Canton Bern

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Canton of Bern
Canton de Berne
coat of arms
coat of arms
Canton of the Swiss Confederation
Abbreviation / license plate : BE
Official language : German (86%),
French (11%)
Main town : Bern
Accession to the federal government : 1353
Area : 5959.51  km²
Height range : 399-4271 m above sea level M.
Residents: 1,034,977 (December 31, 2018)
Population density : 174 inhabitants per km²
Proportion of foreigners :
(residents without citizenship )
15.5% (December 31, 2015)
Unemployment rate : 2.9% (December 31, 2015)
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Map of the canton
Map of the canton
Municipalities of the canton
Municipalities of the canton

Coordinates: 46 ° 48 '  N , 7 ° 36'  E ; CH1903:  612319  /  one hundred eighty-three thousand two hundred and seventeen

Population development

Bern ( abbreviation BE ; Bern German Bärn [ pæ̞ːrn ], French Berne , Italian Berna , Rhaeto-Romanic Berna ? / I ) is a canton in western Switzerland . The main town and at the same time the most populous place is the federal city of Bern . Audio file / audio sample

The so-called “ Röstigraben ”, the border between German-speaking Switzerland and French-speaking Switzerland ( French-speaking Switzerland ) , runs through the canton of Bern . The Bernese national and official languages are German (population share: 86 percent) and French (11 percent). French is primarily spoken in the Bernese Jura and in the Biel agglomeration , although the Biel agglomeration has a bilingual status.

The canton of Bern is the second largest canton in Switzerland in terms of area (after Graubünden ) and population (after Zurich ).


The canton of Bern has the largest north-south expansion of all cantons. It stretches from the Jura across the Swiss Plateau to the Alps , making it the only canton besides Vaud to have a share in all three major regions of Switzerland . In the north it borders on the cantons of Jura , Solothurn and Aargau , in the west on the cantons of Neuchâtel , Vaud and Friborg , in the east on the cantons of Lucerne , Nidwalden , Obwalden and Uri and in the south on the canton of Valais .


Small-scale maps give the impression that the canton of Bern borders France at La Ferrière and is therefore a border canton. However, detailed maps show that the canton and state borders are a few hundred meters apart. Bern has therefore been an inland canton since the Laufental was lost in 1994 . The two exclaves Münchenwiler and Clavaleyres still exist today . The community of Schelten is only connected to the canton via one point. Steinhof is an enclave of the canton of Solothurn, Wallenbuch an enclave of the canton of Friborg.



The highest point in the canton of Bern is the Finsteraarhorn ( 4274  m above sea level ). The lowest point is the Aare near Wynau ( 401.5  m above sea level ) in the canton of Bern, the Bernese Alps rise with the Bernese Pre-Alps and the Bernese Jura . The largely French-speaking Bernese Jura belongs to the Folded Jura . The largest town in the "Bernese Jura" administrative district is the small town of Moutier , and the seat of the governor is in Courtelary .


The most important mountains in the canton of Bern are the Finsteraarhorn ( 4274  m above sea level ), with the highest peak in the Bernese Oberland , the Jungfrau ( 4158  m above sea level ), with the highest train station in Europe , the Mönch ( 4107  m above sea level). M. ), as part of the Eiger Mönch and Jungfrau group , the Eiger ( 3967 m above sea level ), with the Eiger north  face and the Schilthorn ( 2970  m above sea level ) (also Piz Gloria ), with the revolving restaurant from the James -Bond film.


The total area of ​​all water and wetlands is 418.21 km². Of this, 210.77 km² are glaciers or firn, 162.56 km² are water, 41.69 km² are wet areas and 3.19 km² are reeds.


Important lakes are the Thunersee (47.85 km²), the Bielersee (39.2 km²) and the Brienzersee (29.8 km²).


The largest river in the canton of Bern is the Aare . It rises in 1977 m above sea level. M. on the Unteraar Glacier ( Grimsel area ) and drains 17,709 km². The Aare is 291.5 km long. They feed their water to the Rhine , which flows into the North Sea . It flows through the Grimsel reservoir (2.72 km²), Lake Brienz, Lake Thun, Lake Wohlensee and, since the correction of the Jura waters, also Lake Biel.


