of Styria and in 1269 of Carinthia and Carniola .

With this the Premyslid rule reached its greatest extent. In his rivalry with Poland, he supported the conquests of the Teutonic Order . As a thank you, Königsberg was named after him.

In the power struggle between him and the Roman-German King Rudolf I of Habsburg , elected in 1273, he defeated him in 1278 in the battle of Marchfeld .

In 1300 Wenceslas II became King of Poland. The Bohemian-Polish personal union ended in 1305. His son Wenzel III. was murdered in Olomouc in 1306 . This ended the Přemyslid dynasty . Wenzel's youngest sister Elisabeth then married Johann von Luxemburg .


Countries of the Bohemian Crown under Charles IV.

With King John , the Luxembourg dynasty came to the Bohemian throne in 1310 and continued the politics of the Přemyslids. In 1347 he was succeeded by his son Karl, who later became Emperor Charles IV , as King of Bohemia. In 1344 he caused the diocese of Prague, founded in 973, to be increased to an archdiocese . As a result, Bohemia was separated from the ecclesiastical province of Mainz and now formed its own ecclesiastical province with the suffragan bishops Olmütz and Leitomischl . In 1348 Charles IV founded the Charles University in Prague named after him as the first university on the soil of the Holy Roman Empire north of the Alps. At that time, the Bohemian capital was the political, economic and cultural center of Central Europe. The Kingdom of Bohemia formed the center of Luxembourg's domestic power and the imperial policy of Charles IV. He incorporated neighboring territories into the crown of Bohemia . In 1335 Casimir the Great of Poland renounced Silesia . Since the 14th century, Silesia, Lusatia and temporarily the Mark Brandenburg and parts of the areas in the north of today's Upper Palatinate (so-called New Bohemia) belonged to the Bohemian state association. Charles IV pursued a balancing policy of nationalities: he protected and promoted the Germans in Bohemia, but required them to educate their children in both German and Czech. Charles attempts to use the power of the king and a. to strengthen with the enactment of a land law ( Maiestas Carolina ), failed because of the resistance of the estates .

At the time of his death in 1378, the German settlement of Bohemia reached a climax. As early as the late 14th century, the German language and population declined again. Economically, Bohemia was one of the leading regions in Europe among the Luxembourgers. In Prague, the foundations of the modern German language were laid at the same time as the Prague chancellery German and, by the pen of the religious reformer Jan Hus, the foundations of the modern Czech language .

Hussite Wars and Georg von Podiebrad

Jan Hus went to the Council of Constance under the promise of safe conduct and was executed there in 1415 as a heretic at the stake . In 1420 the Hussite Wars began . In these, national, social and sectarian tensions erupted with great violence. In the second quarter of the 15th century, the Hussite units also operated in Bavaria, Silesia, in the Glatzer Land , in Austria, in western Slovakia, in Brandenburg and in areas up to the Baltic Sea (e.g. Pomerania ). At the same time, the acts of war of the Hussites were directed against Catholic cities, monasteries and aristocratic castles inland. The civil war divided Bohemia into a Catholic and a Hussite camp.

During the Council of Basel , the less radical wing of the Kalixtines returned to the bosom of the Catholic Church and allied with the imperial troops against the more radical Taborites . They suffered a heavy defeat in the Battle of Lipan and the Second Battle of Brüx (both in 1434). In 1436 the agreement between Bohemia and the Basel Council was announced in Jihlava , which guaranteed the Hussite population certain freedom of belief.

