Canton of Vaud

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Canton of Vaud
Canton de Vaud
coat of arms
Liberté et patrie (French),
freedom and fatherland
Canton of the Swiss Confederation
Abbreviation / license plate : VD
Official language : French
Main town : Lausanne
Accession to the federal government : 1803
Area : 3,212.02  km²
Height range : 369–3209 m above sea level M.
Residents: 799,145 (December 31, 2018)
Population density : 249 inhabitants per km²
Proportion of foreigners :
(residents without citizenship )
33.6% (December 31, 2015)
Unemployment rate : 5.2% (December 31, 2015)
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Map of the canton
Map of the canton
Municipalities of the canton
Municipalities of the canton

The Vaud [ VAT ] ( abbreviation VD ; Swiss German Wadt [ ʋɑtː ], French Vaud [ vo ], Italian Vaud (obsolete: Vado) , Romansh Vad ? / I ) is a canton in the Romandie , the French-speaking part of the country of Switzerland , and is one to the Geneva-Lausanne metropolitan region . The capital and largest town is Lausanne . Audio file / audio sample

The canton is known as the Vaud or also as the Vaud , in the French Pays de Vaud . The inhabitants are called Vaudois, in French Vaudois [ vodwa ].

In terms of area, Vaud is the largest canton belonging entirely to French-speaking Switzerland and the fourth largest canton in the country; in terms of population, it ranks third. Vaud has only existed in its current form since the act of mediation and accession to the Swiss Confederation on February 19, 1803.


The name goes back to the old High German forest - "forest" and means "wooded land". The French Vaud (originally pronounced [vawd] ) still reflects the vocalization of the pre- Old High German / l / and the resulting diphthong, whereas in the German form Vaud the monophthongized Franco-Provencal sound Vad [vaːd] has been preserved.


Les Diablerets  - the highest point in the canton

The highest point is the Les Diablerets ( 3210  m above sea level ), the lowest point is on Lake Geneva at 372  m above sea level. M.

The canton of Vaud is located in western Switzerland and stretches from Lake Geneva to Lake Neuchâtel . It borders in the north-west on the French departments of Ain , Jura and Doubs , in the south-west on the canton of Geneva , in the south-east on the Valais , in the east on the cantons of Friborg and Bern and in the north-east on Neuchâtel . Beyond Lake Geneva, the Vaud region borders the Haute-Savoie department in the south .

The north-west of the Vaud is occupied by the Jura , the south-east by the Alps . The rest is in the Swiss Plateau . In addition to the canton of Bern, the canton of Vaud is the only canton in Switzerland that has a share in all three major regions of Switzerland .

In the northeast, the Avenches district forms an exclave surrounded by the canton of Friborg . On the other hand, there are three Freiburg enclaves in Vaud. In the south-west of the canton there is Céligny, an enclave of the canton of Geneva.


Lake Geneva and
Lavaux wine-growing region

The lakes cover a total area of ​​393 km² (12.23%), the rivers and streams 9.4 km² (0.29%) of the entire canton area. The most important body of water is Lake Geneva , which stretches along almost the entire southern border of the canton. The most important lakes, which are entirely in the canton, include Lac Brenet , Lac de Joux , Lac de Bret and Lac de l'Hongrin . The main rivers are the Orbe , Broye , Venoge , Mentue and Aubonne .

All lakes in the canton are monitored and clean, so that swimming , sailing , windsurfing or fishing is possible without any risk.


The highest mountains with 3210  m above sea level. M. are the Les Diablerets in the southeast of the canton. Other important mountains are the Dent de Jaman , the Jorat , the Oldenhorn , the Rochers de Naye , the Chasseron , the La Dôle , the Mont Risoux and the Mont Tendre .


Along the Jura, the layer of earth is covered by Jurassic Kalk- Nagelfluh , under which there is a red molasse . At Orbe, between Echallens and Yverdon, there is a large area of Knauermolasse . Not far away at Onlens and Goumoëns is brown, bituminous freshwater limestone , which is only covered by dam soil .

In the upper part of the city of Lausanne, you can see a bare rock. This is cut by a road tunnel west of the Château Saint-Maire , with quarries to the east . The stone type is defined as bluish gray marl molasses and sandy marl, blue in the depth and yellow in the height.

The Vaud is characterized by an undulating hill country and many fertile valleys.

View from the Chasseron to the canton border with Neuchâtel


The climate in Vaud is very differently distributed. The maximum average temperature is around 14 ° C, the minimum around 6 ° C. In the year, an average of 1100 to 1200 mm falls on 104 rainy days a year. The hours of sunshine are around 5.7 hours.

For example, the Gros de Vaud has a mild and relatively dry climate despite its altitude. Due to the lee position behind the High Jura, which is particularly noticeable in rain-bringing west and north-west locations, the average annual rainfall for Swiss conditions is around 900 to 1000 mm.