The inhabitants of the canton are called Bernese.


As of December 31, 2018, the population of the canton of Bern was 1,034,977. The population density of 174 inhabitants per square kilometer is below the Swiss average (207 inhabitants per square kilometer). The proportion of foreigners (registered residents without Swiss citizenship ) was 15.5 percent on December 31, 2015, while 24.6 percent were registered nationwide. As of December 31, 2015, the unemployment rate was 2.9 percent compared to 3.7 percent at the federal level.


Bilingual obligation of the Canton of Bern dated May 1, 1895

The main language of the population is 86 percent German, 11 percent French, 3 percent Italian and 3 percent English and around one to two percent each Portuguese, Serbian and Croatian, Albanian, Spanish or Turkish. The German-speaking population usually speaks Bern German , the regional dialect of Swiss German .

The cantonal national and official languages are German and French. The principle of territoriality applies to the official languages , i. i.e., they depend on the area. For communications with the cantonal authorities, French applies in the Bernese Jura , German and French in the administrative region of Zealand and in the administrative district of Biel / Bienne , and German in the rest of the canton. At the municipal level, French is the official language almost everywhere in the Bernese Jura (also in the predominantly German-speaking municipalities of Mont-Tramelan and Rebévelier , but not in Schelten and Seehof ), for the municipalities of Biel / Bienne and Leubringen / Evilard , both languages ​​apply and for all others Municipalities apply German. Anyone can contact the authorities responsible for the entire canton in both national languages, and official texts that concern the entire canton must be made available in both languages.

The Conseil du Jura bernois has existed as a regional parliament for the Bernese Jura since 2006 , which aims to ensure the cultural independence of the French-speaking minority. The Conseil des affaires francophones du district bilingue de Bienne fulfills an analogous function for Biel / Bienne and Evilard .

Religions - denominations

Religions in the Canton of Bern as of December 31, 2012
religion Percentage ownership %
Religious affiliation in the canton of Bern (as of December 31, 2012)
Protestant 55.5
non-denominational 16.2
Roman Catholic 15.6
other Christian denominations 06.4
Islamic 03.5
other religious communities 01.6
Religion / denomination unknown 01.0
Jewish 00.1
In addition, there are comparatively many members of Protestant free churches in the canton of Bern , especially in the Bernese Jura, the Emmental and the Bernese Oberland, where Mennonite congregations were able to survive despite intense state persecution at times. After the Reformation in 1528, the Catholic Church also regained a foothold in the canton in 1799 .

Constitution and Politics

The current canton constitution of 1993 (KV) describes the canton of Bern in Art. 1 as a free, democratic and social constitutional state. Compared to the earlier constitution of 1893, it expanded in particular basic rights , popular rights and municipal autonomy. Art. 2 KV, the canton sees itself as a mediator between the German- and French-speaking Switzerland ( Romandie ). The bilingual canton shares borders with all the cantons of French-speaking Switzerland , except Geneva , and is a member of many organizations that work together among the French-speaking cantons.

Elections to the Bernese Grand Council on March 25, 2018
Turnout: 30.51%
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
 % p
A total of 160 seats

legislative branch

The Grand Council of 160 members is the canton's parliament . Twelve seats are guaranteed for the Bernese Jura and three seats for the French-speaking minority of the bilingual district of Biel / Bienne . He is elected by the people on a proportional basis for a term of office of four years each.

The people also take a direct part in legislation through referendums . The mandatory referendum applies to constitutional amendments, the optional referendum , which must be supported by at least 10,000 voters , applies to changes in the law, whereby the referendum can be combined with a popular proposal . The electorate then has the right to initiate a popular initiative , which must be supported by at least 15,000 voters. In addition, at least 30,000 voters can request a vote on the dismissal of the Grand Council before the end of the regular term of office.

