|Lützel Cistercian Abbey (Lucelle)|
Model of the monastery church and some other monastery buildings
|Lies in the diocese||Diocese of Basel (historical)|
according to Janauschek
|Patronage||Virgin Mary (1134)|
|founding year||probably 1123 or 1124|
|Year of dissolution /
|Mother monastery||Bellevaux Abbey|
|Primary Abbey||Morimond Abbey|
|Congregation||Upper German Cistercian Congregation|
See chapter Filiations
The Monastery of Lützel (French Abbaye de Lucelle ) was an abbey of Cistercian . It was donated in 1123 or 1124 and abolished in 1792. The former monastery site is now in France , in the municipality of Lucelle in the extreme south of Alsace , right on the border with Switzerland ; a smaller part of the site with outbuildings belonged to the duchy of Basel until 1757 . The abbey is located in the north of the Jura Mountains , in the Lützel valley , on the watershed between the Rhine and the Rhône. It should not be confused with the nearby monastery of the Cistercians in Kleinlützel (Klösterli) .
The name goes back to the Old High German adjective luz (z) il - "small", Middle High German lützel (cf. Niederdt. Lütt and English little ).
The name of the monastery comes from the name of the comparatively small river on which Lützel was donated. The following name versions are mentioned with regard to the abbey: Lucela (1136), Lucelan (1194), Lucelach (1236), Lutzela (1258), Lùtzel (1316), Lucellain (1670), Lucelant (17th century), Luciscella ( 17th century, invented freely, means «cell of light»). To distinguish it from the nearby Kleinlützel, the expression Grosslützel can be found in some sources .
Today the boundaries of the following communities border the former monastery territory:
- in Switzerland: La Baroche (old communities Charmoille JU and Pleujouse ), Bourrignon , Pleigne , Movelier (Pleigne and Movelier formed a community at the time of the monastery), Ederswiler and Roggenburg BL
- in France: Kiffis , Ligsdorf , Winkel and Oberlarg .
Lützel is located in the Jura , a mountainous sequence of hollows ( synclines ) and saddles or chains ( anticlines ). Lützel lies on the valley floor of a weakly eroded Synklinale valley at an altitude of around 600 meters. The Lützel syncline flows through the Lützel . Just north of this syncline runs the anticline of Glaserbergstrasse chain, the north of Lützeltals lying Glaserbergstrasse itself reaches up to 816 m. The next main anticline in the south is the Les Rangiers chain (up to 995 m) a little further away and delimits the syncline of the Delémont basin .
From the west, the younger valleys of the Ajoie , the Rhône system, come very close to Lützel and the older Lützeltal. Directly at Lützel, before Scholis, on the road to Charmoille and Winkel, there is the pass height about 50 meters higher (648 m), over which the watershed between the Rhine and Rhône runs, about 2.5 kilometers further north is the pass to Winkel (707 m), over which the watershed to the Ill runs. The sources of Ill and Larg lie directly north of the Glaserberg , the sources of the Lützel lie to the south, around Bourrignon.
The abbey grounds are located in a small valley widening that stretches between a gorge in the south and the again narrowing valley in the east. Here the Lützel swings from north to east. On all sides there are slopes that at the time of the founding of the monastery were forested far up to the north and south-east plateaus.
In the Lützel region, you can therefore distinguish four landscapes from one another:
- the Lützeltal between Bourrignon via Lützel to Laufen
- in the south and south-east the mountainous region between Lützeltal and Les-Rangiers -kette, with neighboring communities such as Bourrignon, Pleigne and Ederswiler
- in the north and northwest the Glaserberg chain with its surrounding area, with neighboring communities such as Winkel, Oberlarg and Kiffis
- in the west the eastern Ajoie with the old communities Charmoille and Pleujouse
The air Lützels is very rough. It is characterized by high precipitation, an above-average number of snow days, frequent thunderstorms and autumn frosts. The surrounding plains are dry ( limestone ) and windy.
Main article: History of the Lützel Monastery , there also the evidence for the information listed here
In the 12th century, the Counts of Montfaucon (Falkenberg) , who came from the Free County of Burgundy, received land in the area of what would later become Lützel and took it as a fiefdom from the Diocese of Basel . In 1124 the Count Brothers Hugues, Amadée and Richard von Montfaucon founded the Lützel Monastery. Richard von Montfaucon had already contributed to the establishment of the Cistercian monastery Bellevaux in Franche-Comté through foundations in 1119. From there came the first abbot and the first monks, so that Lützel became the first daughter monastery of Bellevaux, which in turn descended from Morimond , one of the four primary abbeys of the order. At the time it was founded, Lützel was under the influence of the County of Pfirt , where it enjoyed relative independence.
