Location map of the Jura
|Highest peak||Crêt de la Neige ( 1720 m )|
|location||France , Switzerland|
|Coordinates , ( CH )||47 ° 0 ' N , 6 ° 36' O ( 536 218 / 205 780 )|
|rock||Limestone , marl , clays|
|Age of the rock||200–145 million years|
The Creux du Van in the morning light
The rock mass and Höhenzugsbezeichnung Jura is today mainly for the northwest of the alpine range and the Swiss Central Plateau lying Jura Mountains ( French Massif du Jura ) and the Swiss Jura used.
They form a geological - tectonic unit and are referred to as the Jura in the narrower or proper sense, with which this article deals exclusively. In a broader sense, the Swabian and Franconian Alb also belong to the entire Jura mountain ranges, which extend from the southernmost Jura chains west of Lac du Bourget near Chambéry to the Rhone valley, southwest of Geneva and as far as Coburg in Upper Franconia .
Meaning field Jura ridges
Especially in the 19th century, geology also used and coined the term Jura for the Swabian Alb and the Franconian Alb , or for parts of these mountains , today this is rarely done in German - these terms have not caught on there. The allocation of the Jura ranges ( Klettgaujura , Randen , Baarjura ) lying in the High and Lower Alemannic dialect north of the High Rhine is not clear. Baarjura (“Baaralb”) and Randen are often considered part of the Swabian Alb, which is incorrect in that the south-western border of the Swabian runs near Tuttlingen and Spaichingen and the Randen is largely on Swiss territory. Correct this inclusion is, however, regarding the fact that Baar Jura, Randen and Klettgau Jura also form the Jurassic of the Swabian Alb, a geological and tectonic unit: count all into a single area slightly tilted and unfolded Jurassic strata caused by erosion escarpments were training. However, these areas are continued south of the High Rhine in areas that are included in the Swiss Jura and there - in contrast to the Folded Jura - are called Tafeljura . While the Jura ranges with unfolded layers go back to the bulge of the area between Paris and the Bohemian Forest (see Southwest German stepland ), the Folded Jura is directly related to the formation (folding) of the Alps , it can even be viewed as a small foothill of the Alps, the separates in Savoy to the north from its mountain range.
The difference between the Swiss Jura and the Swabian Alb in the broader sense comes from today's political borders and has no geological basis - the significant contrast that approaches this comparison is that between the Folded Jura and the Tabular Jura. The Tabular Jura is part of the south-west German or French stratiform land , which both together form an anticline stratiform land. The unfolded Jura east of the Upper Rhine Rift ( Basler and Aargau Table Jura, Swabian Alb, etc.) has its necessary counterpart in the unfolded Jura ranges of the French layer level country west of the Upper Rhine Rift. This area also extends as far as the Folded Jura of the French and Swiss Jura. In Switzerland the Ajoie is already in the area of the unfolded Jura (in Switzerland also called Table Jura here). The table Jura of the Aargau, the Randen, the Swabian Alb, etc. has geologically more in common with the Table Jura of Ajoie, Burgundian Porte and northern French layered plains than with the folded Jura of the Swiss and French Jura.
The Jura mountains dealt with here (French and Swiss Jura) consists mainly of the Folded Jura, but smaller areas of the Table Jura (especially in Switzerland) in the northeast (areas on the High Rhine) and in the northwest (Ajoie, Burgundian Gate) are common here, as is otherwise , observed.
The word Jura originally comes from the Celtic . The Celts called the mountains Jor , the Romans Juris , which means something like forest or woodland. Perhaps this was based on the extensive forests on the slopes of the Jura.
The naming of the German Jura landscapes is derived from the Franco-Swiss Jura, but via the geological detour of the rock naming. First of all, Alexander von Humboldt introduced the term Jurassic rock around 1795 for the limestone found in the eponymous French-Swiss Jura. Subsequently, the term Jura was adopted by Alexandre Brongniart (1829) to name the associated geological rock layer. Only later were the Swabian Alb and Franconian Alb referred to as the Jura Mountains because of their geological structure.
