|State :||Czech Republic|
|Historical part of the country :||Moravia|
|Region :||Olomoucký kraj|
|Area :||10333 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||100,523 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||771 00 - 779 00|
|License plate :||M (old: OL, OC, OM)|
|Lord Mayor :||Antonín Staněk (ČSSD) (status: 2014)|
|Address:||Horní náměstí 1
771 27 Olomouc
Olomouc ( Czech Olomouc [ ˈɔlɔmɔuʦ ]) is the sixth largest city in the Czech Republic and the administrative seat of the Olomouc Region ( Olomoucký kraj ). The city is the seat of an archbishopric , the second oldest Czech university and one of the two Czech higher courts. It was the historical center of Moravia until the 17th century and is now a commercial, cultural and administrative center.
Olomouc is located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, in Moravia, in the floodplain of the March at the point where the Feistritz converges . The city is located in a plain open to the northwest and southeast, which is surrounded by higher geomorphological formations from the west and especially from the east. The city center is at an altitude of 219 m above sea level. M.
The city of Olomouc consists of the districts and cadastral districts:
- Bělidla (pale)
- Černovír (Chernovians)
- Chomoutov (Komotau)
- Chválkovice (Chwalkowitz)
- Droždín (droschdein)
- Hejčín (hat certificate)
- Hodolany (Hodolein)
- Holice (Holitz)
- Klášterní Hradisko (Radisch Monastery, with Hradisko Monastery )
- Lazce (Laske)
- Lošov (Loschau)
- Nedvězí (Nedweiß)
- Nemilany (Nimlau)
- Neředín (Neretein)
- Nová Ulice (Neugasse)
- Nové Sady (Neustift)
- Nový Svět (Salzergut)
- Olomouc (Olomouc)
- Pavlovičky (Paulowitz)
- Povel (Powel)
- Radíkov (Radikau)
- Řepčín (Repschein)
- Slavonín (Schnobolin)
- Svatý Kopeček (Heiligenberg, formerly Mariendorf)
- Topolany (Topolan)
- Týneček (Klein Teinitz)
Basic settlement units are 17. listopadu, Balcárkova, Bělidla I, Bělidla II, Bystrovanská, Černá cesta, Černovír, Českobratrská, Droždín, Družební, Fakní nemocnice, Hádky, Hejčín, Holodolice, Holodolice, Hádolávanyž, Hádolávíž, Hodádlavý, Hádolávany, Hodáváný, Hodádlavý, Hodádlavíž, Hodádlaví, Hodávání, Hodádlaví, Hodádlaví, Prodoláný, Hodádlavíž, Hodádlavíž, Hodádlavíž, Hodádlavíž, Hodádlavážany, Hodádlaví, Prodolázý, Hádávání, Hádádla? Husova, Chomoutov, Chválkovice, Chválkovice-jih, Jezírka, Jihoslovanská, Karafiátova, Klášterní Hradisko, Kosmonautů, Kpt. Nálepky, Kropáčov, Lazce, Lošov, Městský dvůr., Na vílečleché, Na vonečlechovi , Nemilany, Neředín, Neředín-u pevnůstky, Norská, Nové Sady-jih, Nové Sady-sever, Novosadská, Nový Svět, Olomouc-historické jádro, Ondřejova, Ovesniska, Pavlovičky, Pionýrská játě, Podou kih Pražská-východ, Pražská-západ, Průmyslová zóna Hodolany, Přichystalova, Radíkov, Řepčín, Sady Flora, Schweitzerova, Slavonín, Sobieského, Stadiony, Stiborova, Stupkova, Svatíkénínovo, Svatí Kopeínínoví, Tophoovíná, Terkyínáná, Terkyínínovo, Šanthoínínovo, Terky Kopeínínovo, Šanthoínánovo, Šanthoínínovo, Sřichystalova, Radíkov, Přichystalova, Radíkov , Týneček, U hvězdárny, U Chválkovic, U rybářských stavů, U rybníka, U solných mlýnů and Varšavské náměstí.
