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Tampereen kaupunki
coat of arms map
Tampere Coat of Arms Location of Tampere in Finland
Basic data
State : FinlandFinland Finland
Landscape : Pirkanmaa
Administrative community : Tampere
Geographical location 61 ° 30 '  N , 23 ° 45'  E Coordinates: 61 ° 30 '  N , 23 ° 45'  E
Surface: 689.59 km²
of which land area: 525.03 km²
of which inland waterways: 164.56 km²
Residents : 235,239 (Dec. 31, 2018)
Population density : 448 inhabitants / km²
Municipality number : 837
Postcodes : 30000-33909
Language (s) : Finnish
Website : tampere.fi
Tampere collage

Tampere  [ ˈtɑmpɛrɛ ] ( Swedish Tammerfors  [ [tamərˈfɔrs] ] ) is a city in southwestern Finland . With 235,239 inhabitants, Tampere is the largest city in the Pirkanmaa region and the third largest city in the country (after Espoo , which is part of the Helsinki agglomeration ). Because of its diverse industry, it is often called the Manchester of the North (Finnish nickname: Manse ). Please click to listen!Play Please click to listen!Play

The population of the Tampere metropolitan area is 330,711 (as of December 31, 2016).

Tampere is the largest inland city in the Nordic countries .


Geographical location

Tampere lies between two lakes, the Näsijärvi and the Pyhäjärvi . The lakes have a level difference of 18 meters and through the 945-meter-long Tammerkoski - rapids connected, which is used as an energy source.

View of Lake Pyhäjärvi near Tampere

The city is roughly at the same width as Söderhamn in Sweden and Lillehammer in Norway . On June 21st, sunrise is at 3:41 am and sunset is at 11:12 pm . On December 22nd, however, the sun does not rise until 9:43 am and disappears behind the horizon at 3:04 pm. The city is the center of the Pirkanmaa region , also known as the Tampere region .

Distances to other Finnish cities:

city distance Compass direction
Helsinki 176 km SSO
Jyväskylä 149 km NO
Kotka 241 km SO
Kuopio 293 km NO
Lahti 126 km SO
Lappeenranta 274 km OSO
Oulu 476 km NNO
Pori 114 km W.
Turku 157 km SW
Vaasa 242 km NNW

Expansion of the urban area

The total area of ​​the city is 690.6 km², of which 522.7 km² is land and 167.9 km² is water. Since large parts of the urban area are rural, the population density is only 385 inhabitants per km².

Neighboring communities

Bordering municipalities are Nokia and Ylöjärvi in the west, Pirkkala and Lempäälä in the south and Kangasala and Orivesi in the east . Since the area of ​​the city extends very far to the north, Kuru and Ruovesi , whose town centers are already 70 to 80 kilometers from Tamperes city center , border there .

City structure

Tammerkoski flows through the city center.

In simplified terms, Tampere is divided into six districts , namely Keskustan piiri ('city center'), Läntinen piiri ('western district'), Pohjoinen piiri ('northern district'), Itäinen piiri ('eastern district'), Eteläinen piiri (' South District ') and Kaakkoinen piiri (' Southeast District ').

The west of the rapids Tammerkoski lying neighborhoods Amuri, Pyynikki, Santa Lahti and Yläpispala extend over the ridge Pispala and belong to Läntinen piiri , so the western district.

To the north of the inner city are the districts of Lapinniemi, Lappi and Petsamo , and to the east Kauppi, Kaleva , Kissanmaa and Vuohenoja . Although they extend north, Kolunkylä, Kämmeniemi and Teisko are part of the eastern district.

Further south is the district of Hervanta , which belongs to the Kaakkoinen piiri . The Eteläinen piiri include Härmälä, Hatanpä, Järvensivu.

The new district of Vuores has been under construction to the west of Hervanta since 2011 .