Location and topography
|1720 m||Crêt de la Neige||Ain|
|1718 m||Le Reculet||Ain|
|1702 m||Grand Cret||Ain|
|1688 m||Colomby de Gex||Ain|
|1679 m||Mont Tendre||Vaud|
|1677 m||La Dole||Vaud|
|1621 m||Crêt de la Goutte||Ain|
|1614 m||Grand Montrond||Ain|
|1607 m||Le Chasseron||Vaud|
|1597 m||Crêt du Milieu||Ain|
|1596 m||Mont Rond||Ain|
|1588 m||Le Suchet||Vaud|
|1584 m||Crêt du Miroir||Ain|
|1567 m||Le Noirmont||Vaud|
|1560 m||Aiguilles de Baulmes||Vaud|
|1546 m||Crêt du l'Éguillon||Ain|
|1545 m||Cret de Chalam||Ain|
|1543 m||Petit Montrond||Ain|
|1540 m||Grand Colombier||Ain|
|1536 m||Crêt des Frasses||Ain|
|1528 m||La Barillette||Vaud|
|1504 m||Signal you Mont du Chat||Savoie|
|1495 m||Crêt Pela||law|
|1483 m||Dent de Vaulion||Vaud|
|1463 m||Mont d'Or||Doubs|
|1448 m||Crêt au merle||law|
|1439 m||Mont Racine||Neuchâtel|
|1425 m||Chaîne de l'Epine||Savoie|
|1419 m||Le Morond||Doubs|
|1395 m||Weissenstein ( Röti )||Solothurn|
|1382 m||Mont Sujet||Bern|
|1323 m||Le Grand Taureau||Doubs|
The main part of the Jura lies on both sides of the border between France and Switzerland . Can be roughly the Jura in the east and southeast by the Swiss Plateau , to the north by the Upper Rhine and the Upper Rhine Valley, in the north-west by the Belfort Gap , the west by the Rhône-Saône Valley, the south by the Isere and the Chartreuse narrow .
The Jura is a geologically young fold mountain range with a length of about 300 km. It describes a large crescent-shaped arch open to the southeast (Arc Jurassien, Jurassic Arch ) . The southernmost fold of the Jura is the Chaîne du Ratz , which begins near Voreppe in France on the Isère and runs northeast parallel to the pre-Alpine mountains of the Chartreuse. It is significantly lower than the mountains of the Chartreuse, but only separated from them by a narrow valley. The second Jura fold, the Montagne de l'Epine , begins at Les Echelles and branches off from the Alps in a northerly direction near Chambéry ( Savoy ) . The further north you go, the more chains join and form a whole mountain system. To the west of Geneva , the Jura reaches a width of 40 km. Here the chains gradually change direction to the northeast. On the Besançon - Yverdon-les-Bains line , the greatest width of the mountains is around 70 km. At Biel / Bienne , the chains change their direction more and more to the east, the mountain system quickly becomes narrower and the number of chains lying next to one another decreases. The easternmost Jura chain , the Lägern chain , ultimately runs in an exact west-east direction and ends at Dielsdorf in the canton of Zurich , where the mountain-forming layers submerge under the molasses of the Swiss plateau.
If you look at a cross-section through the mountains, the Jura reaches its greatest heights mostly in the south-eastern chain, which borders directly on the Swiss Plateau. From then on the mountains gradually descend towards the northwest. Seen from the Swiss plateau, the Jura appears as a high, barely articulated ridge. The highest point is the Crêt de la Neige ( 1720 m above sea level ), followed by Reculet ( 1718 m above sea level ) and Colomby de Gex ( 1689 m above sea level ), all located in France in the area northwest of Geneva . In the Swiss part of the Jura, the elevations of Mont Tendre ( 1679 m above sea level ), La Dôle ( 1677 m above sea level ), Chasseron ( 1607 m above sea level ) and Chasseral ( 1607 m above sea level ) are special striking. Numerous other ridges have heights between 1000 and 1500 m. Only the easternmost part of the Jura is lower than 1000 m.