After the death of the Habsburg Ladislaus Postumus , imperial administrator Georg von Podiebrad was elected King of Bohemia in 1458. Podiebrad kept the agreement of Jihlava ( Jihlava ) a strictly and tried peace in Bohemia to obtain despite further tensions between the Hussite and the Catholic side. The newly elected Pope Paul II was less considerate of this than his predecessor and in 1466 declared Georg von Podiebrad a heretic. This was followed immediately by an uprising, first of the Catholic cities of Wroclaw and Pilsen, and then the fighting with the Grünberg Alliance began . Podebrady suppressed this crisis in 1467 without much effort, but a year later the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus tried to take Bohemia militarily. In 1469 Matthias Corvinus was elected by the Catholic part of the estates as the Bohemian counter-king. In a hopeless situation, Podebrady, exhausted by old age and illness, signed a successor contract with the Polish King Casimir IV. After Podebrad's death, his supporters elected the Polish Prince Vladislav II as King of Bohemia.

The Bohemian corporate state under the Jagiellonians (1479–1526)

so-called "Schwarzpfennig" from Bohemia, z. Zt. Ludwig II. (1516–26), embossed on one side

The estates of Bohemia elected the Polish Jagiellonian Vladislav II as king in 1471. From his predecessor, the Utraquist Georg von Podiebrad , he inherited the war against the opposing king Matthias Corvinus . The war ended with the Peace of Olomouc in 1479. Matthias was able to keep the neighboring Bohemian countries Moravia, Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia . Vladislav II. And Matthias were allowed to use the title “King of Bohemia”. With Matthias' death in 1490, Vladislav was contractually the sole king of Bohemia. In 1500, the Vladislav regional order, named after the king, was passed in the regional parliament. It secured the Bohemian lords and knights extensive political say and is considered the oldest written constitution in Bohemia. When the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 10 imperial circles in 1512 , Bohemia and its neighboring countries Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia were left out.

Vladislav II was inherited in 1512 by his six-year-old son Ludwig II , who died in 1526 without heirs.

The Bohemian corporate state under the Habsburgs (1526–1620)

Thereupon the estates elected his brother-in-law Ferdinand I von Habsburg as the Bohemian king.

In 1575 the Confessio Bohemica was written at the instigation of the Protestant estates . It should unite all evangelical currents in the country under one theological roof.

In 1618 the Protestant estates rebelled against Emperor Matthias . The Prague window lintel was the trigger for the class uprising in Bohemia and thus for the Thirty Years War . After the emperor's death in March 1619, the estates of the Bohemian countries broke away from the Habsburgs and created a new constitution with the Bohemian Confederation . Then they elected the Calvinist Friedrich von der Pfalz as king.

The battle of the White Mountain

In the battle of the White Mountain (Bílá hora) on November 8, 1620, the Bohemian estates under their King Friedrich von der Pfalz were subject to the troops of the Catholic League, which were led by the Bavarian general Count von Tilly . Friedrich, the so-called Winter King, had to flee from Bohemia and Emperor Ferdinand II was able to assert his claim to the crown of Bohemia.

Thirty Years War and Absolutism

The battle of the White Mountain was followed by the time called temno (“darkness”) in the older Czech national historiography . Emperor Ferdinand II severely pushed through the Counter-Reformation almost throughout the country and suppressed all non-Catholics. 27 leaders of the Bohemian uprising were executed in front of the Old Town Hall in Prague , the majority of the Bohemian Protestant nobility were expropriated and had to leave the country, others converted to stay. The goods confiscated by the Bohemian Chamber were sold to - mostly German-speaking - Catholic nobles from other parts of the Habsburg Empire, often well below price. The governor and viceroy Karl von Liechtenstein and the general Wallenstein , both early converts, secured the greatest increase in land ownership. Wallenstein gradually brought about a fifth of Bohemia under his control as the Duchy of Friedland and established a tightly organized, economically flourishing state. German gradually became the predominant administrative language. In 1627 an absolutist constitution was put into effect, the Renewed Bohemian Land Order , which deprived the nobility and cities of almost all rights of co-determination. The country became impoverished through the confiscations and the sale of, above all, the municipal businesses (farms, mills, ponds, etc.), but also as a result of religious emigration.