Climate table

Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Geneva (temperatures, hours of sunshine and rainy days) and Pully (precipitation)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 4th 6th 10 15th 19th 23 25th 24 21st 14th 8th 4th O 14.5
Min. Temperature (° C) −2 −1 2 5 9 13 15th 14th 12 7th 3 0 O 6.5
Precipitation ( mm ) 72 68 76 76 95 114 106 124 110 93 88 92 Σ 1,114
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 2 4th 5 7th 8th 9 10 9 7th 4th 2 1 O 5.7
Rainy days ( d ) 9 8th 8th 8th 9 10 7th 9 9 9 9 9 Σ 104
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: temperature, hours of sunshine, rainy days and water temperature: the international climate index , precipitation:


City and agglomeration of Lausanne with a view from Mont Tendre

Most of the population lives in the urban agglomerations . The main town of Lausanne , including the neighboring communities with around 324,400 inhabitants, is the most populous of these. This is followed by Vevey and Montreux with 89,900, the Aigle region with 37,100 and Yverdon-les-Bains with 31,600 inhabitants. The place Nyon geared more towards agglomeration Geneva . Other important towns are Morges , Renens and Rolle .

As of December 31, 2018, the population of the canton of Vaud was 799,145. The population density of 249 inhabitants per square kilometer is above the Swiss average (207 inhabitants per square kilometer). The proportion of foreigners (registered residents without Swiss citizenship ) was 33.6 percent on December 31, 2015, while 24.6 percent were registered nationwide. As of December 31, 2015, the unemployment rate was 5.2 percent compared to 3.7 percent at the federal level.

Development from 1850 to 2010

In the last 160 years the population has increased significantly. In 1850, Vaud had fewer than 200,000 inhabitants in the entire canton. By spring 2010, the population had risen to over 700,000.

year Residents
1850 199,575
1860 213,157
1870 229,588
1880 235,349
1888 247,655
1900 281,379
1910 317,457
1920 317,498
1930 331,853
year Residents
1941 343,398
1950 377,585
1960 429,512
1970 511,851
1980 528,747
1990 601,816
2000 640,657
2010 700,000


The official language of the canton is French . At the 2000 census , 81.83 percent of residents said French was the language they speak best. The other national languages ​​achieved the values ​​4.75 percent ( German ), 2.92 percent ( Italian ) and 0.04 percent ( Romansh ). 10.46 percent of the population reported another language as their best spoken language.

Religions - denominations

Religious affiliation of the population in the canton of Vaud (status: 2000 census)

In the cities, cultural diversity also manifests itself in the area of ​​religion. In the countryside, the traditional conditions are even more likely to apply, as the region around Echallens , a former common rule of the Reformed Bern and the Catholic Friborg, partly Catholic, the rest of Vaud as a former subject area of ​​Bern, has traditionally been reformed. In the last census, 40.04 percent of the population stated to be Protestant and thus a large majority of the Église Évangélique Réformée du canton de Vaud , followed by Roman Catholic with 33.62 percent ( dioceses of Lausanne, Geneva and Friborg ). Almost 14 percent of the population have no affiliation, and about 5 percent did not want to provide any information. The largest minority is the Islamic community (3.86 percent) ahead of the Christian Orthodox population (1.65 percent).


The Château Saint-Maire in Lausanne is the seat of the State Council of the Canton of Vaud .

Constitutional reform of 2003

The new cantonal constitution came into force on April 14, 2003, exactly 200 years to the day after the canton was founded. A constitutional council had previously drawn up a draft between 1999 and 2002. The total revision was supposed to renew the canton and give it a clearer and more dynamic framework.

The most important changes in the revision are, among other things, that the Grand Council now has 150 members instead of the previous 180 and a legislature now lasts five years instead of the previous four years. Instead of an annual rotation of the Presidium of the State Council , it elects a new President from among its members for the entire legislature. A new audit office , consisting of five judges , was set up, which is elected by the Grand Council. The foreigners resident in the canton are given the right to vote and to vote at the municipal level, and the 19 districts are now combined into ten districts. The Reformed Church also lost its status as a state church , but remains, like the Roman Catholic Church, a regional church recognized under public law .

In a vote on September 22, 2002, the new constitution was adopted with 55.9 percent. The turnout was 44.4 percent, which is normal for Swiss voters.

Direct democratic people's rights

By means of a popular initiative , 12,000 people entitled to vote can demand the enactment, amendment or repeal of a law or a partial revision of the constitution within four months, and 18,000 voting rights can demand a total revision of the constitution. A popular initiative must be submitted to the referendum after it has been discussed in the cantonal parliament.