With a share of 70% (9903 km²) the Jura is mainly in France. In Switzerland, the Jura makes up about 10 percent (4200 km² ) of the country's area. The cantons of Vaud , Neuchâtel , Jura , Bern , Solothurn , Basel-Landschaft , Aargau and Zurich have a share in the mountain system . The canton of Schaffhausen also has a share of the table Jura north of the High Rhine with the beetroot .
The Jura Mountains are named for the Jura geological age , which lasted from around 200 to 145 million years ago . Already in the previous Triassic period and then during the entire Jurassic period, south of the crystalline base of the Vosges and the Black Forest , both mountains were much older than the Jura and the Alps, a tropical shallow sea, known as the Tethys or Primordial Mediterranean Sea. A lot of water evaporated in the shallow bays on the northern edge of the sea, which from time to time fell dry and created important rock salt deposits (used today at Schweizerhalle and Rheinfelden ) and gypsum deposits (in the Aargau Jura).
In the shallow sea up to 200 m deep, thick layers of sediment were deposited over time. Two thirds of it was limestone, the rest consisted of numerous layers of marl and clay embedded in it. In the Jurassic period there are three stratigraphic units ( series ), the hard, weather-resistant rock layers of which form the landscape:
- Malm : top, youngest layer, deposited 161 to 145 million years ago, also called the white Jura due to the light limestone .
- Dogger : middle layer, deposited 175 to 161 million years ago, also called the brown Jurassic because of the brown iron that occurs in some areas.
- Lias : lowest, oldest layer, deposited 200 to 175 million years ago, also called black Jurassic because of the dark clay minerals it contains .
At the end of the Jurassic period there was a regression of the sea, which gradually retreated to the southwest. Relatively small marine deposits from the subsequent Cretaceous period are therefore only found in the Jura west of Biel.
Each of these rock layers contains numerous fossils , some are only characteristic of certain layers, so-called guide fossils . Many remains of dinosaur skeletons have also been found in the Jurassic. In some places, fossilized dinosaur footprints were even revealed.
Formation of the mountains (Jura fold)
The Swiss Jura folding is closely related to the last phase of the formation of the Alps. Since the most recent existing sediments of the Miocene are also folded, the folding must have taken place in the late Miocene and Pliocene , that is, around 10 to 2 million years ago. As a result of the thrust in connection with the shift of the African continent to the north, which went hand in hand with the formation of the Alps, the geosynclines of the Swiss plateau to the north-west of the molasse deposits , which extend into the French low mountain range and the northern foothills of the Alps , also penetrated the surface again older rock layers of the Jurassic period thrown up and folded. The crystalline basement did not fold. The shear surface , i.e. the sliding layer between the unfolded and the folded rock layers, formed the rock salt and anhydrite layers from the Triassic period . The total value of the collapse varies between 2 and about 35 kilometers (in the cross-section in the area north of Geneva, Mont Tendre , Risoux and adjacent chains).
Due to the type and erosion of the folds, a distinction is made between two main tectonic units, which are also evident in the landscape , the Folded Jura and the Tabular Jura.
The main part of the mountain range is occupied by the Jura folds . This is further subdivided into Chain Jura and Plateau Jura. The Chain Jura consists of elongated, strongly folded ridges with elevations up to over 1600 m above sea level. M., mainly in the southeastern part of the mountains. Adjacent to this in the northwest are the arid plateaus with the Plateau Jura (mostly located in France, in Switzerland mainly the Freiberg Mountains ).
In the far north-east (on the Upper Rhine ) and north-west ( Ajoie ) one can find unfolded tabular Jura , which, from a tectonical point of view, is part of the south-west German or French layered land .
