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Wood grouse (Tetrao urogallus), ♂ courtship song? / I

Wood grouse ( Tetrao urogallus ), courtship song ? / i
Audio file / audio sample

Class : Birds (aves)
Order : Chicken birds (Galliformes)
Family : Pheasants (Phasianidae)
Subfamily : Grouse (Tetraoninae)
Genre : Tetrao
Type : Capercaillie
Scientific name
Tetrao urogallus
Linnaeus , 1758

The capercaillie ( Tetrao urogallus ) is a bird art from the family of pheasant-like (Phasianidae) and the order of chicken birds (Galliformes). It is also the largest chicken in Europe. It inhabits coniferous, mixed and deciduous forest zones from Scotland across Northern Europe to the east of Central Siberia . In Europe it colonizes boreal and temperate zones above 1000 meters above sea level. It occurs only very sporadically in lower altitudes, such as in Poland and Lower Lusatia .

It is very shy and makes great demands on its environment. In Central Europe it is only rare and only found in old, untouched mountain forest regions, e.g. B. in Austria , Switzerland , Slovenia , in Germany in the Berchtesgadener Land , in the Black Forest , in the Bavarian Forest and in the Fichtelgebirge . Since it has very little potential to spread, small populations are quickly isolated. There is a reserve for capercaillies on the Großer Arber.


General distribution area

Distribution area in Europe
Entire distribution area

The capercaillie is a resident of the large, light forest areas in Europe and North Asia . Its original habitat comprises primarily the taiga of Northern and Eastern Europe, as well as the original coniferous forest zone of the Alps and low mountain ranges . Large and closed occurrences of the capercaillie can still be found in the boreal coniferous forests of Europe, where the species is largely in decline, but according to the IUCN is still 1.5 to 2 million animals and is therefore classified by it as "not endangered". Influences from modern forestry that adversely affect the forest structure for the species are given as the main causes of the decline. Although capercaillie hunting is regulated or banned in all countries, it is believed that poaching losses are significant, particularly in parts of southern and eastern Europe.

Distribution according to subspecies

The nominate form Tetrao urogallus urogallus is found in Scandinavia . In Scotland, the capercaillie was already extinct by 1760. The population there is primarily due to Swedish capercaillie that were released in 1837 and 1838. In contrast to other countries (Ireland, Denmark), the suspension was successful.

The subspecies Tetrao urogallus rudolfi (Dombrowski 1912) is found in the Ukrainian ( Gorgany nature reserve ) and Romanian Carpathians and the Rhodopes in Bulgaria , Tetrao urogallus pleskei in Belarus , northern Ukraine and large parts of European Russia , Tetrao urogallus uralensis ( Menzbian ) in southern Uralieris and southwest Siberia eastward as far as Barnaul , Tetrao urogallus karelicus in Finland and Russian Karelia , Tetrao urogallus lonnbergi on the peninsula Kola , Tetrao urogallus volgensis in the central and southeastern European Russia, Tetrao urogallus taczanowskii in central Siberia, south to the Altai northwest and to the Mongolia and Tetrao urogallus obsoletus from Lake Onega via northern Russia and northern Siberia to the lower Lena . In older literature, the occurrences east of Scandinavia are described as population islands of Tetrao urogallus urogallus , so that different opinions exist about the number of subspecies.

The significantly larger subspecies Tetrao urogallus major ( CL Brehm 1831) settles in central Europe, from Germany and the Alps to the southwestern Baltic states , western Belarus, the eastern Carpathians and the Dinarides and their southern foothills to North Macedonia . The populations of Central Europe are acutely endangered and isolated, so they do not interact with one another. The largest occurrence in Central Europe can be found in the Alps. The capercaillie has meanwhile been placed under protection in all Alpine regions with the exception of Austria, which has the largest population. Liechtenstein (1962), Switzerland (1971), Italy (1989) and Slovenia (1993) have stopped hunting; in Switzerland the species is classified as endangered and has been protected in the province of South Tyrol since 2007. In France , Tetrao urogallus major still lives in the Jura and the Vosges . The capercaillie died out in the French Alps in the late 1990s. The somewhat smaller subspecies Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus lives in the Pyrenees , while a cross of both subspecies has been established in the Cevennes . In the Cantabrian Mountains in northwestern Spain , the subspecies Tetrao urogallus cantabricus (Castroviejo) is distinguished.