The obligatory referendum is subject to partial and total revisions of the constitution, as well as treaties amending the constitution, changes to the cantonal territory and statements and decrees relating to nuclear energy, as well as certain measures to reorganize finances.

All laws and decrees as well as law-changing contracts are subject to the optional referendum . This requires 12,000 signatures from voters, collected within sixty days of publication.

legislative branch

The Grand Conseil is the parliament of the canton of Vaud. It has 150 members who are elected by the electorate by proportional representation for five years each. The members of the Grand Council elect their president for one year each.

Elections to the Vaud Grand Council
Political party Seats
Distribution of seats in 2017 Share of voters in percent
FDP.The Liberals (FDP) - 47 49
21st 37 7th 4th 49 25th 
A total of 150 seats
Election to the Vaudois Grand Council on April 30, 2017
Turnout: 38.92%
AdC, Center
Gains and losses
compared to 2012
 % p
AdC, Center
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 29 - -
Liberal Party (LPS) 19th - -
Social Democratic Party (SP) 38 41 37
Swiss People's Party (SVP) 26th 27 25th
Green Party (GPS) 24 19th 21st
Green Liberal Party (glp) 03 07th 07th
Alliance du Center (AdC)
Vaud libre 01 01 04th
Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP) 04th 04th 02
Federal Democratic Union (EDU) 01 0- 0-
Ensemble à gauche (EAG) (United Left)
Party of labor 04th 03 03
solidarityS 01 01 01
Décroissance Alternatives 0- 0- 01


The executive power of the canton is exercised by the Council of State (Conseil d'État) . It consists of seven members who have the title of conseiller d'État (Councilors of State) and who are elected by the majority voting population for five years each. Each Council of State has its own department. Primus inter pares is the President of the State Council, who is elected by the seven State Councilors for a five-year term.

Members of the State Council of the Canton of Vaud
State Council Political party department Elected in the year Replaces
Nuria Gorrite , President of the Council of State SP Département des infrastructures et des ressources humaines (DIRH)
Department of Infrastructure and Human Resources
2012 François Marthaler (GPS)
Philippe Leuba , Vice President for 2019-2020 FDP Département de l'économie, de l'innovation et du sport (DECS)
Department of Economy, Innovation and Sport
2007 Jacqueline Maurer-Mayor (FDP)
Pascal Broulis FDP Département des finances et des relations extérieures (DFIRE)
Department of Finance and External Relations
2002 Charles Favre (FDP)
Béatrice Métraux GPS Département de l'environnement et de la sécurité (DES)
Department of Environment and Safety
2012 Jean-Claude Mermoud (SVP)
Cesla Amarelle SP Département de la formation, de la jeunesse et de la culture (DFJC)
Department of Education, Youth and Culture
2017 Anne-Catherine Lyon (SP)
Rebecca Ruiz SP Département de la santé et de l'action sociale (DSAS)
Department of Health and Social Affairs
2019 Pierre-Yves Maillard (SP)
Christelle Luisier Brodard FDP Département des institutions et du territoire (DIT)
Department of Home Affairs and Construction
2020 Jacqueline de Quattro (FDP)

Vincent Grandjean has been the state clerk since 1997. The State Chancellery is responsible, among other things, for the minutes of the Council of State's meetings.


Jurisdiction is carried out in the first instance by the district courts (tribunaux d'arrondissement) and in the second instance by the cantonal court (Tribunal cantonal) . The district courts are preceded by the justices de paix as the arbitration authority .

Important offices are located at the cantonal court, such as B. the cantonal examining magistrate's office , the juvenile court , the executive judge's office and the cantonal commercial register office . It also acts as a cantonal constitutional court.

The Swiss Federal Supreme Court , which is the highest judicial authority in Switzerland, is also located in the canton capital of Lausanne .

Party system

Political forces have remained relatively stable since 1946. The majority of the center-left parties act against the center-right. There are nationally known parties, with the SVP and the SP being roughly the same size. This is followed by the FDP and the Greens . The CVP usually appears on joint electoral lists with the EDU , but it is not a strong force.

MPs in Bern

After the cantons of Zurich and Bern, the canton of Vaud has the most national councilors with 19 members . In the Senate he as representing all historic full cantons of two members.

Members of the National Council

Members who joined in 2019 are shown in bold type.

Members of the Council of States


Headquarters of Nestlé  - the largest food company in the world and the largest industrial company in Switzerland

The main economic sectors in Vaud are manufacturing and the tertiary sector . 20 percent of production is exported, with Europe being the largest buyer of the goods with 66 percent. The economy is essentially based on the service sector. This represents almost 80 percent of all jobs. The capital city of Lausanne is the economic center and has a service sector share of almost 72 percent.