Lützel founded seven other Cistercian monasteries. The filiations all took place in the 12th century and are mostly in West Upper Germany. The first six filiations took place within a short time between 1128 and 1138, the seventh and last 1195 (see chapter Filiations ).
Both in the 12th and the following centuries, numerous rights and possessions ( rulership rights , goods, rights of use , parishes , nunneries) were expanded and secured both in the immediate surrounding territory and in other places (see chapter Rights and possessions ). This process was accompanied by conflicts with competing communities and aristocrats. The property was in granges organized and among other priories administered from. In the vicinity of Lützel, the establishment of a separate territory took place in which several farms were founded ( Scholis, Oberlümschwiler, Courtine de Lucelle / Pleenhof, etc.).
Between 1270 and 1278 the Ajoie (Vogtei Porrentruy ) and the until then Pfirtische Sornegau (rule Delémont ) fell to the duchy of Basel, perhaps in 1271 the Lützel was established as the border river between the duchy of Basel (rule Delémont) in the south and the county of Pfirt in the North. This meant that not only the surrounding monastery territory, but even the fortified monastery district itself was divided into two parts. The main monastery buildings, however, were closed in the peach table. In 1324 Pfirt fell to Habsburg and Lützel became a rural monastery in front of Austria .
In 1526, the monastery acquired the neighboring territory of Löwenburg and thus doubled its immediate territory. In the dispute with the prince-bishopric about sovereign rights in the Löwenburg territory, the bishop was able to prevail. The beginning of early industrialization brought iron smelting and charcoal burning to the small monastery territory.
In 1624 Lützel joined the Upper German Cistercian Congregation , which was co-founded . As a result of the Thirty Years' War , Lützel was abandoned from 1632 to 1657. In contrast to the abbey grounds, Löwenburg was part of the federal auxiliary circle (the prince-bishopric was a place of the confederation) and was therefore an important refuge.
In 1648 the Habsburg territories of Alsace fell to France, making Lützel a royal French abbey. In 1681 it was determined that the Lützel should also be the border between the prince-bishopric and France in the Löwenburg sub-territory. After the major fire of 1699, a new abbey was built between 1703 and 1730 and the Gothic abbey church that had stood still was given a baroque style.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, clearing was carried out again and several new farms and mills were founded: the Baderschwiler mill (Bavelier) , the Hinterschloss farm (Derrie-le-Tchété) , the St. Peter mill (Moulin Neuf, Neumühle) , the Breitkopf farm (Gross-Kohlberg) and the three farms that have now disappeared, Scharzhof , Neuneich and Junker-Hanskopf (Graben) . In addition, new factories followed, namely glassworks , ironworks, a foundry , a brickworks and a tannery .
After the rapprochement between the prince-bishopric and France, the border between the two states was moved in 1757 in the area of the fortified monastery district from the Lützel River to the monastery walls. The monastery district was now entirely in France.
After the beginning of the French Revolution , the properties of Lützel Abbey were confiscated in 1789 and declared national property and sold in 1791. The monastery community and monastery life continued, but severely impaired. In autumn 1792 the monastery was closed and on October 2, 1792 the abbot and the last monks were expelled from Lützel.
The auction of movable objects began that same month . In 1801 the monastery buildings were sold. The church and other buildings were demolished and factories were built on site from their stones. The French northern part of the monastery territory became the territory of the new municipality of Lucelle , the southern part, which came to Switzerland in 1815, was divided into the municipalities of Pleigne , Bourrignon and Charmoille JU .
The municipality of Lucelle was an important supplier of iron for French arms production until around 1860 . In 1883 the last remaining production facilities were closed and later demolished. Timber trade and accommodation began to dominate. In 1896 a hotel was built on the Swiss side . The remaining monastery buildings fell apart.
In 1936 nuns from St. Katharina in Basel settled in the hotel on the Swiss side , who used the building as a school and in 1955 converted it into a family pension. On the French side, the Mülhauser society “Jeunesse et Famille” began restoration work in 1960, which also included archaeological measures. In 1961 she opened a family home and a holiday center (today “Center Europeen de Rencontres Lucelle”, or “CERL” for short).