Tetrao urogallus major, Bavarian Forest National Park


In Germany the capercaillie is on the “ Red List ” nationwide as an endangered bird species and is subject to a year-round closed season. In addition to the alpine population in the Berchtesgaden National Park , it mainly inhabits the Black Forest, the Bavarian Forest and the Fichtel Mountains. In the Black Forest National Park , an overall relatively stable larger population has been preserved, while the total population in the Black Forest continues to decline. There is a viable population in the Bavarian Forest National Park and a small but stable population in the Fichtel Mountains.

In other areas such as the Ore Mountains , the Franconian Forest , the Upper Palatinate Forest , the Odenwald or the Spessart , the species is becoming extinct or has already disappeared. The reintroduction programs were discontinued in the Harz and Hochsauerland , the remaining populations are considered extinct.

A stock in the Thuringian Slate Mountains has shrunk to a critical number for decades, but there are currently the first signs of recovery. A settlement of Tetrao urogallus urogallus in Niederlausitz appears to be successful. In the foreseeable future, both small populations will not reach the critical size that is necessary for self-preservation and will be dependent on extensive supportive measures. (see below: inventory)

Causes of population decline

The main reason for the decline in capercaillie populations, especially in Central Europe, is the loss of suitable habitats. Since the capercaillie places high demands on its habitat, protective measures are difficult to implement. For a stable population, around 50,000  hectares of contiguous and sufficiently structured area are required. The populations are extremely unstable towards infrastructure projects, which restrict their habitat and can disturb the animals up to stress death (in winter).

Disputed the influence of other factors, such as disturbances in the habitat or the influence of predators is ( predators ). In Central Europe, for example, the high number of predators (fox, tree marten, stone marten, hawk, wild boar, etc.) plays a very restrictive role. In integrative hunting concepts it must therefore be attempted to keep their number low. According to the model assumptions, moderate, regulated hunting, especially in autumn, is compatible with the conservation of the population, even if there are still some gaps in knowledge. Although capercaillie hunting is regulated or banned in all countries, it is believed that poaching losses are significant, particularly in parts of southern and eastern Europe.

Tourism and increasing visitor pressure in the distribution areas are further reasons for the decline. Since most populations are isolated from one another, there is insufficient genetic exchange, which has a negative effect on the constitution. Attempts are currently being made to enable genetic and individual exchange according to the stepping stone concept (especially between the sub-areas in the Black Forest).


Males and females

Rooster and hen of the wood grouse
Female capercaillie

The shape of the capercaillie and the capercaillie clearly differ from each other:

  • The noticeably larger wood grouse - weight approx. 4–5 kg, size 1 m, wingspan 90 cm - is dark gray to dark brown in color with a shiny metallic green breast shield.
  • Capercaillie in the Bavarian Forest National Park
    With a weight of approx. 2.5 kg or a size of 60 cm and a wingspan of approx. 70 cm, the capercaillie is significantly smaller than the rooster. Their plumage is brown on the upper side with black and silver transverse bands, on the underside a little lighter, more yellowish.


Both sexes share a white mirror on the bow of the swing arm . The feet are feathered, especially in winter, and small horn pins stick out to the side of the toes ( snowshoe effect), from which the family name " grouse " is derived.

These so-called courtship pens are usually shown quite clearly in the tracks in the snow in winter. A distinction between the sexes is usually easily possible based on the size of the step seal .

On both sides of the cock and hen, a bare, strikingly red area of ​​skin, the so-called rose, can be seen above the eyes.