Party composition in the Bernese Grand Council between 2006 and 2018
Political party Seats
2006 (%)
2010 (%)
2014 (%)
2018 (%)
Distribution of seats in 2018
Swiss People's Party (SVP) 47 27.42 44 26.62 49 28.99 46 26.76
14th 38 10 11 13 20th 46 
A total of 160 seats

Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (SP) 42 24.03 35 18.86 33 19.13 38 22.33
FDP.The Liberals (FDP) 26th 16.40 17th 10.34 17th 10.65 20th 11.72
Green Canton of Bern 19th 12.9 16 10.10 15th 10.06 14th 09.94
Bourgeois Democratic Party (BDP) - - 25th 16.30 14th 11.19 13 09.02
Green Liberal Party (glp) - - 04th 04.07 11 06.70 11 06.91
Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland (EPP) 13 07.34 10 05.9 12 06.44 10 06.17
Federal Democratic Union (EDU) 06th 04.78 05 04.4 05 04.06 05 03.72
Parti Socialiste Autonome (PSA) 1 03 01.29 03 01.04 03 00.67 02 00.68
Alternative Left (AL) 0- 0- 0- 0- 00 00.36 01 00.50
Green Party Bern - Democratic AlternativeGreen Party Bern - Democratic Alternative (GPB-DA) 0- 0- 0- 0- 01 [00] 00.28 00 00.29
Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP) 01 01.76 01 01.16 00 00.75 00 00.45
Swiss Democrats (SD) 01 02.19 00 00.41 00 00.26 00 00.18
Entente Jurassienne (Entente) 2 01 00.33 00 00.24 00 00.06 00 00.31
Auto Party / Freedom Party of Switzerland (FPS) 01 00.45 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0-
1Social Democrats who advocate unification of the Bernese Jura with the Canton of Jura . The PSA is part of the SP Canton Jura.
2Electoral alliance of Christian Democrats and Liberals who advocate the unification of the Bernese Jura with the Canton of Jura . Christian Vaquin, elected in 2006, was a member of the CVP. In 2014 only Mouvement libéral jurassien , the CVP entered with its own list (together, the Bern-Jurassic CVP and the MLJ achieved 0.27% in 2014).

The Bernese Grand Council does not meet weekly, as is usual in some other cantonal parliaments, but four times a year (up to 2018 there were five sessions) for a two-week session.


The executive is the seven-member government councilor , who is elected by the people in a majority procedure for a period of four years. At least 30,000 people entitled to vote can apply for his dismissal before the end of this period, on which a referendum must then be ordered (Art. 57 KV). As is customary at the federal level and in the other cantons, the regional council changes annually in rotation. The French-speaking Bernese Jura is guaranteed a seat in the government (Art. 84 KV).

Members of the Bern government council
Government Council since Political party Directorate
Christoph Ammann , President of the Government Council (2019/20) 2016 SP Economic, Energy and Environment Directorate (WEU)
Pierre Alain Schnegg , Vice President of the Government Council (2019/20) 2016 SVP Directorate for Health, Social Affairs and Integration (GSI) ( Bernese Jura headquarters)
Christoph Neuhaus 2008 SVP Construction and Traffic Directorate (BVD)
Beatrice Simon 2010 BDP Finance Directorate (FIN)
Christine Haesler 2018 Green Education and Culture Directorate (BKD)
Evi Allemann 2018 SP Directorate for Home Affairs and Justice (DIJ)
Philippe Muller 2018 FDP Security Directorate (SID)

Head of the State Chancellery is State Secretary Christoph Auer.


The highest cantonal court is the higher court ; The regional courts, the juvenile courts, the commercial criminal court and the compulsory measures courts are subordinate to it . The arbitration authorities are upstream of the first instance. In the area of ​​administrative law, the administrative court is the highest cantonal judicial authority.

Party system

The canton of Bern is a traditionally bourgeois canton, with the SVP playing a dominant role. Nevertheless, a left majority was elected to the government council in 2006 and confirmed in 2010 and 2014. In June 2008, the liberal SVP wing of the former citizens and trade party split off to form the BDP . The evangelical parties EPP (center) and EDU (right) are relatively strong in the reformed Bern, while the Federal Council party (perceived as Catholic) CVP in the canton of Bern is a small party. The canton of Bern has one of the most fragmented party systems in Switzerland.

Representation in the Federal Assembly

The Canton of Bern sends 24 representatives to the National Council and two to the Council of States .