Characteristic of the Jura and unique in Europe is the almost undisturbed sequence of fold apices (anticlines) , which form the hills, and folds (synclines) , which are mostly formed as elongated valleys, especially in the southwestern Jura . The uppermost rock layer of the anticlines consists mainly of hard limestone, while fluvial sediments from erosion material accumulate in the valleys . If the hard top layer of an anticline is broken up by erosion, anticline valleys, so-called Klusen (French: cluses ) can arise, which are often accompanied on both sides by steep rock faces of the remaining limestone ribs. Such breakthrough valleys across the mountains are sometimes followed by large rivers such as the Rhone at Le Lavoux , where the French fortress Fort l'Écluse was built in the 16th century , and the Aare in the Juraquertal between Brugg and Untersiggenthal .
In addition, the top layer on the side of an anticline can be eroded away. As soon as the hard limestone layer has broken through, the erosion in the underlying soft clay and marl progresses much faster. This creates impressive evacuation kettles ; well-known examples are the Creux du Van in the Neuchâtel Jura and the Cirque de Baume in the French Jura. In places where two chains diverge significantly, there are larger pools, for example the Val de Ruz , the Delsberg Basin and the Laufen Basin.
The Jura has a much less dense and less branched water network than other low mountain ranges. This can be explained by the fact that the rainwater does not run off above ground everywhere, but seeps away directly into the porous limestone subsoil. There are many arid valleys in the Jura that were formed in earlier climatic periods with high levels of precipitation, but today never or only after very heavy precipitation events carry water.
The river system of the Jura Mountains is antecedent. This means that the larger rivers already existed before the mountains unfolded. When the folding began, the rivers maintained their direction and, with their hydropower, eroded the rock layers just as quickly as their unfolding progressed. Therefore, numerous narrow, deep gorges (the Klusen) formed in the Jura, which break through the folded mountain ridges, another characteristic landscape form of the mountains. Most of the rock layers of a fold are exposed on the rock walls of these gorges. Well-known Klusen are those of the Birs south and north of Moutier , the Gorges du Pichoux of the Sorne , the Klus of Balsthal , the Klusen of the Schüss north of Biel (including Taubenlochschlucht) and the Défilé de l'Ecluse of the Rhône southwest of Geneva.
The longest river in the Jura is the Doubs , which has dug itself into the Plateau Jura like a canyon. Other important rivers are the Ain , the Loue , the Orbe , the Areuse , the Schüss and the Birs. Natural lakes lie almost exclusively in high valleys in the southwestern part of the Jura, including the Lac de Joux together with the Lac Brenet , the Lac des Taillères , the Lac de Saint-Point and the Lac de Chalain . There are several reservoirs along the Doubs and Ain rivers.
In rivers as well as in lakes (e.g. Lac de Joux), water seeps into the limestone subsoil in some places and only comes back to daylight miles away at a deeper location in springs with heavy pouring. These sources are mostly located at the foot of a high, vertical rock face (Vauclusetyp) , for example Source de la Loue and Source du Lison south of Besançon, but also Source de l'Orbe and Source de l'Areuse .
Climate and vegetation
The climate on the Jura Heights is sometimes harsh, humid and cold. The main amount of precipitation falls in the summer months in the form of thunderstorms, but regionally distributed very differently. These are some of the stormy Joran - wind accompanied. But even in winter there are often prolonged precipitation events. The completely closed high valleys at over 1000 m above sea level. M. in the Swiss cantons of Neuchâtel, Vaud and the neighboring French departments of Doubs and Jura are known for very low temperatures in winter, because cold air can accumulate here during radiation nights (formation of so-called cold air lakes ). On January 12, 1987, at −41.8 ° C at the MeteoSwiss measuring station in La Brévine, the lowest officially recorded temperatures in Switzerland and on January 13, 1968 at −36.7 ° C at the MétéoFrance station in Mouthe recorded the lowest temperatures for France in the Jura. An unofficial measurement of −41 ° C from January 31, 1888 is known from the Vallée de Joux , in January 1985 a temperature of −46 ° C was registered by the Changins Research Station (now Agroscope ) in the Combe des Amburnex .