In January 2003 the average temperature was −11.4 ° C, the maximum temperature +4.8 ° C and the minimum temperature −32 ° C. In July 2003 the average temperature increased to +20.2 ° C, with the thermometer reaching a maximum temperature of +30.6 ° C and a minimum temperature of +8.8 ° C. The average amount of precipitation in 2002 was 500 mm.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: WMO
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Tampere
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) −3.6 −3.6 1.1 7.0 15.2 19.6 21.5 19.4 13.2 7.2 1.5 −1.9 O 8.1
Min. Temperature (° C) −10.0 −11.0 −6.7 −1.8 3.6 8.6 11.2 10.1 5.6 1.4 −3.2 −7.9 O 0
Precipitation ( mm ) 38.1 25.5 31.2 32.5 35.5 58.0 72.4 75.4 60.6 56.5 49.9 39.8 Σ 575.4
Rainy days ( d ) 10 7th 8th 7th 7th 9 10 11 10 11 11 11 Σ 112
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: WMO


The region was already settled around 1000. From the 15th century there were manors and mills , in the 17th century a market square was mentioned for the first time .

On October 1, 1779, today's city was the interface between southern and central Finland by the Swedish King Gustav III. founded. The aim was to build a new trade and factory town. Just a few years later, in 1783, the first Finnish paper mill was located here , and in 1820 the Scot James Finlayson founded a cotton factory on the then unused rapids between Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi, which became the cornerstone for the later textile industry and which now houses several museums in its converted brick factory , Cafes and a cinema are located. Tampere was the Finnish center of innovation as early as the 19th century . In 1842, for example, the first Finnish paper machine started production in the J. C. Frenckell & Son factory , and in 1882 the first light bulbs in Scandinavia were manufactured at Finlayson .

Industrial buildings on the Tammerkoski stream
War damage 1918

The first railway line reached Tampere on June 22, 1876 from the direction of Hämeenlinna . On September 29, 1883 a connection followed via Orivesi to Vaasa and on November 4, 1895 to Pori .

In 1865 a city fire raged in Tampere, but this did not stop the growth. As a result of heavy industrialization , Tampere was the Finnish center of the labor movement at the beginning of the 20th century . In 1905 and 1906 Lenin took part in conferences of the Bolsheviks here .

Tampere was one of the strategically important cities during the Finnish Civil War (January 28 to May 15, 1918). On April 6, when the city was captured, White forces captured about 10,000 Red soldiers .

In 1923 Tampere became a bishopric . In the Winter War many Soviet air raids carried out in the city, the hardest with 100 aircraft on March 2, 1940. In the Continuation War Tampere was attacked from the air, had a total of 18 fatalities among the civilian population, in addition, 1.2% of homes destroyed and 2.1% badly damaged. The decline of the textile industry began in the 1960s and was no longer able to cope with the demands of the world market. From around 1970 the old factories were gradually shut down and used for other purposes.


In 1947 Messukylä , 1950 Lielahti , 1966 Aitolahti and finally Teisko in 1972 were incorporated .

Population development

It is interesting that, despite the economic restructuring in the 1970s, the city was never affected by emigration and a resulting decline in population, as was typical at that time, for example, in the similarly industrialized cities of the Ruhr area .

However, there are two phases in the city's history that at least stunted growth. In addition to the aforementioned period of economic restructuring, these would be the years of revolution and civil war.

Population trend graph

Development of the population (from 1960 December 31) :

1820 to 1904

  • 1820 - 1,000
  • 1850-4000
  • 1876 ​​- 12,100
  • 1881 - 13,800
  • 1886 - 16,100
  • 1889-18,100
  • 1891-20,500
  • 1896-26,700
  • 1900 - 34,100
  • 1904 - 40.261

1910 to 1987

  • 1910-45,100
  • 1915-45,200
  • 1926 - 51,700
  • 1941 - 81,000
  • 1960 - 132,673
  • 1970-158,380
  • 1975 - 166,338
  • 1978 - 165,519
  • 1980 - 166,228
  • 1983 - 167,344
  • 1985 - 169,026
  • 1987 - 170,533

1990 to 2003

  • 1990-172,560
  • 1993 - 176,149
  • 1995 - 182,742
  • 1996 - 186.026
  • 1997 - 188,726
  • 1998 - 191,254
  • 1999 - 193.174
  • 2000-195,468
  • 2001 - 197,774
  • 2002 - 199,823
  • 2003 - 200,980
  • 2004 - 202,932

Only applies to residents within the city limits. The urban settlement of Tampere has a population of 281,092 (estimate for January 1, 2005).

Of the 199,823 inhabitants on December 31, 2002, 104,540 (52.3%) were female and 95,283 (47.7%) were male. Only 990 inhabitants, corresponding to 0.5% of the total population, were Swedish-speaking.