Business location and structure

The canton of Bern stretches from the Jura to the Alps. Due to its size and landscape diversity, it has a diverse industry structure. Sectors that are strongly represented compared to the Swiss average are public administration, agriculture, communications (post, telecommunications, telecommunications), tourism, and health and social services. The latter was the most important branch of the economy in 2008 with 71,100 employees.

The canton of Bern is an important business location and with its bilingualism it is also a bridging canton between German- and French-speaking Switzerland . There are numerous internationally active and strong companies in the canton of Bern, primarily from the precision and watchmaking industries, as well as medical technology. Industrial machines and watches account for 44.9 percent of the canton of Bern's exports of goods. The main export destinations are the EU countries with 54.4 percent. (2010 figures)

The largest employer in the canton is the canton of Bern itself with 28,207 full-time positions, followed by the federal administration with 18,245 and the archipelago with 8,443 full-time positions.

Over 15,000 jobs in energy and environmental technology make the canton of Bern an aspiring cleantech location. With the economic strategy 2025, politicians want to specifically promote and expand cleantech.

Cluster organizations

With its cluster policy, the Canton of Bern enables better networking between companies and thus promotes the transfer of knowledge and technology. As competence networks, clusters play a key role in economic development. On average, they are growing faster than the overall economy of the Canton of Bern. 32.8 percent of employees in the canton of Bern (2008) worked in the clusters. Companies meet regularly in the following competence networks:

  • Medical cluster
  • Precision Cluster
  • ICT cluster
  • Consulting cluster
  • Energy and environmental technology
  • design


The canton of Bern is one of the three major tourist cantons in Switzerland. Six large regions characterize the canton of Bern: the Bernese Oberland with its imposing mountain and lake landscape, the hilly Emmental with its stately, flower-adorned farms, the Oberaargau with its fields and forests, the Bern-Mittelland region with the UNESCO World Heritage - the old town from Bern, the lakes and vegetable fields of the Seeland and the French-speaking Bernese Jura with the Chasseral Regional Park. Well-known tourist destinations are: Bern - UNESCO World Heritage Site, Jungfrau-Aletsch / Bietschorn - UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site, Gstaad, Grindelwald, Interlaken, Adelboden. Tourism is the most important industry in the Bernese Oberland.

The pile dwellings on Lake Biel and Lake Lobsig have also been part of the UNESCO World Heritage since June 2011 .

Tourism policy

The BE! Tourismus AG is the tourism umbrella marketing organization of the canton of Bern and will be funded with an annual amount of 2.5 million francs from 2020 to 2023. For the tourism organizations Bern Welcome and Tourismus Jura Drei Seen Land / Jura bernois Tourisme , a total of 3.6 million francs was approved.

Education and Research

The wide range of educational opportunities in the Canton of Bern includes elementary schools , secondary schools , vocational training and universities .

Elementary school

The offer includes kindergartens, primary schools and secondary schools of level 1. The international school Bern is a day school recognized by CIS (Council of International Schools) and NEASC ( New England Association of Schools and Colleges ), at which children and young people in English after an international one Curriculum to be taught.

Vocational training

Vocational training includes apprenticeships and training at a vocational school or at a commercial secondary school . There are five commercial secondary schools in the canton: Business secondary school Bern, commercial secondary school Gymnasium Alpenstrasse Biel, commercial secondary school Thun-Schadau, Ecole Superieure de Commerce La Neuveville and ceff Commerce Saint-Imier.

Middle school

The offer includes training courses at a technical middle school or at a grammar school . There are twelve grammar schools in the canton, divided into regions:


The canton of Bern has four universities:

The University of Bern promotes the scientific knowledge of its graduates through research. In the universities of applied sciences knowledge arises from applied research and development. The transfer of knowledge between science and business is also promoted at the political level and actively supported by the business development agency.


The canton of Bern lies on the railway axes Zurich - Friborg - Lausanne - Geneva (east / west) and Basel - Lötschberg - Simplon - Italy (north / south), which intersect in the city of Bern. Since December 2007, the new Lötschberg base tunnel has connected Valais and Italy with the canton of Bern. The travel time is reduced by an average of one hour. In the north, the Jura foot line (Zurich - Biel / Bienne - Neuchâtel - Lausanne) crosses the canton.