The founding ( filiation ) of seven Cistercian monasteries came from Lützel . They all took place in the 12th century , the first six filiations took place between 1128 and 1138, the seventh and last in 1194 (St. Urban). With two exceptions, all of the branches are located in Upper West Germany (Alemannic-Swabian). These two exceptions are in the nearby French-speaking area: Pairis is located in a traditionally Romanesque area of Alsace in the Vosges, Lieu-Croissant is in Franche-Comté. Today there are two subsidiary abbeys in Alsace and Switzerland, one in Bavaria, one in Franche-Comté and one in Baden.
|Establishment date||Daughter monastery||location||Remarks|
|1133||Kaisheim Monastery||Bavarian Swabia|
|1134/1137 or 1138||Salem Monastery||Baden-Württemberg|
|1138||Pairis Monastery||Alsace||Was taken over by Lützel at the beginning of the 17th century.|
|1194||St. Urban Monastery||Switzerland|
Monks and abbots
The first monks came from Franche-Comté or Burgundy, later more and more from the surrounding area. Until the middle of the 14th century the monks were nobles, from 1387 onwards all abbots with one exception were non-nobles. The monks and abbots came from the Sundgau and other Upper Alsatian regions, from the prince-bishopric, from the Delle region and also further away. Even after 1648 the monks came from both sides of the border, so they were both "subjects" of the French king and those of the bishop in Porrentruy. Most of the novices came from the prince-bishopric, but the ban on accepting foreigners in 1774 meant that 30 of the 47 monks came from Alsace in 1789.
A third of the monks did not live in the monastery, but in Lützel priories or parishes. Lützel had the maximum number of monks around 1200 with around 200. Later it fell to below 30, at the time of the dissolution Lützel still had 50 monks.
Rights and possessions
In addition, compare the history of the Lützel monastery # List of rights and possessions
The Lützel possessions and rights consisted primarily of various lordly rights (and alliances with cities derived from them), land holdings, priories, Cistercian abbeys, parishes and town courts.
Lützel came to his possessions mainly through numerous donations , later barter and purchase transactions also played a role. In the closed territory that had developed around the abbey, the monastery had extensive, but from 1271/1324 probably no sovereign rights. In 1526 the Löwenburg territory became part of this small monastery area. Among other things, Lützel held the right of asylum. Under Abbot Christian (12th century), the abbey was exempted from the tithe it had to deliver to the same for its goods in the diocese of Basel.
Outside this immediate territory, Lützel had acquired numerous other rights and goods, above all free float in more than 150 locations. These additional possessions and rights were grouped into 17 domains or grangia around 1200 . Lützel was the wealthiest abbey in Alsace after the Murbach monastery . In the 18th century the abbot bore the title of Lord of Lutterbach , Rheintal (near Müllheim ) and Löwenburg; in these dominions the abbey had middle and lower jurisdiction . Castle legal connections existed among others with the cities of Basel and Mulhouse .
Priories were outposts of the monastery, the prior of the priory was a monk of the Lützel convent. Some of the priories were nunnery monasteries that were taken over (cf. chapter assigned Cistercian abbeys ).
Associated Cistercian abbeys
Several Cistercian abbeys were subordinated to Lützel. Some authors also regard them as daughter abbeys. However, it was not a matter of foundations (filiations) originating from the Lützel men's monastery.
The following Cistercian abbeys were subordinate to Lützel: Besear (unclear), Battans (unclear), Engental (near Muttenz , since 1460), Marienau (near Breisach ), Michelfelden , Olsberg (since around 1235), Rathausen (near Lucerne , since 1260/1261, Rights 1266 assigned to St. Urban), Steinen (Switzerland, since 1266) and Wurmsbach (since 1260/1261, rights 1266 assigned to St. Urban).
The General Chapter of the Cistercians of Lützel Abbey had transferred the "paternity rights" to Olsberg, Rathausen, Wurmsbach, Steinen and Engental.
Lützel had different rights in the parishes that were dependent on the abbey . The right to collature authorized Lützel to propose a pastor. In the incorporated parishes, the parish was part of the convent, the pastor was then a monk Lützel. Around 15 to 30 parishes, both in Alsace and in present-day Switzerland, were linked to Lützel in one form or another.
Lützel was present in several places with so-called city courtyards. These places are Altkirch , Basel , Cernay (Sennheim, the buildings of the courtyard still exist and can be found on the road to Uffholtz), Ferrette (Pfirt), Herrlisheim (not a town, near Colmar), Mulhouse (the courtyard was on Rue de Lucelle , house number 1), Porrentruy and Rouffach .
Monastery buildings and facilities until the abolition in 1792
The monastery buildings were repeatedly plundered and destroyed by war or fire: in 1375 by the Guglers , in 1499 by the Confederates, in 1524 or 1525 in the Peasants' War, in 1638 in the Thirty Years War and in 1699 by fire. After the great fire of 1699, a new abbey was built between 1703 and 1730.