In their earliest youth, the capercaillie chicks are colored similarly to the hens and have a characteristic black headstock. Later, from around the beginning of August, the color of the rooster chicks changes more and more towards their later appearance, their plumage becomes darker, and overall they are then significantly larger than the hen chicks. Capercaillie eggs are roughly the same size and shape as chicken eggs, but they are usually clearly spotted brown.


The solution of the capercaillie consists of 1 cm wide and 5–6 cm long rolls of hard or pulpy consistency, depending on the season and the food they eat. Remnants of needles can be seen in winter. The so-called Falz- or courtship pitch, a glossy black excretion of the appendix, is given all year round, so it has no relation to courtship.

Flight behavior

When flying, the capercaillie are clumsy and rumbling, especially when taking off, which is why dense forests are avoided. Gliding phases are repeatedly inserted during flight , with a characteristic whistle being heard. In general, the capercaillie are not skilled and agile fliers, they prefer to move on the ground; even with disturbances z. B. by humans they usually try to reach the next cover on foot.

Way of life


The feathered legs of a grouse in winter are shown.

The original habitat of the capercaillie are coniferous, light, stepped forests with rich ground vegetation consisting mainly of bilberry herbs . Due to its preferred food, its safety needs and its flight behavior, it is excellently adapted to this - "too well" adapted, since it is ultimately not able to survive in other forest structures.

The capercaillie, especially the capercaillie that lead the chicks, have the following demands on their habitat: An intimate mixture of food supply is necessary - v. a. Blueberry bushes - and cover with an overview. These quality criteria are usually best fulfilled by light old wood made of spruce and pine with abundant ground vegetation and beginning rejuvenation on not too steep, dry slopes, in short: old thick trees, in between areas with regenerative rejuvenation in between to hide in them, sufficient visibility and flight opportunity . The capercaillie would like as many berry bushes as possible, its favorite food, as ground vegetation. And the whole thing should preferably be on a gently sloping, south-facing slope. In the low-lying areas , such forest forms are often the result of human overexploitation of the forests, but above all through litter use.

In the climatically rough high and ridge areas of the low and high mountain ranges as well as in the taiga region in Scandinavia and Russia , the forests naturally grow rather patchy, so that such forest structures that are optimally suitable for the capercaillie form there naturally. Dense, younger parts of the forest are mostly avoided, as they often offer neither cover nor food and also hinder the flight of this large bird.


The capercaillie is a highly specialized herbivore ; in the summer half-year it feeds almost exclusively on blueberry leaves and berries, as well as grass seeds and young sprouts . As chicks in the first weeks of life, the capercaillie are dependent on animal protein in the form of insects , whereby the available food depends very much on the weather. In winter, the diet consists mainly of needles and buds from pine, spruce, fir and beech. In order to break down and grind their food, the capercaillie take in stomach stones, so-called gastroliths .

Settlement density

Basically, the population density of the capercaillie, as with most other animal species, depends on the quality of the biotope; The highest settlement density is found in sun-drenched, light, old mixed forests rich in herbs and composed of spruce, pine, fir and some beech. The density, based on the spring population, is around 4 capercaillie per 100 hectares. The capercaillie lives in similar settlement densities in the taiga and tundra. Contrary to many hunting legends, the capercaillie was never a species that lived in great density. Adult roosters, which live strictly territorial, claim a grazing area of ​​about 50 to 60 ha of colonizable area, hen areas are about 40 ha in size, whereby the areas of roosters and hens can overlap.

daily routine

A capercaillie takes cover on the branches of a silver fir.

Capercaillies are typically day animals, i. H. their activity is limited almost exclusively to the bright hours of the day. They usually spend the night in trees; they look for old trees in whose strong branches they sleep sitting. Such sleeping trees are often kept for several days, which is why there is often a lot of solution among them. Brooding capercaillie spend the night on the ground, as do the hens leading the chicks in the first few weeks after hatching. At the rest of the time, the hens are much less likely to be found on the ground than the roosters. Most of the tracks in the snow are rooster tracks, especially in winter.