In the southeast the narrow-gauge railway runs Luzern - Brünigpass - Interlaken the Central Railway , the BLS operates the standard gauge line between Thun , Interlaken, Spiez and Zweisimmen . The narrow-gauge railway of the Montreux – Bernese Oberland Railway (MOB) to Lenk , Gstaad and Montreux begins in Zweisimmen . The three routes Lucerne – Interlaken – Zweisimmen – Montreux are marketed together as a GoldenPass in competition with the Glacier Express . Other valleys are opened up by various narrow-gauge railways: Berner Oberland-Bahn , Wengernalpbahn , Meiringen-Innertkirchen-Bahn .

Well-known mountain railways in the canton are u. a. the Jungfrau Railway , the Brienz-Rothorn Railway , the Lauterbrunnen – Mürren Mountain Railway and the Schynige Platte Railway .

In addition to the train, the post bus plays a major role, firstly in opening up the side valleys, but then also for the famous tourist routes via Grimsel Pass , Susten Pass or Grosse Scheidegg . The steepest Postbus route in Europe leads from Reichenbach in the Kandertal to Griesalp .

The A1 St. Gallen - Geneva (east-west) runs through the Swiss plateau and the city of Bern . From Bern, the A12 goes via Freiburg to Vevey. The A5 runs along the southern foot of the Jura from Solothurn via Biel to Yverdon . In a north-south direction, the A6 runs from Biel via Bern and Thun to Spiez . There the motorway branches off and continues as the A8 to Meiringen east of Lake Brienz . From there the pass routes Brünig (to Lucerne ), Susten (to Uri ) and Grimsel (to Valais , Graubünden and Ticino ) start. The Lötschberg route branches off at Spiez and connects with the Valais via the Lötschberg tunnel and with Italy via the Simplon Pass . In 2019, the degree of motorization (passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants) was 520.


Bern allied itself in 1353 with the Uri , Schwyz and Unterwalden forest sites . This and other older alliances led to the Confederation in the 15th century . Bern was one of the Eight Old Places .

Administrative division

Since January 1, 2010, the canton of Bern has been divided into administrative regions, administrative districts, administrative districts and municipalities. However, according to Art. 39a of the Act on the Organization of the Government Council and Administration, the “ordinary decentralized administrative units of the canton” are only the administrative regions and the administrative circles; the administrative districts are of historical importance, for which see below .

Administrative regions and districts

Administrative regions of the Canton of Bern since 2019
Administrative districts of the Canton of Bern since 2019
Administrative region Administrative district BFS no.
Administrative district
(December 31, 2018)
Bernese Jura Bernese Jura 0241 053,721
Bern-Mittelland Bern-Mittelland 0246 414,658
Emmental-Oberaargau Emmental 0245 097'218
Oberaargau 0244 081,759
Oberland Frutigen-Niedersimmental 0249 040,375
Interlaken-Oberhasli 0250 047,387
Obersimmental-Saanen 0248 016,588
Tuna 0247 107'491
Zealand Biel / Bienne 0242 101,313
Zealand 0243 074,467

On September 24, 2006, the electorate accepted the “Reform of the decentralized cantonal administration”, which divides the 26 administrative districts into five administrative regions and ten administrative districts as of January 1, 2010:


The canton of Bern was first divided during the French occupation. At that time, the canton was divided into 30 administrative districts, which formed the canton's decentralized administrative units. In 1979 the districts of Delémont , Porrentruy and Franches-Montagnes merged to form the new canton of Jura . As a result, the district of Laufen , which is no longer adjacent to the rest of the canton of Bern, joined the canton of Basel-Landschaft in 1994 . From then on, the canton consisted of 26 administrative districts. In 2010, the administrative districts as cantonal administrative units and electoral districts for the Grand Council were abolished and replaced by the administrative regions and administrative districts; the latter act as constituencies.

Since the introduction of the administrative regions and administrative districts, the administrative districts have almost only had historical significance. Although the law on the organization of the government council and the administration (organizational law) still assigns every municipality in Bern to an administrative district, only the law on the special statute of the Bernese Jura and the French-speaking minority of the bilingual district of Biel assigns them a practical function ( Special Statute Act ), in which the administrative districts of the Bernese Jura continue to form the constituencies for the election of the Bern Jurassic Council (BJR).