In the 12th century, Olomuc and Olmuc were the first traditional forms of the name. In the 15th century an alleged first form of Juliomontium ( Juliusberg ) was suspected, after Julius Caesar as the alleged founder. The original meaning is unclear. In Czech, Olomouc means 'bald mountain' (old Czech. Holy 'bald' and mauc 'mountain'). The name of the city is in the Moravian- Hannak dialect, a subgroup of the Central Moravian dialects of Czech, Olomóc or Holomóc , in German Olmütz , in Polish Ołomuniec and in Latin Eburum or Olomucium .
coat of arms
Description: In blue, a gold-crowned red-and-white butted eagle with gold reinforcement ( Moravian eagle ) accompanied by the four golden capitals S, P, Q, O in the four corners. The letters stand for Senatus populusque Olomucensis ("Senate and People of Olomouc").
The coat of arms was adorned in 1758 with the Austrian shield and the initials "FMT" as a central shield . The occasion was the award of this part of the coat of arms by Maria Theresa in recognition of the fortitude of the fortress Olomouc against Prussian troops under King Friedrich II. The initials stood for Emperor Franz I and the Empress. A chain was also placed around the shield as a sign of the city fortifications. These coat of arms improvements were removed in 1934.
In the late 7th century, the first Slavic settlement emerged in what is now Povel. It was destroyed around 830. A new castle was built on the Petersberg (Předhrad), which, according to its size, was probably one of the most important castles in the Moravian Empire. Three churches were built in the 9th century.
Olomouc was first mentioned in writing in 1017 when Moravia became part of the Bohemian state of the Přemyslids . In 1055 it was the seat of a separate principality. In 1063 the Diocese of Olomouc was founded by Vratislav II . A new castle was built around 1070. The Hradisko Monastery was founded in 1077 . In 1126 Heinrich Zdik became a bishop.
At the beginning of the 13th century the last Olomouc prince died, Moravia was united and subordinated to a margrave from the Přemyslid family. In 1248, Olomouc was first mentioned as a royal city . In 1306 King Wenceslaus III stayed. during a campaign to Poland in Olomouc and was murdered here, making the dynasty died out in the male line of the Přemyslid. The city developed very quickly economically and became the capital of Moravia .
In the Hussite Wars , Olomouc was an integral part of the Catholic side. As the successor to the Carthusian Monastery of Dolein , which had perished in the Hussite Wars, the Carthusian Monastery of Olomouc was founded in 1443 , which existed until its dissolution in 1782. Numerous renaissance palaces were built in the 16th century . In 1566 the Jesuits came to Olomouc. They founded a school, which was elevated to university in 1573. In 1588 the bishop was raised to imperial prince .
17th and 18th centuries
In the Thirty Years' War the city was captured by the Swedes in 1642 and occupied for eight years. After the Thirty Years War, the largely destroyed and depopulated city lost its status as the Moravian capital and ceded it to Brno . Since a lot of damage was caused by fires, a detailed “Fire Extinguishing Order” was issued in 1711, in which a number of preventive measures were also discussed.
On December 26, 1741, the city was captured by the Prussians in the First Silesian War . After this event, the fortifications were extensively expanded. The new fortress withstood a second siege by the Prussians in 1758. In 1777 the diocese was elevated to an archdiocese.
From 1794 to 1797 the prominent French-American soldier and politician Marquis Lafayette was interned in Olomouc as a political prisoner of the Danube Monarchy after he was captured by the anti-French coalition in Flanders in 1792 and then imprisoned by Prussia .