The Jura has large areas of forest. Typical tree species and the most widespread are conifers such as spruce , pine and fir ; but there are also extensive beech and oak forests. This forest landscape is interspersed with open pastures, on which huge individual spruce trees are widely scattered. In spring, many of these pastures are covered with daffodils , especially between Grande Sagneule (Neuchâtel Jura in the northeast of the Col de La Tourne) and Sauge (above Biel). The tree line is climatic conditions at about 1400 to 1500 m above sea level. M., in the French Jura at 1600 m above sea level. Above there are extensive, relatively barren mountain pastures. In the extreme southwest of the Jura and in the area of the Ain river, one can already notice the influence of the Mediterranean climate on the vegetation. From a vegetation-historical point of view, what is remarkable is the late advance of the spruce from the western Jura towards the east. In contrast, only heavier clearing since the 18th century gave the silver fir and beech trees that need more light a livelihood in the Eastern Jura. Instead, the formerly widespread oak forests have largely disappeared due to the forestry needs of industrialization .
In the basins and valleys there is arable farming and intensive pasture farming. The steep slopes of the southern foot of the Jura, together with the balancing effect of the Jura lakes on the local climate, are ideal for viticulture.
The Jura is densely populated, especially on its edges. There are numerous cities at the southern foot of the Jura : Geneva , Yverdon-les-Bains , Neuchâtel , Biel , Solothurn , Olten and Aarau . Basel , Montbéliard and Besançon are located at the northern foot of the Jura and Lons-le-Saunier and Bourg-en-Bresse are on the western edge of the mountains .
Within the Jura, only the deeper valleys have a relatively high population density, the high valleys and plateaus in the French Jura are extremely sparsely populated, not least because of the harsh climate and remoteness.
There are numerous cities in the mountain valleys . The largest city in the Jura is La Chaux-de-Fonds , which is located with Le Locle in a high valley of the Neuchâtel Jura. Other cities and towns in the Jura with more than 10,000 inhabitants are Le Locle, Liestal , Delémont , Pontarlier , Champagnole , Saint-Claude , Oyonnax and Bellegarde-sur-Valserine .
Most of the inhabitants of the Jura are now French-speaking. German is only spoken in the eastern part. In Switzerland, the language border runs from Lake Biel first to the northeast, then to the northwest to the border with Alsace . The French-speaking area with the basins of Moutier and Delémont is pushed into the German-speaking area in a wedge shape. This section of the Germanic-Romance language border has changed little since the Middle Ages. The German-speaking border towns in Switzerland are from south to north: Schafis , Ligerz , Twann , Tüscherz-Alfermée , Vingelz (municipality of Biel / Bienne ), Magglingen , Evilard (the last two municipalities are bilingual like Biel / Bienne), Bözingen , Pieterlen , lengnau , Grenchen , Bettlach , Selzach , Lommiswil , Gänsbrunnen , Welschenrohr , Seehof , Envelier , rebuke , Beinwil , Erschwil , Grindelwald , Bärschwil , Ried-Dessus (Oberrieder forest, community Soyhières ), low Riederwald , Liesberg , Kleinlützel , Roggenburg , Ederswiler , Löwenburg and - historically speaking - also the former monastery town of Lützel , which was shared with France . Modern mostly German-speaking exclaves are u. a. Mont-Tramelan and Rebévelier .
Agriculture has dominated the Jura since the Middle Ages . The monasteries that arose since the early Middle Ages played a significant role in the development of the cultural landscape. There was also craft, trade, hospitality and, to a lesser extent, fishing. The first intervention in the existing economic structures occurred in the 18th century with the emergence of lace making. As a result, many farmers and their relatives received a welcome income from working at home . Absinthe production also had a certain economic importance in individual areas of the Jura (Val de Travers) .
Later in the 18th century industrialization began in the valleys , first with the textile industry , then with the watch industry . The watch industry experienced a strong boom in the 19th century. It was mainly located in the Neuchâtel and Bernese Jura . The watchmaking centers (Biel, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Le Locle, Saint-Imier, Sainte-Croix) had their heyday in the first half of the 20th century. During the massive collapse of the watch industry from 1975 to 1985, the number of employees in this sector fell by around half. The consequence of this was a severe loss of population, and some places saw their population decline by 30 percent.