Cities and towns in the canton of Bern

Listed below are the most populous municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants as of December 31, 2018:

Community of residents Residents
Bern , capital / federal city 133,883
Biel / Bienne 055'159
Tuna 043,734
Koeniz 041,784
Ostermundigen 017,751
Burgdorf 016'420
Steffisburg 015,959
Langenthal 015,624
Lyss 015,282
Muri near Bern 013,054
Spiez 012,812
Münsingen 012,724
Belp 011,510
Worb 011'316
Ittigen 011,351
Zollikofen 010,306
Münchenbuchsee 010'213

See also

Portal: Bern  - Overview of existing articles on the subject of "Bern"


Web links

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Individual evidence

  1. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  2. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  3. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  4. ^ STAT-TAB: The interactive statistics database, population development by region, 1850–2000. Swiss Confederation, accessed on October 21, 2019 .
  5. STAT-TAB: The interactive statistics database, population status. Swiss Confederation, accessed on October 21, 2019 .
  6. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  7. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  8. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  9. Federal Statistical Office : Permanent resident population aged 15 and over according to main language, 2010 ( Memento from November 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (XLS file)
  10. Nuspliger / Mäder, p. 81 f.
  11. Religions. Finance Directorate of the Canton of Bern, accessed on August 3, 2014 .
  12. ^ Constitution of the Canton of Bern. State Chancellery of the Canton of Bern, accessed on February 28, 2020 .
  13. ^ Constitution of the Canton of Bern. The federal authorities of the Swiss Confederation ( ), accessed on August 3, 2014 .
  14. Nuspliger / Mäder, p. 68.
  15. Nuspliger / Mäder, p. 70 f.
  16. a b Constitution of the Canton of Bern. (No longer available online.) State Chancellery of the Canton of Bern, June 6, 1993, archived from the original on July 12, 2014 ; accessed on June 21, 2015 (see Article 57 Constitution of the Canton of Bern).
  17. ^ Voting shares in percent. State Chancellery of the Canton of Bern, accessed on February 28, 2020 .
  18. 12'495 votes ( results of the constituency Bern . Retrieved on February 28, 2020 . ) / 20 = 624.74 voters. 624.74 / 226 697 voters ( voters play in percent. State Chancellery of the Canton of Bern, accessed on February 28, 2020 . )
  19. Historique. Parti socialiste autonome du Sud du Jura , June 14, 2008, archived from the original on October 3, 2008 ; accessed on October 21, 2019 (French).
  20. Christian Vaquin, PDC-PLJ, Moutier , on
  21. The Government Council. State Chancellery of the Canton of Bern, accessed on June 2, 2017 .
  22. Peter Pflugshaupt: Two of the 100 largest employers in Bern are in Muri-Gümligen. In: December 24, 2019, accessed December 24, 2019 .
  23. Press release from the Canton of Bern, June 30, 2011, figures from “Report on the Economic Situation”, 2011 edition:
  24. Bern Government Council approves framework loans for tourism. In: . November 1, 2019, accessed November 3, 2019 .
  25. vocational schools. Education Department of the Canton of Bern, archived from the original on July 20, 2014 ; Retrieved August 3, 2014 .
  26. Commercial secondary schools ( Memento from April 30, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  27. ↑ Degree of motorization , on
  28. ^ Constitution of the Canton of Bern (BSG 101.1), Art. 3, Para. 2 ( online ).
  29. Law on the Organization of the Government Council and Administration (Organization Law) (BSG 152.01), Art. 39a, Paragraph 1 ( online ).
  30. Constituencies (elections & voting) State Chancellery - Canton of Bern. Retrieved September 27, 2019 .
  31. ^ Law on the special statute of the Bernese Jura and on the French-speaking minority of the bilingual district of Biel (special statute law) (BSG 102.15), Art. 4 ( online ).
  32. Permanent resident population from STAT-TAB of the BfS , municipalities see also regional portraits 2020 on, accessed on May 29, 2020