The most important buildings and facilities of the Lützel monastery complex were:
- Monastery Church : The first building of the abbey church was in Romanesque style and was damaged by an earthquake in 1340. Thenew Gothic building was consecrated in 1346. At the beginning of the 18th century it wasdecorated in baroque style. Three-aisled system, tower between ship and transsept .
- Convent building ("monastery"): Built as a continuation of the western front of the monastery church, adjoined the abbot building. The main front was directed south. From the 64 monastery cells connected by a corridor one could see the Lützel and the forest slopes opposite. The refectory , kitchens , chapter house and recreation room were on the ground floor , the hospital room, dressing room and library on the first floor. There were extensive wine cellars under the convent building .
- Abbey building: The three-storey building was attached to the church portal and comprised the abbot's apartment (three rooms), office and other administrative rooms, rooms and dining room for guests as well as cellar vaults.
- Cellar (also known as “large cellar”): the monks' residence before the convent was built. Then the place of residence for the master chef, the master cellar, women and guests. In the 19th century the foundry's director's house.
- Guest house
- Servant house: two areas for maids and servants separated by a kitchen , two refectories. Workplace of the pharmacist and the Wagner and Cooper .
- Complex with outbuildings and courtyard: included barns , stables for the famous horse breeding , garages , forge, pigeon , chicken coop , Müller , bakery , butcher shop , tannery and laundry .
- Lützelsee: supplied the farms in the farm buildings and served fish farming .
- Fountain : in front of the convent building
- Flower garden : between the convent building and Lützel. In 1715 a mound was removed for the garden. Also gave birth to fig and orange trees . There was an avenue to the south and a wide terrace with an orchard to the north.
- Orangery : built in 1725 on one side of the flower garden. Place of residence of the gardener and his assistants.
- Monastery wall : surrounded the monastery district
- Pruntruter Gate : There was a smaller pedestrian door next to the main gate. The gate building included apartments for the shoemaker and porter , the latter giving alms at the gate .
- Delsberger Tor: Two paths lead from here, one as an avenue along the Lützelsee to the brick factory, the other to the Pleenhof. The Benedict Cave is nearby.
- Klosterwirtschaft: The inn was at the Pruntruter Tor, outside the monastery wall.
- Chapel: On Pruntruter Weg, consecrated in 1325, at the Bernardus spring.
- Workers' cemetery : The cemetery was above the chapel, on Pruntruter Weg.
- Courtyards: (Gross-) Scholis, Plennhof, Glashütte, Pfaffenloch, Kohlberg, Richterstuhl, Meierlis, Steinboden
- Brick factory : The brick factory was founded in 1690 and was located near Lake Lützel.
- Hermitage brick mat
At the end of October 1792 the auction of furniture, workshops and agricultural implements began. Anything that government agents failed to capture was taken away or destroyed. Pictures were burned in the monastery courtyard. In 1796 a former Lützel monk, Joseph Bruat, bought the abbey building.
After the liquidation of all goods, between around 1792 and 1796, the French part of the former monastery area became the municipality of a new political municipality, the municipality of Lucelle , which still exists today . The monastery cemetery became the burial place of the community residents, although they belonged to the parish of Winkel. The prince-bishop's part was added to the districts of the parishes of Pleigne, Charmoille and Bourrignon. A little corner to the west, around Mont Lucelle , came to Charmoille. Another small part came to Bourrignon ( Le Moulin and Combe Juré / Combe Girard ). The majority fell to Pleigne, the number of Pleigner foreign settlements increased at that time from 2 (Hof and Mühle von Forme ) to 12. The distribution of what is now the Swiss part of the Lützel territory was perhaps only after the transition to the canton of Bern (1815).
The Löwenburg territory broke up into its court estates in 1792. In 1815 the Löwenburg territories north of the Lützel fell to France, and Löwenburg was reduced to today's Hofgut. The community of Löwenburg, which had existed since the middle of the 18th century, continued until the middle of the 20th century, although no citizens lived there at that time. In terms of school, Löwenburg belonged to Ederswiler.
In 1801 the monastery buildings were sold to three blacksmiths. The church (1804?) And other buildings were demolished, and an ironworks and foundry were built from their stones. The convent building (craftsmen and workers have lived in it since 1793), the cellar with ancillary building, a building complex consisting of the main building and two wing buildings (in which stables, haystack, mill, bakery, butcher's shop, tannery, workers 'and servants' apartments were housed) were not removed. and the guest house with its outbuildings. The orangery and gardens also remained intact. In 1824 the monastery buildings, the newly built factories and the ironworks of St-Pierre were sold to the Paravicini.