In 1841 the city received a railway connection. In mid-1845 the railway from Olomouc to Prague ( kk Northern State Railway ) was put into operation ( Olmütz – Trübau , Trübau – Prague ). In 1848 the archbishop's palace housed the imperial court that had fled here because of the revolution in Vienna . Emperor Ferdinand I transferred the government to eighteen-year-old Franz Joseph I on December 2, 1848 . On November 29, 1850, the Olomouc punctuation (also called "Olomouc Treaty") between Prussia, Austria and Russia restored the German Confederation under Austrian leadership. In the years 1850 to 1866 the fortifications were expanded again. In 1886 the fortress status was lifted and Olomouc was given a city status as the royal capital. In 1899 the first tram ran in the city. At the end of the 19th century, Olomouc had six Catholic churches, a Protestant church, an Israelite temple , a German and a Czech grammar school, a secondary school, a number of other educational institutions and was an industrial location as well as the seat of a district authority and a district court.
After the collapse of the Austrian Empire in 1918 and the establishment of Czechoslovakia , the majority of Czech city citizens came, which was mainly due to the arrival of Czechs, the departure of Germans but also to the incorporation of surrounding communities with a partly Czech majority, such as the two Towns of Hodolein ( Hodolany ) and Neugasse ( Nová ulice ) as well as eleven other municipalities (Bělidla, Černovír, Hejčín, Chválkovice, Lazce, Nové Sady, Nový Svět, Neředín, Pavlovičky, Povel and Řepčín) in 1919. In 1921 there were 57,206 inhabitants in Olomouc.
On March 15, 1939, the city, like the other areas of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia established by the German Reich on the same day , was occupied by the Wehrmacht . In 1939 the University of Olomouc was closed by the German occupying forces. It was not until 1946 that it was restored under the name of Palacký University in Olomouc .
The German-speaking population was from Olomouc 1945/1946 marketed . Their property was confiscated by the Beneš decree 108 , the property of the Protestant church was liquidated by the Beneš decree 131 and the Catholic churches were expropriated .
In the 1970s and 1980s, several prefabricated housing estates were built on the outskirts .
The entire old town has been protected as a monument protection reserve since 1971. The flood in 1997 severely affected the city, about a third of the urban area was inundated. In 2000, the Trinity Column was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List . After the administrative reform of 2000, the previous district town became its administrative seat with the establishment of the Olomouc Region.
Jews in Olomouc
The first Jews settled in Olomouc as early as 906. From 1060 they had to live in a ghetto and wear a yellow identification mark. In 1454 all Jews from Olomouc were expelled. This law was in effect until 1848. In the 1857 census, six Jews were recorded.
A Jewish religious association was founded in Olomouc in 1865, from which the independent Jewish community of Olomouc emerged in 1892 , the first of which was Berthold Oppenheim . The Olomouc Synagogue was built from 1895 to 1897. On the night of March 15-16, 1939, after the country was occupied by the Wehrmacht, the synagogue burned down as a result of arson. At the same time around 800 Jews were arrested and later deported to the Dachau concentration camp . Some benches in the synagogue were removed, long served as pews in a village church near Prostějov and were finally installed in the renovated synagogue in Krnov in 2004 . Some of them are now in the Loštice synagogue and commemorate the Jewish citizens murdered in the concentration camps. The seat of honor is dedicated to Berthold Oppenheim, the Rabbi of Olomouc and Loštice.
During the National Socialist era , 3,489 people were deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto in five transports on June 26 and 30, 1942, July 4, 1942 and March 7, 1945 . Only 285 Jews of the city population survived. With this, Jewish life in Olomouc died out for a long time. There has only been a revival of Jewish cultural life in the city since 1989, and in 1991 an independent Jewish community in Olomouc was founded, also responsible for Šumperk , Jeseník , Bruntál and Přerov .
2011, the first was in Olomouc stumbling blocks by Gunter Demnig laid. They serve to remember the murdered victims of National Socialist rule in the city. Along with Prague and Brno, Olomouc is one of the cities with the most stumbling blocks in the Czech Republic: at the end of 2017, Olomouc had 213 stumbling blocks and one stumbling block . In recent years, the Jewish Community of Olomouc in particular has been very actively involved as an initiator in laying the Stolpersteine - until autumn 2017 it was responsible for four relocations.