Instead of the watch industry, the metal and machine industries have recently established themselves. Companies specializing in mechanics, microtechnology and electronics are also of great importance . Employees in the first sector are mainly involved in dairy farming and animal husbandry or are involved in forestry. However, migration from rural, remote areas is still a problem in large parts of the Jura today.
Quarries for the extraction of building and decorative stones were created in many places in the Jura Mountains . Some of them go back to Gallo-Roman activities, as the protected area monument La Raisse at Concise shows. Many surviving evidence of this type are kept in the Roman Museum (Musée Romain) of Avenches . Other significant mining sites can be found near Neuchâtel and in the Vue des Alpes area . These Jura limestones have a striking impact on the architecture , sculpture and secular buildings of the region and some have even been used beyond that. For example, the limestones Jaune Lamartine and Brocatelle de Chassal from the historically significant Marbrerie of Nicolas Gauthier von Molinges in the French part of the Jura Mountains are widely used as "marble" for decorative purposes .
Larger traffic axes in the Jura mainly run through the long valleys and the gorges. The mountains are crossed by five motorways, with many engineering structures (tunnels and bridges) having to be built. In Switzerland, the A3 motorway connects Basel with Zurich through the Bözberg tunnel, the A2 runs from Basel through the Belchen tunnel in the direction of Bern / Lucerne . In France, the A40 connects Lyon and Geneva , and the A41 connects Lyon and Chambéry . The Transjurane ( A16 ) runs through the Bernese Jura and the canton of Jura between Biel and Boncourt, although it is only partially subject to the motorway standard. Other roads of national importance run between these main axes, which cross the Jura with a pass ( Col de la Faucille , Col de la Givrine , Col de Jougne , Vue des Alpes (also with road tunnel), Unterer Hauenstein ).
The railway network in the Swiss Jura is relatively dense as a result of industrialization in the valleys. Significant jurassic crossing railway lines go from Basel to Zurich ( Bözberg ) Olten ( Hauenstein line ) and Biel ( Jura Bahn ) from Neuchâtel via Pontarlier and Frasne to Dijon from Lausanne via Vallorbe by Frasne and from Geneva via Bellegarde to Lyon.
Several Roman roads crossed the Jura, of which some traces and other remains can still be seen, such as the Latin inscription on the tunnel of the Pierre Pertuis north of Biel.
On the roads through the Jura, which were important in the Middle Ages, mighty castles were built at strategically interesting places (mostly in the area of the Klusen) to control the pass crossing or the Klusen passage. There are a particularly large number of castle ruins in the Birstal and on the Upper and Lower Hauenstein . In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Château de Joux achieved great strategic importance south of Pontarlier. The fortress Fort d'Ecluse is on the road from Bellegarde to Geneva near the Rhoneklus .
The Jura offers numerous opportunities for hiking and winter sports. The Jurahöhenweg is a hiking trail that runs along the entire Swiss part of the Jura Arc, largely on the tops of the highest (south-eastern) chains. The Grande Traversée du Jura is a long-distance hiking trail in the French part of the Jura, but it also has cross-border sections. In winter there are trails for cross-country skiing and snowshoeing routes, some of which are based on long-distance hiking trails. The Jura is one of the largest contiguous cross-country skiing areas in Switzerland. There are also numerous local and regional hiking trails and trails . There are also some small and medium-sized winter sports resorts for alpine skiing. Due to its altitude, the high plateau is an area with guaranteed snow for cross-country skiing and snowshoeing. Some mountain farms (French: Métairies ) offer food and some are also managed in winter.
The Jura is also an “insider tip” for cycling, as the plateaus are flat. You can reach the heights by bike either by train or through one of the slowly rising valleys. The Jura Route cycle path crosses the Jura for 277 km between Basel and Nyon on Lake Geneva. The numerous vertical rock faces are popular with climbers.