The municipality of Lucelle now became an important supplier of iron for French arms production. Its heavy industrial population was reflected in the number of inhabitants: around 1820 280 inhabitants, around 1835 320 inhabitants; three quarters of the population were artisans and workers. Around 1850 there was a blast furnace each in Lucelle and St-Pierre, the ores for it came from both sides of the border.
After about 1860 there was a decline in industry, in 1883 the last remaining facilities were closed and later dismantled. The facilities of the L. Paravicini iron works (1817-1870), the " iron king of Lucelle", had to be sold in 1883 by Emanuel Leonhard Paravicini, the father of Mathilde Paravicini , to the company of Roll'schen iron works due to financial difficulties . The famous cast models of the frame tiled stoves "Lucelle" were then transferred to their iron foundry Klus in Balsthal , which expanded its furnace casting department and sold the popular plait frames under its own name throughout Switzerland.
The monastery and factory buildings were sold to the Schwartz family. In 1865 there were 286, in 1905 only 120 inhabitants. Timber trade and accommodation began to dominate. In 1896 a hotel was built on the Swiss side. The remaining monastery buildings fell apart. A planned railway project by Lützel (Laufen-Porrentruy) was not implemented. In 1954 the Abbot Delfis' pavilion was destroyed by fire.
To what extent certain languages dominated the homesteads of the Lützel and Löwenburg territories during the monastery period is open. In the 18th century, Anabaptists from the Emmental took over many individual farms in the Lützeltal, including farms of the abbey on both sides of the Lützel; some of them are still there today. Language changes can occur on farms in the region, which usually occur 2 to 3 generations after a farm has been taken over.
After Bienz / Galluser, the language border ran through the Swiss part of the former Lützel territory as follows in the middle of the 20th century: the Löwenburg, Moulin Neuf (Neumühle) and Derrie-le-Tchété (back castle) as part of the closed German-speaking area and the homestead Selle au Roi (judge's chair) as a German-speaking exclave.
In 1936, nuns from St. Katharina in Basel had settled in the hotel on the Swiss side, who used the building as a school and converted it into a family pension in 1955. In 1960, the Notre-Dame chapel designed by Eugène Renggli was inaugurated in front of the pension . The “Jeunesse et Famille” society was founded in Mulhouse in 1960 and acquired the French monastery grounds from the Strasbourg doctor Schwartz in the autumn of the same year. The company began restoration work in 1960, which also included archaeological measures (uncovering the church foundations, etc.). In 1961, this company opened a family home and a holiday center for schoolchildren in Lützel (today “Center Europeen de Rencontres Lucelle”, or “CERL” for short). Due to the property as a cross-border closed settlement area, the French Lucelle and the Swiss Lucelle form a small agglomeration.
According to Stintzi, the following structures were still preserved from the former monastery buildings around 1960: mansion (cellar?), Guest house, farm building, archway and fountain. The gardens were still visible.
Numerous objects from the monastery came to other places and have been preserved there. These objects come not only, but mainly from the abbey church, which was demolished at the beginning of the 19th century:
- Oelenberg Abbey : works of art from the monastery (reliquary shrines, paintings)
- Museum Basel : Mother of God statue
- Bouxwiller Church : two side altars, both with relics
- Dannemarie : Monstrance (possibly from Lützel)
- Delle : Grid (Hofgitter of the nurse's home)
- Les Ebourbettes courtyard (municipality of Oberlarg ): 18th century staircase ramp
- Fresse (Haute-Saône): pulpit
- Hagenbach ?: Altar, probably destroyed in the First World War
- Koestlach church : high altar, two statues
- Miserez : Mother of God statue
- Morschwiller-le-Bas : relics
- Oberlarg : relics
- Ottmarsheim Abbey Church : parts of the organ
- Church of St-Pierre Porrentruy : reliquary cross, baroque Madonna
- Raedersdorf : church portal, parts of the organ, choir stalls , three statues, candle holders
- Parish church of Reiningue : works of art from the monastery (reliquary shrines, paintings)
- Church angle : two altars, relics
|prehistory||Due to the impact of the African plate formation of the Alps and the Jura folds . Due to the uplift of the area between Paris and Bohemia, formation of the later Upper Rhine Rift , rift system also in the Rhône-Saône area, connection through today's Burgundian Gate .|