Courting grouse

The mating season of Auer Wild starts depending on weather conditions, vegetation and altitude in March and lasts until early June. Here is the beginning of the dawn, the Baumbalz on a promising, starkastigen tree (the Balzbaum instead). What is striking is the posture - fanned, steeply erect tail and upright head - and the courtship song, the courtship , consisting of the squire with the beak, the trill that turns over to the main beat and finally the sharpening , also loops , the stanza ( Gstanzl , Gsetzl) takes about six seconds.

Later, mainly when there are hens, courtship continues on the ground (floor courtship ) . To do this, the rooster wanders from its nearby singing point to a shortage in order to continue courting there. After a period of prowling, the hens only stay during the short time of the main courtship at the courtship area, where they are then kicked by the highest-ranking rooster. During this phase, capercaillies are most sensitive to disturbances; even individual observers can induce the hens to flee, which prevents them from pedaling during the relatively short, fertile time.

During courtship, the testosterone level in the grouse reaches 100 times its normal value. Therefore, capercaillie are extremely aggressive during the breeding season. Some animals even attack people who enter their territory. A stick to ward off beak blows and the immediate leaving of the area, however, end these unpleasant encounters in a way that is mild for both sides.

In autumn there is also the Herbstbalz ; however, only the courtship areas for the coming season are demarcated.

Breeding season

Eggs of Tetrao urogallus urogallus
Museum Wiesbaden collection

About three days after the pace, the hen begins to lay eggs, and within 10 days the clutch is ready with an average of 8, in extreme cases between 5 and 12 eggs. The subsequent brood takes between 26 and 28 days, depending on the weather and altitude.

In the beginning the hens are very sensitive to disturbances, they then leave the breeding place very quickly. Later they usually tolerate disturbances, crouch deep in their nest, usually hidden under branches or treetops.


After hatching , the chicks - like all hens who flee the nest - have to be fidgeted (warmed) by the hen for about 14 days until they are able to maintain their body temperature by themselves. Often they are only able to move away from the warming hen and look for food for minutes. During this time they also mainly need animal protein in the form of insects , v. a. Caterpillars and pupae . At this time, in addition to the lack of disturbance, the weather conditions are of decisive importance: In cold and wet weather, the chicks have to be flocked more often and for longer, while the insects are less active and therefore less accessible.

Around the beginning of September, the barriers dissolve, initially the pullets pass, later also the pullets.

The capercaillie in the cultural landscape

Skeleton of Tetrao urogallus

The main reasons for the observed decline of the capercaillie are, besides the high number of predators , the intensification of forestry and the increasing concern from tourists . The intensification of forestry means, despite climate change , a promotion of the single-layer age-class forest with increasing forest development and road construction, spruce monocultures, very dense forest stands up to the age of heavy wood with a corresponding loss of ground vegetation. There is a corresponding decline in blueberries , which are an important food crop for capercaillies. Intensification also means the use of pesticides and drainage of the forest bogs.

The capercaillie in Germany is subject to the protection of the Federal Hunting Act with a year-round closed season and is therefore subject to a duty of care . As a forestry measure, it is necessary to create and maintain as diverse a forest as possible over large areas that meets the habitat requirements of the capercaillie. In particular, the proportion of old, sparse, weed-rich forest stands must be promoted, and connecting corridors between such areas that are favorable for settlement must be preserved. The disadvantage is an intensive “wiring” of the landscape with forestry fences, as these become invisible flight barriers for the capercaillie, especially when fleeing, where they can seriously injure themselves or even die.

Preservation measures are limited i. d. Usually on forestry and hunting measures. With the designation of game protection areas with regulations for entry and restrictive hunting regulations, an attempt is made to channel recreational traffic during the time that is sensitive to disturbance. In addition to other measures, the predatory game must be hunted vigorously.

The Forestry Experimental and Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg headed a research project until 2019 that investigated the influence of wind turbines on capercaillie.