The Thirty Years War devastated Bohemia badly. After a Swedish army under Field Marshal Johan Banér had beaten the united Imperial-Saxon army badly in the Battle of Chemnitz in April 1639 , but was too weak to conquer Prague , the army began a plundering campaign on the orders of Baner in October 1639 Lasted until March 1640 and robbed and destroyed the whole of Bohemia. From the initial 3 million inhabitants, only 800,000 (1/4 of the population) remained alive. Out of 738 cities only 230 (1/3 of the cities) remained more or less destroyed. Of the 34,000 villages in Bohemia, only 6,000 (1/5 of the villages) have survived. Baner's brother-in-law alone, General Adam von Pfuel , boasted of having burned 800 villages.

After 1620, Bohemia was initially administered in a strictly absolutist way. After the war, depopulated areas were settled with settlers from German-speaking parts of the Habsburg Empire. After the Bohemian Peasant Uprising , more local decisions were allowed again.

The Habsburg Maria Theresa was Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia from 1740 until her death in 1780 . Serfdom was revoked in 1781 under her son Joseph II . His - progressively intended - replacement of Latin as the first official language of the Habsburg Empire by German caused resentment among the Czechs and other nationalities.

National renewal

Contemporary series of pictures with scenes from the Whitsun Uprising in Prague (June 12 to June 17, 1848)
German population of Bohemia according to a historical language map from 1864

In 1804 the Habsburg lands became the Austrian Empire . After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Egerland , until then an unredeemed pledged area with independent institutions, was incorporated into Bohemia under constitutional law, as the pledge had not been redeemed by then. After the Congress of Vienna , resistance to Metternich's policies was felt early on among the Bohemian nobility . The March Revolution of 1848 also took place in Bohemia, especially in Prague. As a result, in June of that year, around the same time as the German constitutional assembly was meeting in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt , a Slavic Congress was held in Prague , in which the historian František Palacký played a decisive role. The main demand of the congress was an equal role for the Slavs in the Danube Monarchy ( Austro-Slavism ). When the relatively moderate demands of the Slavs Congress were rejected by Austria's Emperor Ferdinand I , the Whitsun uprising in Prague against Austrian rule in Bohemia took place on June 13, 1848 . However, this uprising was crushed by military force after just three days. The overthrow of the Czech national movement was the first military success of the counter-revolution in the states of the German Confederation .

While the preference for German, which has been practiced since 1620, meant that, especially in the cities, Bohemians also spoke German at home, who saw themselves as Czechs, in the second half of the 19th century, as part of the national rebirth, many of these families began to consciously speaking Czech again.

Since the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Bohemia has belonged to the cisleithan part of the dual monarchy. In 1871 the Bohemian state parliament decided to create an autonomous constitution ( fundamental article ), which was rejected by the German-liberal constitutional party . Under the Austrian Prime Minister Eduard Taaffe , who belonged to the constitutional party but towards the end of the 1870s increasingly made a pact with the conservative federalists , Czech again became the official language in Bohemia alongside German. However, only municipalities with a significant Czech population were administered bilingually. In 1882, a Czech university split off from the then largely German Charles University . Also in 1882 the right to vote became a little more democratic, an advantage for the Czechs, who are on average somewhat poorer. Since 1883 they had a majority in the Bohemian state parliament. But since it was still a census suffrage , the city of Budweis had, for example, a Czech majority since the 1880s, but a majority German city council until the end of the Habsburg era.

In 1897 the Austrian Prime Minister Count Badeni issued a nationality ordinance for Bohemia and Moravia, according to which all political communities there were to be administered bilingually. With this, Czech advanced from a minority language to a national language in both crown lands . German MPs then paralyzed the Austrian Reichsrat . Due to the boycotts in parliament and locally, the government finally had to resign and in 1899 the nationality ordinance was repealed. Since then, the Czech MPs have blocked parliamentary work in Vienna and the Germans in Prague. An Austro-Czech balance was sought, but never achieved. According to the 1910 census, the Czech proportion of the 6,770,000 inhabitants of Bohemia was 63.2% and the German 36.8%.