|58 BC - AD 476||Roman times, Christianization , diocesan demarcation Diocese of Basel - Archdiocese of Besançon .|
|5th century||Advance of the Alemanni over the Upper Rhine and High Rhine towards Alsace, Jura, Central Plateau. Formation of a Burgundian-Alemannic border|
|6th century||Burgundy and Alemannia to the Franconian Empire|
|7th century||Possibly education of the parish territories. Unclear position of Alsace.|
|8th century||Subdivision of the Franconian Empire into Gau counts : Alemannic-Alsatian Sundgau, probably with Basel over the Jura to the Aare; Burgundian Elsgau (Ajoie)|
|9th century||888 Kingdom of Hochburgund with Jura and Basel, 917 the Os-Franconian Duchy of Swabia with Alsace|
|10th century||933/948 Kingdom of Burgundy including the Burgundian Gate|
|11th century||1033 Kingdom of Burgundy nominally attached to the Empire, Transjurania with Sornegau, Zähringian sphere of influence, County of Burgundy with Ajoie largely independent|
|12th Century||Advance of the Burgundian nobles into the Jura, Counts of Montfaucon in possession of areas around Lützel|
|1123/1124||Presumably in one of these two years the Lützel Monastery was founded by three Counts of Montfaucon, after which Lützel appears as part of the County of Pfirt|
|1128-1138, 1195||seven filiations|
|1136/1139/1147||Date of received confirmation documents|
|12-13 Century||First expansion of the territory, Scholis, Oberlümschwiler and Pleenhof farms|
|1180 approx.||Habsburg owned by the umbrella bailiff over Lützel|
|1180||Exemption from the obligation to tithe|
|1194||Exemption from episcopal jurisdiction|
|1200 approx.||the float is in Lützeler 17 granges organized|
|1259||Exemption from the count's taxes|
|1270-1278||Ajoie and Sornegau to Bishop of Basel, Lützelbach becomes a border river|
|1274||Pfirt becomes a fiefdom of the diocese of Basel|
|1324||Pfirt falls to Austria|
|1325||Consecration of the chapel on Pruntruter Weg|
|1346||Consecration of the new Gothic monastery church|
|1375||Devastation by the Guglers|
|15th century||Baderschwiler farm (Bavelier)|
|1499||Devastation by confederates|
|1524 or 1525||Devastation in the Peasants' War|
|1526||Acquisition of the Löwenburg territory|
|16th Century||Bishop of Basel moves his seat to Porrentruy|
|16th Century||Loss of the exemption from episcopal jurisdiction granted in 1194|
|16.-18. Century||Foundation of some manufactories, e.g. B. Metal industry in St. Peter (St-Pierre), 1690 brickworks at Lützelsee (Tuilerie)|
|1600 approx.||Construction of the chapel of St. Peter (St-Pierre)|
|1624||Joins the Upper German Cistercian Congregation, Lützel responsible for Helvetia, Alsace and Breisgau|
|1630||Lützel monk colonies in German abbeys|
|1632-1657||Dispersion of the Convention|
|1638||Devastation caused by the Thirty Years' War|
|1648||Austrian territories in Alsace to France|
|1681||Lützelbach sees the expert opinion as a border in the Löwenburg territory|
|1703-1730||Reconstruction of the abbey, baroque furnishings in the monastery church|
|18th century||Abbot Herr von Lutterbach, Rheintal and Löwenburg|
|1725||Construction of the orangery|
|1757||Relocation of the French-Prince-Bishop's national border to the monastery wall|
|1774||French monks command|
|1789||Confiscation of goods, declaration of "national property"|
|1792||de facto abolition of the abbey by reprimand from abbot and convent (October 2, 1792)|
|1792-1815||Fate of the prince-bishop's part of Lützel: 1792 Raurak Republic , 1793 Département Mont-Terrible (France), 1800 Département Haut-Rhin , 1815 Canton Bern (Switzerland)|
|?||Foundation of the parish of Lucelle in the French part of the monastery area, distribution of the prince-bishop's parts to the parishes of Pleigne , Charmoille JU and Bourrignon|
|1801||Sale of the buildings, then demolition of some buildings and establishment of factories|
|1801–1860 approx.||Lucelle a center of the French iron industry|
|1883||Closure of the last metal factory, now focusing on the timber trade and accommodation|
|1896||Hotel construction on the Swiss side|
|1936||Hotel is taken over by St. Katharina from Basel|
|1955||former hotel becomes pension|
|1960||Excavations and renovations, Notre-Dame chapel in Renggli|
|1961||Opening of the family home and holiday center (today “Center Europeen de Rencontres Lucelle”, “CERL” for short)|
|1979||Foundation of the Canton of Jura|
The monastery archive was first transferred to the district archive Altkirch and 1798 to Départementalarchiv Colmar after the repeal. However, some parts of the archive were taken away by monks and ended up in different places. The following handwritten sources also include fragmented parts of the monastery archive.