The total population of Europe was estimated at 760,000 to 1,000,000 breeding pairs in 2004, which corresponds to 2,280,000 - 3,000,000 individuals in Europe and an extrapolated 5 to 10 million individuals in the entire Eurasian range (BirdLife International). 95 percent of the European stock is in European Russia and Fennoscandinavia . In Central Europe, the number of breeding females was estimated to be between 6,300 and 11,300 in 2005.

Wood grouse on courtship, Styria

The total population in Austria was given in 2008 as 25,000 individuals, in 2002 an estimated 10,000 - 11,000 roosters. In Switzerland 450-500 breeding pairs (2008) and 1000 individuals (2010) were estimated to live in five territorial isolated populations, in the Jura, the western and the central Alps northern edge, at the eastern Alps northern border with northern and central Grisons and in the Engadine with the adjacent southern Graubünden valleys. The alpine stocks in Italy (4,000 - 6,000 individuals in the Carnic Alps , the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region , in South Tyrol and Trentino ) and Slovenia (1,200 individuals in the Julian Alps and, to a small extent, in the Dinaric Mountains) are considered stable to decreasing . A residual population (4–8 pairs) is assumed in Liechtenstein, but current population surveys are missing. There have been no capercaillies in the French Alps since 2000.

As early as the beginning of the 19th century, there was a decline in populations and partial extinction of marginal populations throughout Central Europe. The stocks in the Ardennes were already extinct around 1820 and in Lower Saxony around 1850. Around 1900 there were extensive restorations and area expansions in the southern Alps and the lower elevations of the northern and eastern Alpine foothills. Since the late 1940s, stocks in Central Europe have declined dramatically over a wide area. In western Hungary the stocks expired in 1963, in Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia in the 1970s, and in the north of the Jura in the 1990s. In Saxony-Anhalt there were no more finds in recent years. In Poland and Slovakia there are small isolated remnants (50 animals in the Tatra National Park , small populations in the Sub- Carpathian Mountains and in the Lower Silesian Heath ), some of which have little chance of survival in the long term. With EU funds , Swedish Auerhennen were released into the Bory Dolnośląskie (Lower Silesian Heath Nature Reserve) near Ruszów in Upper Lusatia, Poland, and in the Puszcza Augustowska (forest complex in the Natura 2000 protected area Rospuda Valley) near Augustów in Podlachia . In spring 2014, three out of 14 hens were found brooding near Ruszów.

In the marginal distribution areas in Austria away from the main Alpine distribution area, in the Mühlviertel and the Waldviertel , the stocks have almost died out. Marginal populations in the Hausruckviertel , in Carinthia, Lower Austria, Styria and Vorarlberg also threaten to lose contact with the main populations and to isolate themselves. The occurrence in the Bohemian Forest has been considered extinct since the end of the 1990s (Upper Austrian State Hunting Association), but in 2002 there were very isolated records in the border area with the Czech Republic . In Freiwald a single hen was observed. The population in the Czech Republic is estimated at around 150 roosters and lives scattered in partially threatened ( Moravian-Silesian Beskids , Gratzener Bergland , Ore Mountains ) or dying (eastern Giant Mountains , Lower Jeseníky ) and in newly settled ( Jeseníky Mountains , Bohemian Forest ) small populations. The capercaillie is extinct on the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands . Animals are currently being released in the Brdy . There are 250 animals in the Bohemian Forest.

The population in France is estimated at 3,500-6,000 individuals. The majority of this is in the Pyrenees population. The population in the Vosges was estimated at 250-280 roosters in the 1970s. In 2008 50 roosters were counted, which corresponds to a population of 100 animals. The Groupe Tétras Vosges (GTV) has seen a slight increase in its portfolio since 2002. Between 1976 and 2004 the capercaillie was resettled in the Cevennes. In the Cantabrian Mountains in northwestern Spain, 627 individuals were counted in 13 isolated subpopulations from 2000 to 2003. The range has shrunk by 66% in 22 years and is now 300 km away from the neighboring population in the Pyrenees.