While the mixed situation politically led to the blockade, it was extremely productive in other respects: Bohemia had the most modern industry among the Austrian crown lands. The Prague cultural scene was characterized by numerous friendships between Germans and Czechs. Authors translated each other into their mother tongue. The census on December 31, 1900 showed 63 percent Czechs and 36 percent German Bohemia in Bohemia.

20th century

The Czechoslovak Republic was founded on October 28, 1918 .


Web links

Commons : History of Bohemia  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Jan Fridrich: The Oldest Palaeolithic Stone Industry from the Beroun Highway Complex. In: Anthropozoikum 20 (1991) 111-129 and Jan Fridrich, Slavomil Vencl : Investigations into the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic, 1969-1993 . In: 25 years of archeological research in Bohemia, Památky archeologické - Supplementa 1 , 1994, pp. 11-22.
  2. ^ For example, Juan Antonio Martos Romero: Algunas cuestiones de interés sobre el poblamiento del continente europeo durante el Pleistoceno Medio. In: Espacio, Tiempo y Forma , Series I, Prehistoria y Arqueologia, 7 (1994) 13-42, here: p. 20 or Karel Valoch: Industrie nejstaršího paleolitu v Evropě / The oldest Palaeolithic industry in Europe. In: Archeologické rozhledy 63 (2011) 3-11, here: p. 11 Note 2 ( online, PDF ).
  3. Marco Langbroek: "Out of Africa". An investigation into the earliest occupation of the Old World , Archaeopress, 2004, p. 55.
  4. Karel Valoch: Paleolithic archeology in the former Czechoslovakia and its contribution to Central European research. In: Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Urgeschichte 19, 2010, pp. 71–115.
  5. Slavomil Vencl: Mezolitické osídlení na Šumavě, Archeologické rozhledy 41, 1989, pp 481-501, 593
  6. ^ Zdeněk Měřínský : České země od příchodu Slovanů po Velkou Moravu. Libri, Praha 2002, ISBN 80-7277-103-5 , pp. 16ff
  7. cf. the Reichsannals for the year 805.
  8. ^ Dušan Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců. Lidové noviny. 1998, ISBN 80-7106-138-7 , pp. 70-73. The tribute payments mentioned u. a. Einhard , the biographer of Charlemagne.
  9. Fulda Annals for the year 845, see Dušan Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , p. 74 ff.
  10. ^ Magnae Moraviae fontes historii I.
  11. P. Čornej u. a .: Dějiny zemí Koruny české I. Paseka, Praha-Litomyšl 1995, ISBN 80-7185-005-5 , p. 176ff
  12. P. Čornej u. a .: Dějiny zemí Koruny české I. Paseka, Praha-Litomyšl 1995, ISBN 80-7185-005-5 , pp. 1769ff
  13. Golo Mann : Wallenstein. His Life , Frankfurt am Main 1997 (first 1971), p. 254.
  14. ^ Christian Pantle: The Thirty Years' War. When Germany was on fire . Propylaen Ullstein Buchverlage GmbH, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-549-07443-5 , p. 241 .
  15. Source: Adolf Ficker: The population of the Kingdom of Bohemia in their most important statistical relationships. Vienna and Olmütz, Eduard Hölzel's Verlag 1864, pages 45–47
  16. ^ Gerhard Köbler : Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories and imperial immediate families from the Middle Ages to the present. 6th, completely revised edition. CH Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-44333-8 , p. 144.
  17. Actually German- speaking MPs, but the group of people in question saw themselves as German in contrast to the then numerous German-speaking Czechs
  18. ^ Hans Chmelar: Highlights of the Austrian emigration. The emigration from the kingdoms and countries represented in the Imperial Council in the years 1905–1914. (= Studies on the History of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Volume 14) Commission for the History of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1974, ISBN 3-7001-0075-2 , p. 109.