- Colmar departmental archives: holdings Series H (Lucelle) and 7 J 19 (Liber aurens)
- Archives of the Principality of Basel in Porrentruy: the holdings A (especially A70 / 7), B (especially B240), Chancellerie, Missivae Latinae, Deutsche Missiven
- Library of the Porrentruy Cantonal School: several Lützel registers, visitation protocols, copies of documents, etc. a.
- Staatsarchiv Basel: the holdings L 1, private archive 74, council books, missives
- Basel University Library: H 1 / 29a, 29b and 30
- Federal Archives Bern: various copies
- Library of the Grand Seminaire Strasbourg: Obituarium of the Lützel Abbey (call number 32)
In descending order by year of publication. Quite a few details in the cited works are contradictory, which is why many of these treatises should be treated with caution, including the more recent works and the standard text by Chèvre from 1973.
- Munch , Gérard (2010), Économie et patrimoine d'un monastère cistercien. Lucelle aux XIIe, XIIIe et XIVe siècles, Thèse de doctorat soutenue à l'université de Strasbourg, le 9 November 2010
- Claerr-Stamm , Gabrielle (2008), Les riches heures de l'abbaye de Lucelle au temps de Nicolas Delfis 1708-1751 , Riedisheim 2008
- Zimmermann , Jean (1999), L'histoire de Lucelle, une abbaye cistercienne, in: Claerr-Stamm 1999, pp. 9-62
- Claerr tribe , Gabrielle et al. a., Lucelle. Histoire, fouilles, vestiges , Riedisheim 2 1999 ( 1 1993)
- Kohler , François (1991), Lucelle , in: Bernard Prongué, Le Canton du Jura de A à Z, Porrentruy 1991
- Chèvre , André (1982), Cisterciens de Lucelle , in: Helvetia Sacra, Division 3 (The Orders with Benedictine Rule), Volume 3 (The Cistercians [...] in Switzerland), Bern 1982, pp. 290–311 , with short biographies of all abbots
- Le Haut-Rhin. Dictionnaire des Communes, 3 volumes, Colmar 1980–1982; Volume 2, 1981, keyword Lucelle , pp. 821-828
- Chèvre , André (1973), Lucelle. Histoire d'une ancienne abbaye cistercienne , Delémont 1973
- Meyer , Werner (1968), The Löwenburg in the Bernese Jura. History of the castle, the rule and its inhabitants , Basel a. a. 1968
- Weis-Müller , Renée (1968), The Lützelhof in Basel. Founding of Lützel Abbey and its connection to Basel, Cluny and the founding of St. Alban , in: Basler Stadtbuch 1968, p. 82ff.
- Suratteau , Jean-René (1965), Le Département du Mont-Terrible sous le régime du Directoire (1795–1800) , Paris 1965, pp. 326, 336–337 et passim
- Chèvre , André (1964), Conflits entre les prince-éveques et l'abbaye de Lucelle au XVIIIe siècle ,, Festschrift Oskar Vasella, Friborg 1964, pp. 368-385
- Bienz , Georg and Galluser , Werner A. (1962), The cultural landscape of the Swiss Lützeltal , in: Regio Basiliensis 3, pp. 67–99
- Grenacher , Franz (1962), Die Löwenburg in the cartography of the Principality of Basel and on plans of the Lützel Abbey , in: Regio Basiliensis 3, pp. 123-137
- Meyer , Werner (1962), From the history of the Löwenburg rule and its owners , in: Regio Basiliensis 3, pp. 104–113
- Regio Basiliensis, Volume 3, Basel 1961/1962, several essays on Löwenburg, Lützeltal a. Lützel
- Specklin , Robert (1961), Etudes sur la Jura alsacien , in: Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire et de Sciences Naturelles de Mulhouse, No. 10 (1961)
- Stintzi , Paul (1961), Lützel. Notes from the history of the abbey , in: Annuaire de la Société d'histoire sundgovienne, 1961, pp. 10–56
- Stintzi , Paul (1957), The former church of the Cistercian Abbey Lützel , in: Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique suisse 51, 1957, pp. 233–237
- Müller , Christian Adolf (1953), Das Buch vom Berner Jura , Derendingen 1953
- Bienz , Georg (1953), On the settlement of the Bernese Jura in the early and high Middle Ages , in: Korrespondenzbl. Geograph.-Ethnolog. Ges. Basel 1953, p. 2 ff.