Population group Share (1980) Share (2002) Share (2020)
0-15 years 20% 16% 16%
16–64 years 67% 69% 64%
over 64 years 13% 15% 20%

The natural population development in 2002 showed a birth surplus of 215 inhabitants. The migration balance was also positive with 1,445 inhabitants. This development is due to the ongoing urbanization in Finland . A comparison with developments in other large and medium-sized cities in the country can be found in the list of cities in Finland .

According to estimates, Tampere will have 229,000 inhabitants in 2020.


Under the Finnish Presidency, a special EU summit on “ Justice and Home Affairs ” took place in Tampere on October 15 and 16, 1999 . The central issue was asylum and migration policy .

City council

As in all Finnish cities, the city council is the highest decision-making body in Tampere. The 67 members of this council are elected for four years.

Since the 2017 elections, the Social Democrats have been the strongest party in Tampere; the conservative collection party follows closely behind. The Green Bund and the Left Alliance are also relatively strong, with election results in the double-digit percentage range. The third major party in the country, the Finnish Center Party , plays a minor role as in other major cities.

The following table shows the results of the 2017 local elections in Tampere with comparative figures from the 2012 election.

Political party 2018-2022 2013-2017
Election result Seats Election result Seats
Social democrats 22.1% 16 23.5% 16
Collection party 21.6% 15th 24.8% 17th
Green covenant 20.0% 14th 14.1% 10
Left alliance 10.8% 07th 10.2% 07th
Base fins 06.2% 04th 12.8% 09
Center Party 05.6% 04th 04.9% 03
Tampereen Puolesta ry 05.0% 03 - -
Christian Democrats 04.0% 02 03.9% 02
Vaihtoehto Tampere ry 01.6% 01 - -
Communists 00.7% 00 01.6% 01
Swedish People's Party 00.4% 01 00.5% 01
Tampereen Sitoutumattomat ry - - 02.6% 01
Rest 02.0% 00 01.1% 00
voter turnout 59.3% 56.3%

Finnish municipalities mostly have a top official (Finnish kaupunginjohtaja ) who is roughly equivalent to a senior city director . This is an open-ended employment relationship (although layoffs, often followed by litigation in political quarrels, are not uncommon). Since a change in the law in 2006, the municipality can also choose the so-called mayor model, which means that the city or local council elects a mayor (Finnish: pormestari) for no longer than his own legislative period. Tampere was the first city in Finland to exercise this right in 2007 after the then chief city manager retired. From 2007 until his retirement in 2012, Timo P. Nieminen from the Collection Party held this post (re-election 2009). At the beginning of 2013 his party colleague Anna-Kaisa Ikonen was elected mayor.

Town twinning

  • GermanyGermanyTampere maintains since 1960 with food a city partnership since 1961 with Chemnitz . The city partnerships with the two German cities were not established indiscriminately: both Essen and Chemnitz show parallels to Tampere in their industrial development.

Other partner cities are:

Tampere names cities of friendship

  • NicaraguaNicaragua Leon , Nicaragua
  • TanzaniaTanzania Mwanza , Tanzania

Economy and Infrastructure

Employed persons by sector

The former main branches of industry , namely the textile, shoe , leather , paper and wood industries , have been largely displaced by other branches of industry. Most of the industrial employees were in the metal and electrical industry in 2001 with 9,828 people (51.9%) .

Between 1980 and 2001, the share of people employed in industry fell from 42.1% to 27.1%, while the service sector was on the rise at 70.9% from 53.9% in 1980.

The development of the unemployment rate was very negative . While it was only 1.5% in 1970, even after the economic crisis had been overcome in the early 1990s in 2001, at 13.7%, it was still above the overall Finnish average (9.2%).


Alongside Helsinki , Tampere is Finland's most important transport hub . The car density in 2002 was 381 vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants.

In October 2000 the last section of the motorway to Helsinki was completed. This motorway is part of the European route 12 , which joins the European route 63 from the north-east of Finland in Tampere.

View of Pyhäjärvi Harbor (Laukontori)

Tampere has two ports , one on Pyhäjärvi and one on Näsijärvi. The Tammerkoski -Stromschnelle itself is not navigable, so starts and ends at the Pyhäjärvi Harbor the Silver Line and the Näsijärvi port of the Poet .