The city of Olomouc is the sixth largest town in the Czech Republic with 100,233 inhabitants.
|1237||16,300||with the suburbs|
|1415||29,000||under King Wenceslaus IV , with the suburbs|
|1616||30,633||after the plague claimed 4,000 victims in 1599|
|1622||approx. 14,000||(not mentioned whether with or without suburbs), in the first phase of the Thirty Years War when 3,000 non-Catholics had to leave the city in 1621 under the imperial general Bucquoy|
|1650||1,675||after the rule of Sweden (1642–1650) in the Thirty Years War, after the withdrawal of the Swedes|
|1834||12.207||without the garrison (approx. 5,700 men), mostly German Catholic denomination, including 104 Evangelicals|
|1857||8,349||excluding the garrison, including 8,313 Catholics, 27 Protestants, three Reformed and six Israelites (an additional 6,888 foreigners), according to other data, 13,997 inhabitants|
|1900||21,707||with the garrison (3,632 men), including 13,982 Germans and 6,798 Czechs (1,676 Jews, 7.7%)|
|1910||22,245||of which: 2,959 soldiers, 6,746 Czech civilians and 12,156 German civilians (1,633 Jews); By religion: 20,061 Catholic, 423 Protestant, 1,679 Israelite|
|1919||23,622||of which: 9,772 Czechs and 8,019 Germans (1,010 Jews)|
Olomouc is twinned with the following cities:
- Antony , France
- Subotica , Serbia
- Lucerne , Switzerland
- Nordlingen , Germany
- Owensboro , United States
- Pécs , Hungary
- Tampere , Finland
- Veenendaal , Netherlands
Economy and Infrastructure
Next to Ostrava, Olomouc is the most important economic and transport center in North Moravia.
The main railway station of Olomouc lies on the main route Prague - Česká Třebová -Olomouc- Ostrava / Zilina - Kosice . Other routes lead north to Šumperk and Krnov and west to Senice na Hané . In the south there are routes to Brno and via Otrokovice (/ Zlín ) to Břeclav and on to Vienna .
The nearest airports for long-distance travelers are Prague (three hours by car), Vienna (three hours) and Bratislava (two hours). The smaller airports of Ostrava (one hour 45 minutes) and Brno (one hour) are closer . The public international airport Olomouc-Neředín ( IATA airport code OLO, ICAO code LKOL) is located 3.8 kilometers west of the city center in the Neředín district. The airfield is only operated under visual flight conditions (during the day) and has two 520 and 560 meter long and 30 meter wide asphalt runways for microlight aircraft and two 760 meter long and 30 meter wide grass runways. The region's air ambulance service is stationed at the airfield.
The largest facility is the University Hospital ( Faculty nemocnice Olomouc ) with 1,433 beds and 50 departments and clinics (as of 2006). From 1992 to 2004 the clinic was extensively expanded and modernized and is currently one of the most modern hospitals in the Czech Republic. The Olomouc Military Hospital ( Vojenská nemocnice Olomouc ) is the oldest military hospital in the Czech Republic. It was founded in 1748 and has been located in the Hradisko Monastery, protected as a national cultural monument, since 1802 . There are also two private polyclinics in the city .
The traditional industries in Olomouc include the food industry and mechanical engineering. a. by the OLMA dairy founded in 1970, the chocolate manufacturer ZORA founded in 1899 (today part of Nestlé), the pump technology manufacturers ISH and Sigma (today in Lutín near Olomouc), the Moravské železárny ironworks, the salt processor Solné mlýny Olomouc or the chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in 1934 FARMAK.
The Palacký University with 21,277 (WS 2007) students is located in Olomouc . The university consists of 8 faculties and a university hospital. It was originally founded as a Jesuit university in 1573 and is the second oldest university in the Czech Republic.