In 2005, various sources in Germany cited 570 to 770 breeding pairs. In the national report on the EU Birds Directive 2014, 750 to 1200 roosters were counted, which corresponds to a decrease of 75% in 25 years. 4,800 animals have been released in Germany since 1950, most reintroduction projects have now been discontinued.

From 1976 the state of Lower Saxony raised around 1000 animals in a breeding station in the Harz Mountains. Almost 25 years later, the population was still only estimated at around a dozen birds. The program was discontinued in 2003. Reintroductions into the Hochsauerland were ended in 2014 due to unsuccessfulness.

The Forestry Experimental and Research Institute Baden-Württemberg was able to report a partial success in the northern Black Forest. There the number rose from approx. 110 (1998) to approx. 190 animals (2007). However, as mentioned above, the other subpopulations continued to decline. In the Black Forest as a whole, the number was around 600 in 2007, according to the Forest Research and Research Institute. In 2016, however, only a good 200 roosters were counted. The Grouse Working Group (AGR) developed an "Capercaillie Action Plan", which the state of Baden-Württemberg passed in 2008. The aim is to maintain a stable capercaillie population of around 600 animals in the Black Forest. Within the "Capercaillie Action Plan", concrete measures were planned for the various fields of action of habitat design, hunting, infrastructure, tourism, research and public relations, which serve to protect the bird species in the long term. The basis here is to unite the interests of the various interest groups and not to play them off against each other.

Animals released in the Bavarian Forest had hardly increased any further. In the Bavarian Forest National Park, however, there is a viable population at over 1000 meters, which is estimated to be around 500 individuals. In the Fichtelgebirge Nature Park , 55 animals were counted from 2002–2003 by evaluating genetic fingerprints on feathers and the solution. The small stock seems stable.

Auerhahn am Höhronen , Switzerland.

An acutely threatened small population in the Thuringian Slate Mountains is currently showing cautious recovery tendencies. As early as the 1970s, attempts were made to save the group, which at that time still consisted of around 300 capercaillies, but despite considerable efforts, this failed. Although 20 animals were released into the wild every year, the population has shrunk dramatically since 1990. In 2012 there were probably only about a dozen capercaillies left on an area of ​​36,000 hectares. In the case of Langenschade in the NSG Uhlstädter Heide (counted as part of the Saale-Elster sandstone slab ), the method developed by the Polish biologist Dr. Andrzej Krzywinski developed the “born-to-be-free reintroduction method” in 2007, creating the nationwide only state breeding station for capercaillie and putting it into operation at the end of 2012. It replaces a simple wooden enclosure in which around 300 birds have been raised since 1989. The modern facility, consisting of 10 aviaries (1 quarantine), is intended to help ensure the continued existence of the remainder of the population, whose reproduction and preservation in the natural habitat can no longer be guaranteed without this support. In 2014, the Thuringian Forestry Office in Saalfeld - Rudolstadt , responsible for this , extended the reintroduction measures to the traditional core settlement area in the Neuhaus Forestry Offices (8 Auerhennen and cockerels in the NSG Meuraer Heide) and Gehren (7 animals) in the Thuringian Forest Nature Park . This is accompanied by measures such as the reorganization of approx. 5,000 hectares of forest, the sharp hunt for predators such as fox and raccoon and the restriction of the predator wild boar. In April 2016, three courting roosters of different ages were spotted in the region. In addition, over ten animals were regularly observed in the previous winter, including, for the first time, unrestricted offspring from the wild.

27 capercaillies, excluding hens that were hoped to have been fertilized when caught, which had been caught a few days earlier in the Swedish province of Västerbotten , were released on May 18, 2012 in the Niederlausitzer Heidelandschaft nature park . A year later, a settlement took place in the nearby Rochauer Heide ( Niederlausitzer Landrücke Nature Park ), where a young hen hatched here was detected in July 2014. The basis for this pilot project, which is funded with EU funds, is the Brandenburg species protection program for the capercaillie developed in 2002 . In order to improve the habitats for capercaillies in the southern Brandenburg post-mining landscape , foresters and conservationists had rewetted peatlands in recent years and also promoted forest conversion. Based on spring finds, the size of the population is currently estimated at 30–40 specimens.