Southwest of the city, near Pirkkala, is Tampere-Pirkkala Airport , from which there are Ryanair connections to Frankfurt-Hahn and Bremen . Other airlines that fly to the airport are Nordic Regional Airlines (for Finnair ) and SAS .

Locomotive monument in Viinikka

The fastest land-based connections to Helsinki are less than a half hour by the VR -powered trains offered type Sm3. These are Pendolino trains running at speeds of up to 200 km / h . The station of Tampere has a loading dock for car trains . There is a freight yard in Viinikka.

The urban area itself is served by a dense city ​​bus network with 27 lines and a total length of 370.5 km. In 2002, 160 city ​​buses were maintained. Intercity buses go to almost all Finnish cities. They start and end at the bus station (linja-autoasema) , which is southwest of the train station. A tram does not yet exist, but construction of a new light rail ( Tampere tram ) began in 2016 (the first stage is scheduled to open in 2021). The rail project, which costs 238.8 million euros (with vehicles 342 million euros), is to include a 56.7 km long network in the final stage, of which 2.7 km would be tunnels.

Established businesses

Tampere is now home to several high-tech companies . In addition, there are companies in Tampere that are active in the traditional branches of industry, for example the Metsä-Board-Tako paper mill in the city center, the manufacturer of aerial rescue and aerial work platforms Bronto-Skylift or the mechanical engineering company Glaston .


At the beginning of the 1920s the first Finnish radio show was broadcast in Tampere. Today the city is the location of the second Finnish public television program YLE TV2 .

The daily newspaper with the highest circulation in the city and region is the Aamulehti .


Tampere University of Technology

In the 2002/2003 school year there were 57 elementary schools and ten grammar schools .

Tampere has three universities and colleges , two of which have 13,000 (University of Tampere & Tampere Technical University) and one 4,000 (TAMK University of Applied Sciences) students . In addition to the University of Tampere (UTA) founded in 1925 in the city center and the TAMK University of Applied Sciences in the north of the city, the Technical University of Tampere is located in the Hervanta district . Hervanta itself is a typical satellite town with 11,000 apartments . Of the approximately 26,000 inhabitants, over 4,500 are students. The most famous and largest student residence in Hervanta is the Mikontalo . For UTA students in the Erasmus program, there is the Tuomiokirkonkatu student residence in downtown Tampere and the Lapinkaari student residence just north of the city center . As part of the Erasmus program , an annual conference has been held at the PIRAMK University of Applied Sciences since 2000, at which student groups from around 10 EU countries meet to discuss the latest developments in the areas of Mobile and Interactive Marketing, IT for Convergence Internet Marketing & eBusiness Management and work on projects together in interdisciplinary workshops.

Culture and sights


The Tampereen Teatteri

The most famous open-air theater in Finland is located in Pyynikki Park (see Parks) . It has a rotating grandstand that always rotates parallel to a scene .

However, the two most important theaters in the city are the city ​​theater , also known as the TT theater, and the TTT theater . Both institutions have three stages and offer international classics as well as local premieres . In 2004 the TT-Theater, originally a workers' theater, celebrated its centenary.


Noteworthy museums are the dolls and costume museum , the gymnastics and gymnastics museum , the ice hockey museum and the spy museum . A social history museum provides a picture of the living conditions in the old working-class town of Tampere, in which the cramped living conditions at that time are shown on the basis of a block of houses.

Popular is the " Muumimuseo " ( " Moomin -Museum") that the work of the Finland-Swedish artist and author Tove Jansson is dedicated.

There is a Lenin Museum next to the TTT Theater. Lenin actually stayed in the two rooms, in which one can learn something about his life in general and about his time in Finland in particular. It is also worth mentioning in this context that in 1905 Lenin first met Joseph Stalin here .

The Sara Hildén Art Museum is located in Särkänniemi Park (see Parks ) . It is a museum for contemporary art .


With the Tampere Hall, the city ​​has the largest concert and congress center in Northern Europe. It is opposite the University of Tampere. The Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra - one of the two fully developed symphony orchestras in Finland - is based here.

The city hosts annual and biennial music festivals such as the Tampere Jazz Happening, the Tampere Vocal Music Festival, the Tampere Biennale, and the Tampere Beatles Happening.