On days with clear weather, the highest Jura chain offers a panorama over the midland, 30 to 70 km wide, depending on the location, across the entire Alpine chain. For landscape lovers there are numerous natural attractions such as caves, springs, basins and gorges: Grottes de l'Orbe, Grottes de Réclère, Source de la Loue, Source Bleue, Creux du Van , Cirque de Baume etc. The one in the canton of Jura is particularly picturesque part of the Jura, the Freiberge (Fr .: Freiberge is called). This part of the Jura is characterized by wide pastures and large, free-standing spruce trees and is known for its horses.
The Jura is also a popular excursion area for motorcyclists due to the rather low-traffic, spacious and often beautifully curved roads.
To promote tourism, the reintroduction of the bison in the Thal Nature Park is under discussion. There is one of the largest contiguous forest areas in Switzerland, namely the northern slope of the Weissenstein chain.
- Philipp Bachmann: Jura hiking: from the moated castle near Brugg to the Rhoneklus near Geneva. Rotpunktverlag, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-85869-219-0 .
- Arnold Fuchs; Edmund van Hoorick: The Jura. Silva-Verlag, Zurich 1986.
- Hans Ikenberg: French Jura: the country on the Doubs. Oase Verlag, Badenweiler 1999, ISBN 3-88922-069-X .
- Karl Karsch: The Swiss Jura and its fossils. Kosmos, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-440-05003-3 .
- Max Mittler: Jura: the mountains and their inhabitants. Orell Füssli, Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-280-01626-6 .
- Jacques Siegfried: The Swiss Jura. Its rocks, its mountain ranges, valleys and waters, climate and vegetation . In: Switzerland: described geologically, geographically and physically . Orell-Füssli, 1851 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Margit Wagner: Jura: between the Rhine and the Rhone. Prestel, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-7913-0832-7 .
- André Bandelier, François Schifferdecker, Jean-Paul Prongué: Jura (region). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . 19th September 2019 .
- Aargau Jura on the ETHorama platform
- Regions and cc3.0 photos Jura
- ↑ See also Martin Burkhard: Structural geology and tectonics in the AlpTransit area , pdf version
- ↑ Introduction to Earth and Landscape History, Georg Wagner, Verlag der Hohenlohe'schen Buchhandlung F. Rau, Öhringen, 1950.
- ↑ http://www.observatoire-des-territoires.gouv.fr/observatoire-des-territoires/fr/portrait-et-massifs#tabs-3
- ↑ Arnfried Becker: The Folded Jura. Geological framework, construction and development since the Miocene. In: Annual reports and communications from the Upper Rhine Geological Association . Volume 82, 2000, pp. 317-336, doi: 10.1127 / jmogv / 82/2000/317 ; H. Laubscher: A new concept for the behavior of the Eocene table jura trenches in the late Miocene Jura folding: The Therwil-Witterswil-Dittingen trench (near Basel / Switzerland) as a pattern of trench folding. In: Natural Research Society in Basel . Volume 8, 2004, pp. 167-180.
- ↑ Records Switzerland. (No longer available online.) Federal Office for Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, January 20, 2016, archived from the original on December 20, 2016 ; accessed on August 23, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Mouthe, village le plus froid de France: explications. MétéoFrance, February 23, 2015, accessed August 23, 2017 .
- ^ L. Gauthier: Note sur des températures excessives observées en janvier et février 1888, à la Vallée du lac de Joux . In: Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles (ed.): Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles . tape 23 , no. 188 , 1888, doi : 10.5169 / seals-261401 .
- ↑ B. Bloesch, F. Calame: L'air du temps . In: G. Capt, O. Jean-Petit-Matile, J. Reymond (eds.): Le Parc jurassien vaudois . éd. 24 Heures, Lausanne 1995, p. 23-33 .
- ↑ Combe des Amburnex. Kaltluftseen.ch, accessed on August 23, 2017 .
- ↑ See the section History under Herbetswil
- ^ Jura route. In: Veloland. www.schweizmobil.ch, accessed on October 4, 2017 .
- ↑ Alois Winiger: Bison in the Thal Nature Park? - «that would be the great opportunity». In: Solothurner Zeitung , May 30, 2015.