The diocese was first mentioned in a document in 1063. It was under the Archdiocese of Prague until the 18th century . In 1777 Olomouc was made an archdiocese. At the same time the diocese of Brno was established as a suffragan of the archdiocese of Olomouc. Today the archbishopric includes the region of North and Central Moravia. Archbishop and Metropolitan is Jan Graubner .
- Olomouc Art Museum with the three sub-museums:
- Archdiocesan Museum of Olomouc in the former canon house of the cathedral chapter and in the Romanesque Zdik palace of the former Olomouc castle (Olomoucký hrad) on the cathedral hill, founded in 2006
- Archdiocesan Museum in the Archbishop's Palace in Kremsier
- Museum of Modern Art Olomouc in the former city hospital of the Holy Spirit
- Fortress Museum Olomouc, founded in 2007, serves to rebuild and revitalize the listed areas of the Olomouc fortress
- Folklore Museum (Regional Museum, founded in 1883) in the building of the Clarissen Stif, which was closed in 1782; shows exhibitions on geology, mineralogy, zoology, the prehistory of the region and the history and development of clocks
- Automobile Museum (Oldtimer Museum) Olomouc
- Olomouc-Neředín Aviation Museum (closed)
- Moravian Theater on the Upper Ring (Horní náměstí), here Gustav Mahler was conductor from January to March 1883
- Moravian Philharmonic in the Redoute on the Oberring
- Olomouc Music Theater
- Konvikt Theater
- Tramtarie Theater
Olomouc in the mirror of German-language literature
The writer Peter Härtling wrote a poem “Olomouc 1942–1945” in 1961, in which he describes his childhood experiences in Olomouc. In this poem he remembers a. to the “hood” from Bischofsberg, to a meeting of the Hitler Youth on the Ring (“a black aderlasser gathers a thousand haters”) and to the apartment in Wassergasse, today Mlýnská ul. - the mill moat that used to be there no longer exists, it became Filled in a few decades ago ("the river solidifies to stone"). He remembers the escape to Zwettl (“the refugee curses - now the house is wandering too”) and the great death (“laying the dolls in graves” and the “boneman”).
Harald Schmidt recalled the song Der kleine Wolf from Olomouc in his TV show on November 8, 2002 on Sat.1 . Its first lines are: Do you know the little wolf from Olomouc / with the breeches and the green woolen hat?
The famous Olomouc Quargel , a sour milk cheese with a strong smell, comes from here .
The historic city center was declared an urban monument reserve in 1971 .
In addition to numerous town houses, the house facades and historical portals are particularly worth seeing objects within the cityscape of Olomouc. These are on the upper ring (Horní náměstí)
- the Trinity column (plague column), baroque building, 35 m high with a chapel, built from 1716 to 1754, protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000
- the town hall with astronomical clock, Gothic core from the 14th century, with a 78 m high tower.
- Romanesque Bishop's Palace or Zdik Palace (Zdíkův palác), now Archdiocesan Museum, built under Bishop Heinrich Zdik on today's Wenceslas Square (Václavské náměstí)
- Former canon house of the cathedral chapter, Mozart lived here from October 28 to December 23, 1767 and wrote his 6th symphony, now the Archdiocesan Museum of Olomouc
Olomouc fortress , including u. a.