In the 1970s and 1980s, the city was a starting point for a rock music style with Finnish lyrics that is known nationwide as the mans skirt to this day . The urban music scene offers a certain focus in the heavy metal / black metal area ; well-known music groups here are bands like Negative or Lovex .


Downtown west of the Tammerkoski

The chessboard-like layout of the city center is remarkable (see picture on the right) . The other parts of the city did not consistently maintain this pattern. The design of the inner city comes from the German-Finnish architect Carl Ludwig Engel . He saw u. a. the wide Esplanade Hämeenpuisto , which at that time was supposed to prevent the spread of fire in an emergency and is now lined with many trees over 100 years old . Most of the buildings in the city center, however, date from the period after 1900. On the west side of the central square, which still functioned as the market square until the 1930s, there is also the town hall , which today only serves representative purposes. From the building completed in 1890, the manifesto against Russian oppression was read out in 1905 .

Tampere Cathedral
The Russian Orthodox Church of Tampere

The Hämeenkatu , the most important street and thus the “lifeline” of the city, runs across the central square . It begins in the west at Hämeenpuisto, where the city library , built in 1986 and architecturally based on the shape of the capercaillie , and the Alexander Church (Aleksanterin kirkko) built in 1881 are located. Its eastern end is at the train station (asema) , which is already on the other bank of the Tammerkoski. Which was built in 1901 and is located on the Hämeenkatu 13 monument standing indoor market Kauppahalli the city. The Hämeensilta Bridge , which the Hämeenkatu uses to cross the Tammerkoski, is decorated with four statues by Wäinö Aaltonen . They date from 1929, reproduce a Finnish maiden , a hunter , a trader and a tax collector and thus represent the trade that used to be practiced in the city.

South of the central square is Laukontori , the port of Pyhäjärvi and today's marketplace. Immediately next to the Laukontori, the Tammerkoski flows into the Pyhäjärvi. The Tammerkoski itself flows through two weirs with adjoining turbine halls . At the northern lock are the former factories of Frenckell, Finlayson (with the Finlayson Church) and Tampella .

The city library on a 1987 postage stamp
Näsinneula observation tower


The Tampere Cathedral (Tuomiokirkko) is the cathedral of the Diocese of Tampere and was between 1902 and 1907 in the style of Finnish National Romanticism built and is a blue-gray granite building . It is located on the edge of the center north of the train station. The asymmetrical exterior makes the church look like a magic castle. The altar fresco "Resurrection" is the work of Magnus Enckell , the other frescoes and the colorful windows are by Hugo Simberg .

The Old Church ( Vanha Kirkko ) is of an older date . The yellow wooden church was built in 1824 in Empire style . The bell tower with a single-hand clock added four years later is based on plans by Carl Ludwig Engel. The church is on the central square (Keskustori) .

The Kaleva Church ( Kalevan kirkko ) in the Kaleva district of the same name comes from more recent times (1964 to 1966) and has the old Christian symbol of the fish as a floor plan . The concrete building does not look particularly inviting from the outside, but the high and bright interior is impressive.

The Kalevankangas cemetery was established in 1880, the Vatiala cemetery in 1960.


Bank of the Tammerkoski

The largest park in the city is Pyynikki Park . It is located in the district of the same name, in the south of the Pispala ridge, and houses the 30 meter high Pyynikki observation tower , which is overshadowed by the Näsinneula.

A tourist attraction is the Särkänniemi Park, which not only has extensive amusement park-specific facilities, but also houses a planetarium and a 173 m high tower with a revolving restaurant ( Näsinneula ) . It stands on the ridge of the Pispala , on the banks of the Näsijärvi. In the past there was also a dolphinarium in the park , which has now been converted into an indoor playground.

The parks on the left and right banks of the Tammerkoski are a popular meeting point. They are decorated with red flowers in summer and offer an excellent view of the stately chimney from 1870 and the halls of the former Frenckell paper mill , some of which are still used today as hydroelectric power stations .

In the district Hatanpää, on a reaching into the Pyhäjärvi headland, an eleven extends hectare large Arboretum . It consists of an old manor park, a park with around 500 species of plants and a rock garden . A rose garden, which unfolds its full splendor in late summer , was also laid out.