The capercaillie is a species in Appendix I of the EU Birds Directive (RL 79/409 / EEC) for which bird protection areas are to be designated.

The name of the town of Teterow in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania is derived from the Slavic word teter , which called either the capercaillie or, more likely, the black grouse.

The capercaillie also appears as a heraldic animal. For example, it appears in the coat of arms of the Freudenstadt district and in the municipal coats of arms of Seewald and Simmersfeld , as well as in the coat of arms of the Central Finland region .

The capercaillie is the symbol of the Hasseröder Brewery Wernigerode, the former Auerhahn Brewery Schlitz and the Rosenheimer Auerbräu brewery .

The black and red animal was popularly associated with the diabolical , for example when the devil calls himself “capercaillie” - as for example in the other part of D. Johann Fausti Historien (1593, cf. “Capercailzie” in Thomas Mann's Doctorate Faustus ) and in Georg Gotthart's Tobias (1619).


  • Hans-Günther Bauer, Einhard Bezzel , Wolfgang Fiedler (eds.): The compendium of birds in Central Europe: Everything about biology, endangerment and protection. Volume 1: Nonpasseriformes - non-sparrow birds , Aula-Verlag Wiebelsheim, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-89104-647-2 .
  • Hans-Heiner Bergmann , Siegfried Klaus, Rudi Suchant: beautiful, shy, worth protecting. Capercaillie. Karlsruhe 2003.
  • Siegfried Klaus: The capercaillie - Tetrao urogallus and T. urogalloides . Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei Volume 86, Westarp Sciences, Hohenwarsleben 2008, ISBN 978-3-89432-345-5 .
  • Wolfgang Schröder, Kurt Zeimentz, Rudolf Feldner: The capercaillie in Bavaria . Series of publications Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection, issue 49. Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 1982, ISBN 3-486-21411-X .
  • Rudolf Suchant, Glockmann (Red.): Capercaillie and Hazel Grouse in a Central European Cultural Landscape. Starting points, perspectives and conflicts in the implementation of protection concepts. Contributions to the international conference in Oberprechtal, Baden-Württemberg, from October 9th to 12th, 1997 . In: Reports Freiburg Forest Research , Volume 2. Published by the Forest Science Faculty of the University of Freiburg and the Forest Research and Research Institute Baden-Württemberg. FVA, Freiburg im Breisgau 1998.
  • Hubert Zeiler: Auerwild. Life. Habitat. Hunt. Jagd- und Fischerei-Verlag, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-85208-025-8 .