- Crown fortress and numerous forts in the suburbs, e.g. B. Fort XXII. (Lazecká) in Olomouc-Chernovir (Černovír) and Fort II. In Olomouc-Radikau (Radíkov)
- Theresian Armory (now the University Library)
Fountain and pillars
- Hercules fountain (Baroque fountain from 1687) on the upper ring (Horní náměstí)
- Caesar fountain (Baroque fountain by Wenzel Render , 1725) on the upper ring
- Arion Fountain by Ivan Theimer (2002) on the upper ring
- Neptune Fountain (Baroque fountain by Michael Mandik, 1683) on Niederring (Dolní náměstí)
- Jupiterbrunnen (Baroque Fountain by Wenzel Render, 1707) on Niederring
- Triton Fountain (Baroque Fountain by Wenceslaus Render, 1709) on Republic Square (Náměstí republiky)
- Dolphin Fountain (baroque fountain by Philipp Sattler , 1725/2005), Sokol Street (Sokolská)
- Merkurbrunnen (Baroque fountain by Wenzel Render and Philipp Sattler, 1727), 8 May Street (8th Květná)
- Sarkander fountain ("The source of living water of St. Jan Sarkander ") next to the St. Sarkander chapel
- Mariensäule (plague column) on the Niederring
Churches, chapels and monasteries
- Wenceslas Cathedral (Katedrála sv. Václava), built from 1107 to 1131 as a Romanesque basilica, Gothic in the 14th century and neo-Gothic in the 19th century, King Wenceslaus III is here. buried
- Moritz Church (Kostel sv. Mořice), late Gothic building from the 15th century with the largest organ in the Czech Republic
- Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Dominican Church (Dominikánský kostel)
- Church of Our Lady of the Snow - Jesuit Church (Kostel Panny Marie Sněžné)
- Church of St. Catherine of Alexandria (Kostel sv. Kateřiny)
- Archangel Michael Church (Kostel sv. Michaela) (1676 to 1703) by Giovanni Pietro Tencalla and Baldassare Fontana
- Red Church , built in 1902, now serves as a library
- Church of the Annunciation - Capuchin Church (Kostel Zvěstování Panny Marie)
- Cyril and Methodius Church (Kostel sv.Cyrila a Metoděje) (1929)
- Orthodox Church (Kostel sv.Gorazda) (1939)
- Basilica minor "The Visitation" on the Holy Hill near Olomouc (Svatý Kopeček)
- St. Sarkander Chapel
- St. Anna Chapel on the Cathedral Hill, now a Greek Catholic Church, next to Wenceslas Cathedral
- St. Barbara Chapel on the Cathedral Hill, now part of the Archdiocesan Museum
- Hradisch Monastery (Klášter Hradisko), built in the 17th and 18th centuries by GP Tencallo and D. Martinelli
- former Dominican monastery
- former Poor Clare Monastery, closed in 1782, now a regional museum
Palaces, villas and town houses
- Archbishop's Palace (Arcibiskupský palác)
- Romanesque Bishop's Palace or Zdik Palace
- Edelmann's Palace (Edelmannův palác) on the upper ring (Horní náměstí)
- Petrasch Palace (Petrášův palác) on the upper ring
- Salm Palace (Salmův palác) on the upper ring
- Dietrichstein Palace (Ditrichštejnský palác) on the upper ring
- Hauenschild Palace (Hauenschildův palác), Renaissance building on the Niederring (Dolní náměstí), where Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart lived in 1767
- Jesuit College on Republic Square (Náměstí republiky)
- Zierotin Palace (Žerotínský palác)
- Podstatzky von Prusinowitz Palace (Palác Podstatských z Prusínovic)
- Town house "To the golden deer" (Dům U Zlatého jelena)
- Citizen's House “To the Red Ox” (Dům U rudého vola), now a gallery
- Villa Hamburger ( Historicism , 1895)
- Villa Primavesi ( secession style , 1906)
Well-known personalities of the city are included in the list of personalities of the city of Olomouc .
- Lukáš Motyčka, Veronika Opletalová (ed.): Literární procházky německou Olomoucí. = Literary walks through the German Olomouc (= contributions to German-Moravian literature. Vol. 21). Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Olomouc 2012, ISBN 978-80-244-3025-6 .
- Willibald Müller : History of the royal capital Olomouc from the oldest times to the present. Hölzel, Vienna a. a. 1882, ( digitized version ).
- Jindřich Schulz (Ed.): Dějiny Olomouce. 2 volumes. Univerzita Palackého, Olomouc 2009, ISBN 978-80-244-2370-8 .