The sport is most strongly influenced by the two ice hockey teams Tappara and Ilves . Both have a huge influence on Finnish ice hockey culture. They are considered to be the most successful teams in Finland. Even the football does not need to be put under a bushel its light. Tampere United, founded in 1998, won the Finnish Veikkausliiga in 2001, 2006 and 2007 . However, like all other football teams in the country, the team receives little attention internationally. It plays in the stadium behind the bus station, across from Pyhäjärvi harbor. Other important teams are the second division Tampereen Pallo-Veikot , PP-70 Tampere and the former champions Ilves-Kissat Tampere .

In 1967 Tampere hosted the European basketball championship together with Helsinki , and in 1995 the city hosted the rowing world championships . In 1979 and 2001, the Orienteering World Championships were held in Tampere . An application for the 1976 Winter Olympics was unsuccessful.

There are a total of ten bathing beaches in Tampere . Closest to the center is the lido on the Näsijärvi bank in Onkiniemi, not far west of the Särkenniemi amusement park, followed by the lido at the Pyynikki summer theater. There are four indoor swimming pools , including one in Hervanta.

In amateur boxing , Tampere has already hosted the 1984 European Junior Championships, the 1981 and 2000 European Championships, the 1990 Baltic Championships and the 7th World Championships in 1993. In addition, the city is the venue for the international Tammer tournament every year .

In 2004 the SC Classic was able to achieve the floorball cup .

In 2008 Tampere hosted the European Wrestling Championships .

In 2009 Tampere organized the European Youth Olympic Winter Festival .

The Speedway Individual World Championship Grand Prix of Finland has been held at the Ratina Stadium in Tampere since 2014.

Regular events

Culinary specialties

The best-known specialty in Tampere is the black sausage ( Mustamakkara ), a grützwurst with blood that is eaten hot with cranberry jam. You get them warm u. a. in the market hall, at the port of Pyhäjärvi (Laukontori) or in the market in the Tammela district (Tammelantori) as well as at the sausage counter of some larger supermarkets. Another local specialty is yeast bread, called “riävä” (from Finnish. Rievä) in the Tamper dialect.

There are 2 microbreweries: The Plevna pub on the Finlayson site and the Pyynikin käsityöläispansimo (literally translated as "Pyynikkier craft brewery"), whose beers are available in selected restaurants in the city.


Raimo Helminen - Väinö Linna - Matti Nykänen

sons and daughters of the town

Individual evidence

  1. Maanmittauslaitos (Finnish land surveying office): Suomen pinta-alat kunnittain January 1, 2010 . (PDF; 194 kB)
  2. Statistical Office Finland: Table 11ra - Key figures on population by region, 1990-2018
  3. Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan December 31, 2016. December 31, 2016, accessed March 31, 2018 (English, Finnish).
  4. Vuores. In: Website of the City of Tampere. Retrieved June 30, 2014 .
  5. http://www.lysator.liu.se/nordic/mirror/sa-int/hist.html
  6. ^ Thiemig, Karl: Finland , p. 122. Munich 1974
  7. Kuntavaalit (local election) 2017 - Tampere ( Finnish ), accessed May 8, 2020
  8. Tampere. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012 ; Retrieved June 30, 2014 (Finnish Ministry of Justice: 2012 local election result).
  9. Pormestarimalli. In: Website City of Tampere. Retrieved November 20, 2014 .
  10. Tampere website
  11. Information motorail trains Finland ( Memento from February 3, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  12. David Briginshaw: Tampere finalises LRT project deal. In: International Railway Journal of November 30, 2016.
  13. ^ Metsä Board Tako. In: Production Units. Metsä Board, April 24, 2012, accessed May 8, 2012 : "The mill is located in the center of Tampere, southern Finland."
  14. pyynikinkasityolaispanimo. (No longer available online.) In: Website of the Pyynikin käsityöläispannimo. Formerly in the original ; Retrieved November 17, 2014 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.pyynikinkasityolaispanimo.com  


  • Seppo Siirilä: The functional structure of the city of Tampere. Publicationes Instituti geographici Universitatis Helsingiensis, Vol. 63, Helsinki 1968, ISSN  0300-2934 .
  • Philip Ward: Finnish cities: Travels in Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and Lapland. Oleander Press, New York 1987, ISBN 0-906672-98-8 .

Web links

Commons : Tampere  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Tampere  - Travel Guide