- Siegfried , Paul (1925), The property of the Lützel monastery in Basel , in: Basler Jahrbuch 1925, pp. 98-106
- Daucourt , A. (1913), Description de l'abbaye de Lucelle , in: Actes Soc. Jurass. d'Emulation , Porrentruy 1913
- Daucourt , A. (1897–1913), Dictionnaire historique des paroisses de l'ancien Evêché de Bâle , 8 volumes, Porrentruy 1897–1913 (cf. Volume 4, p. 97)
- Müller , E. (1895), History of the Bernese Anabaptists , Frauenfeld 1895
- Vautrey , L. (1863–86), Notices historiques sur les villes et villages du Jura Bernois , 6 volumes, Porrentruy u. a. 1863-86
- Schwarz , Franz Xaver (1871), The history of the famous Cistercian abbey Lützel , Rixheim 1871
- Trouillat , J. and Vautrey , L. (1852–67), Monuments de l'histoire de l'ancien Evêché de Bâle , 5 volumes, Porrentruy 1852–67
- André Chèvre: Lützel. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- The Center Europeen de Rencontres Lucelle (CERL)
- Eight maps with explanations of the possessions of Lützel Abbey between the 12th and 14th centuries.
- Map of the subsidiary founding of the Lützel Monastery (fourth map from the top; explanations at the bottom)
- Originally the monastery was in the area of the diocese of Basel. Since the French Revolution, the French part of the former monastery area has belonged to the diocese of Strasbourg , the Swiss part to the diocese of Basel (seat of Solothurn).
- Chèvre 1982, p. 290.
- Elmar Seebold, Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, Berlin a. a. 1999, p. 529.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 290. Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 822. In the event of contradictions, Chèvre was given preference.
- See Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 821.
- map of Switzerland, sheets 1065, 1066, 1085 and 1086.
- See Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 822.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 292. Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 824 (there is 1793, perhaps a printing or transcription error). Stintzi 1961, p. 28.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 292, note 7.
- Zimmermann 1999, p. 36.
- Chèvre 1973, p. 214.
- Stintzi 1961, p. 28.
- Chèvre 1973, p. 226.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 292.
- Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 825.
- Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 823.
- Stintzi 1961, p. 17.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 291.
- Chèvre 1973, p. 221. Chèvre 1982, p. 292.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 291. Chèvre speaks of five priory nunneries, but only mentions these four in the corresponding note.
- But a monastery estate with its own administrator, who was sometimes called 'Prior', cf. History of the Lützel Monastery # Lordship or territory Löwenburg (Löwenberg)
- Zimmermann 1999, pp. 43-44.
- So Chèvre 1982, p. 290.
- Chèvre 1982, pp. 290 and 291. Zimmermann 1999, pp. 46-47. The statements of the two authors do not match, preference was given to those of Chèvre.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 291, "les droits de paternité" .
- Chèvre 1982, p. 291, and Zimmermann 1999, pp. 47-51. Chèvre speaks of 15, Zimmermann of 30 parishes.
- Zimmermann 1999, pp. 31-32.
- Chèvre 1982, pp. 290-292. Regarding the Peasants' War, Chèvre used once in 1525 (p. 290) and once in 1524 (p. 292).
- Stintzi 1961, pp. 32-34.
- Chèvre 1982, pp. 290, 292. Basel earthquake in 1356?
- Stintzi 1961, p. 31.
- Chèvre 1973, p. 292.
- Grenacher 1962, pp. 132-134.
- Bienz u. Gallusser 1962, p. 86.
- See Müller 1953, p. 104.
- Meyer 1968, p. 246.
- Meyer 1962, p. 110.
- Müller 1953, p. 225. Meyer 1968, p. 246.
- Stintzi 1961, p. 31. Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 824.
- Chèvre 1973, pp. 292-296.
- Frame tiled stove "Lucelle", cast front with decorated tiles with a water lily motif
- Chèvre 1973, pp. 292-296. Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 824.
- Bienz u. Galluser 1962, p. 68 and 75.
- Bienz u. Galluser 1962, p. 71.
- Bienz u. Galluser 1962, p. 76. Müller 1953, p. 225. In Pleigne and Bourrignon there were accordingly other German-speaking courtyards, but these are not in the area of the former monastery territory.
- Chèvre 1982, p. 292. Chèvre 1973, pp. 292-296. Le Haut-Rhin 1981, p. 824. Stintzi 1961, p. 49.
- Cf. Bienz u. Galluser 1962, p. 81.
- Stintzi 1961, p. 49.
- Unclear which building Stintzi is referring to, presumably the former winery. The cellar may be the building opposite the CERL.
- Possibly the building that now houses the “Center Europeen de Rencontres Lucelle”, or “CERL” for short.
- Stintzi 1961, pp. 16/17, 32/33, 34-39, 50.
- Chèvre 1982, pp. 293-294.