- Ludvík Václavek : Peter Härtling and Olmütz. In: Lucy Topoľská and Ludvík Václavek: Contributions to German-language literature in the Czech Republic. (= Contributions to Moravian German-language literature. Volume 3). Univerzita Palackého, Olomouc 2000, ISBN 80-244-0185-1 , pp. 211-214.
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Český hydrometeorologický ústav: Long-Term Climatological Normals for the Period 1961–1990 ( Memento from 23 August 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Cosmas of Prague, Chronica Boemorum
- Adrian Room: Placenames of the world: origins and meanings of the names for 6,600 countries, cities, territories, natural features, and historic sites, Jefferson (NC) 2006, ISBN 0-7864-2248-3
- Buben, Milan, Heraldik, Albatros Praha, 1987
- Newly drafted fire and extinguishing regulations of the royal capital of Ollmütz, Ollmütz 1711 ( online ).
- Ronald D. Gerste: Hero of Two Worlds , in: weekly newspaper Die Zeit , Hamburg, No. 29, July 11, 2013, p. 17
- ALEX Online ). LGBl. No. 7/1866 (eReader,
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 15, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, pp. 47–48.
- Johann Nepomuk Woldřich : Geography of the royal capital and fortress Olomouc, or a physical-geological-geographical and historical-statistical picture of Ölmütz . Geitler, Vienna 1863, pp. 36–37.
- Historický vývoj , historical overview of the Jewish community of Olomouc, online at: kehila-olomouc.cz / ...
- Benches from Olomouc Synagogue - Symbolic Memorial to the Victims of the Holocaust on: Foundation Respect and Tolerance , 2005
- Jaroslav Klenovský: Olomouc Jewish Community. On the history of the Jewish community in Olomouc ( Memento from December 2, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), 2004
- Z olomoucké školy odjížděli lidé na smrt. Teď je v chodníku stumbling block , report in Olomoucký deník from November 15, 2017, online at: olomoucky.denik.cz / ...
- Milada Čechmánková (2009). Čestný sloup Nejsvětější Trojice v Olomouci. Jednota Orel Olomouc, Olomouc, 48 pp., P. 28.
- Milada Čechmánková (2009). Čestný sloup Nejsvětější Trojice v Olomouci. Jednota Orel Olomouc, Olomouc, 48 pp., P. 29.
- Milada Čechmánková (2009). Čestný sloup Nejsvětější Trojice v Olomouci. Jednota Orel Olomouc, Olomouc, 48 pp., P. 9 u. 30th
- Gregor Wolny : The Margraviate of Moravia. Described topographically, statistically and historically . Volume 5: Ölmützer Kreis . 2nd edition, Brünn 1846, pp. 59–60.
- Carl Kořistka : The Margraviate of Moravia and the Duchy of Silesia in their geographical relationships . Vienna and Olmüz 1861, pp. 268–269 .
- Juryšek O. (2006). Dějiny Olomouce 1017-1920. Votobia , Olomouc, 208 pp. ISBN 80-7220-258-8 .
- Český statistický úřad: Veřejná databáze
- Obyvatelstvo města Olomouce
- Tichák M. (2007). Ztracené adresy. O tom co v Olomouci bývalo a už není. Burian a Tichák, Olomouc, 190 pp., P. 7.
- (1986) Malá československá encyklopedie. Academia.
- Informační server statutárního města Olomouce: Partnerská města
- Olomoucký hrad - Arcidiecézní muzeum , Hrady.cz portal, online at: hrady.cz / ...
- Peter Härtling: Remembered Reality - Told Truth. The cities of my childhood, (p. 45/46), Thelem Dresden, 2007, 119 p.
- Contents of the broadcast of November 8, 2002
- taken in 1928 with Curt Bois on YouTube
- City made of toy houses , section In the Moritzkirche is the largest organ in the Czech Republic , Portal Church in Need, online (archived) at: kirche-in-not.de / ...