Web links

Commons : Capercaillie  album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Bauer u. a., p. 175.
  2. On the bird world of Transylvania-Romania , Peter Weber and Stefan Kohl, International Working Group for Alpine Ornithology (PDF)
  3. Auerhuhn , Association of Zoological Gardens V.
  4. Zoo animal list
  5. Christoph Grüneberg, Hans-Günther Bauer, Heiko Haupt, Ommo Hüppop, Torsten Ryslavy, Peter Südbeck: Red List of Germany's Breeding Birds , 5 version . In: German Council for Bird Protection (Hrsg.): Reports on bird protection . tape 52 , November 30, 2015.
  6. Ilse Storch: Grouse. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 2006-2010. IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2007. 114 pp. ISBN 978-2-8317-1009-9
  7. ^ Jan Lindström (1994): Tetraonid population studies - state of the art. Annales Zoologici Fennici 31 (4): 347-364.
  8. Wolfgang Alexander Bajohr: Forest: The most beautiful courtship. In: Nature in the Fünfseenland. Retrieved June 2, 2008 .
  9. Harald Steiner: The capercaillie. South Tyrolean hunting portal, accessed on June 2, 2008 . Auerhahn courtship song (MP3; 994 kB)
  10. Bauer u. a., p. 176.
  12. Do wind turbines influence the occurrence of capercaillie? Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  13. Capercaillie on the Red List of Endangered Species
  14. Bauer u. a., p. 175.
  15. Hans Meinhart: Auerwild population development in Austria and measures to preserve the species through habitat improvement . (PDF) Vienna 2013, p. 29
  16. ^ Norbert Pühringer: Capercaillie . (PDF) Biology Center Linz, 2002
  17. Capercaillie at the Swiss Ornithological Institute
  18. ^ Capercaillie concept Graubünden . (PDF) Chur, July 2010, pp. 5–6
  19. ^ Liechtensteiner hunters: capercaillie
  20. Forests for the capercaillie , Metz 2011 ( Memento of the original from May 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  21. Report on capercaillie black grouse EU bird protection directive , Vienna, January 31, 2008 (PDF)
  22. Hope for a turnaround: again courting grouse spotted in Thuringia , "Ostthüringer Zeitung" (online edition) from April 15, 2016
  23. Bauer u. a., p. 175.
  24. Capercaillie Protection - Active protection of lowland populations of Capercaillie in the Bory Dolnośląskie Forest and Augustowska Primeval Forest
  25. Hans Meinhart: Auerwild population development in Austria and measures to preserve the species through habitat improvement . (PDF) Vienna 2013, p. 29
  26. ^ Norbert Pühringer: Capercaillie . (PDF) Biology Center Linz, 2002
  27. ^ The capercaillie, distribution in the Czech Republic
  28. Forests for the capercaillie , Metz 2011 ( Memento of the original from May 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  29. Cantabrian capercaillie
  30. ^ Desperate battle for the capercaillie in Thuringia . In: Ostthüringer Zeitung (online edition), August 25, 2014
  31. Die Vogelwelt topic booklet Auerhuhn 1/2013 ( Memento of the original from May 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  32. ^ Desperate battle for the capercaillie in Thuringia , "Ostthüringer Zeitung" (online edition) from August 25, 2014
  33. Unsuccessful reintroduction attempts , "WAZ" (online edition) of October 4, 2014
  34. The Grouse Working Group .; Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  35. Black Forest Capercaillie Action Plan .; Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  36. press release from the Ministry for Rural Areas. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  37. ^ Desperate battle for the capercaillie in Thuringia , "Ostthüringer Zeitung" (online edition) from August 25, 2014
  38. Auerwild management in the Fichtelgebirge ( Memento from May 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Bayerischer Rundfunk, November 28, 2015
  39. Dead people live longer - meeting of capercaillie experts in the Fichtelgebirge ( memento of the original from May 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Bavarian Forest Administration, Forest Information 01/14 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  40. NN: Last attempt to rescue the capercaillie . In: Thüringische Landeszeitung (TLZ) . December 1, 2012.
  41. ^ Capercaillie: Good opportunities in Thuringia, ThüringenForst, Saalfeld 2015
  42. ^ Desperate battle for the capercaillie in Thuringia , "Ostthüringer Zeitung" (online edition) from August 25, 2014
  43. Capercaillies released into the wild in the Gehren Forestry Office ,, September 24, 2014
  44. The capercaillie is to become at home in the Ilm district . In: Thüringer Allgemeine (online edition), March 4, 2016
  45. Langenschade breeding station is supposed to save capercaillie in Thuringia . In: Ostthüringer Zeitung (online edition), November 30, 2012
  46. Hope for a turnaround: again courting capercaillie spotted in Thuringia . In: Ostthüringer Zeitung (online edition), April 15, 2016
  47. First Brandenburg capercaillie detected . In: Lausitzer Rundschau (online edition), July 9, 2014
  48. First capercaillie released in Brandenburg . In: Sächsische Zeitung (online edition), May 18, 2012
  49. The capercaillie in Brandenburg is multiplying again . In: Berliner Zeitung , January 15, 2016
  50. ^ Moritz Busch: Walpurgis Night . In: The Gazebo . Issue 18, 1876, pp. 302 .