The Vaud is also known in other economic sectors. There are leading industries in the areas of micromechanics , electronics , watchmaking , medical technology , information technology and biotechnology . There are also several technology parks and incubators in the canton . The nationally known World Trade Center is located in Lausanne . The authorities actively support economic development.

The largest resident companies in Vaud with national or international importance include the hardware manufacturer Logitech , the cigarette company Philip Morris International , the shoe manufacturer Bata , the media company Edipresse , the advertising company Publigroupe , the world's largest food company Nestlé and the manufacturer of digital security systems Kudelski .


Vaud is divided into four tourist regions: "Cities - Lakes", "Jura", "In the countryside" and "Alps". The area between Lausanne and Montreux , where Lavaux is also located, the so-called Vaudois Riviera, is particularly popular. In 2002, the canton received CHF 4.56 billion from tourism (66 percent direct income from tourists and 34 percent indirectly). With more than 22,510 employees, tourism represents 8.6 percent of all jobs in the canton. In the canton of Vaud there are thermal baths in Lavey (the warmest thermal baths in Switzerland) and Yverdon-les-Bains (the sulphurous thermal water from Yverdon was already in the Roman times known).


Métro Lausanne's m2 line is Switzerland's first metro.

The first motorway in Switzerland was the Geneva - Lausanne route (today's A1 ). The nearest international airport is Geneva Airport . However, there are two regional airports in the canton of Vaud; the Lausanne-Blécherette airfield and the Payerne military airfield . Public transport is very well developed in the entire canton, so that many commuters do not use a car to get to work. The Lausanne train station serves as a hub for regional, national and international traffic and connects the city with larger international cities such as Paris , Milan , Stuttgart or Frankfurt am Main in a few hours. The large Lausanne marshalling yard is located near Lausanne . Local traffic is also very well developed and the many railway lines also benefit from tourism. In Lausanne, Montreux , Vevey , Nyon , Morges , Yverdon-les-Bains and Aigle, densely populated bus and trolley networks serve these cities and their agglomerations . With the opening of the Métro Lausanne (M2) in 2008, there is a fully automated subway system that is unique in Switzerland . Ships operated by the Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le Lac Léman (CGN) operate on Lake Geneva and also serve French communities such as Évian-les-Bains . In 2019, the degree of motorization (passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants) was 522.


There are many very recognized educational institutions in the canton of Vaud. The Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)), the equivalent of ETH Zurich for the Romandie (French Switzerland), located in Lausanne. Together with the University of Lausanne (Université de Lausanne (UNIL)), which was founded in 1537, EPFL forms the largest campus in Switzerland. In addition, the canton has the Lausanne Hotel Management School (École hôtelière de Lausanne (EHL)) , the oldest and most renowned educational institute in the hotel industry in the world.

The higher education is guaranteed by several universities of applied sciences . In Vaud, vocational training is possible in more than 200 specialist areas. Around 13,000 young people are trained every year.


Start of the Lausanne Marathon

In 1915 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) set up shop on the shores of Lake Geneva near Lausanne, and since then Lausanne has had the official title of “Olympic Capital”. The canton of Vaud is currently home to 26 international sports associations and 20 international sports organizations. These include the European Athletics Federation , the International Baseball Federation and the International Boxing Federation , which are located in Lausanne, as well as UEFA in Nyon and the International Cycling Federation in Aigle .

Vaud is the host of various major events, such as B. the second largest international athletics meeting, the Athletissima , the Prix ​​de Lausanne or the Lausanne Marathon .

The best-known clubs are FC Lausanne-Sport , Yverdon-Sport FC , HC Lausanne and FC Le Mont . Thabo Sefolosha from Vaud is the first Swiss basketball player in the NBA .


Major Davel before his execution
The capital of Lausanne around 1900

In the Ice Age around 18,000 BC The canton was almost completely covered by glaciers . After the glaciers receded in the Stone Age, settled around 13,500 BC. Hunters and gatherers the area and around 5,500 BC. BC the first people settled on the shores of the lakes. When these around 2,000 BC After learning how to extract metal from ore , the first clearing took place.

Julius Caesar prevented 58 BC In the battle of Bibracte that the Helvetii emigrated to Gaul and subordinated them to the Roman Empire . The region experienced a great boom, as new building techniques were introduced, the Latin language began to be spoken and trade and commerce began.

In the 5th century, the Burgundians populated today's canton area and settled next to the Helvetians. For five centuries, Frankish kings took over the rule and for around 150 years the area belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy , in which it enjoyed great autonomy .

Around the year 1000 the Comitatus waldensis ("Grafschaft Wald" or "Waldgau"; for the name, see the introduction to the article) was assigned to the Bishop of Lausanne . With Moudon as the capital, the Patria Vuaudi (Waudi) took the form of a small state under the leadership of the Counts of Savoy in the 13th century - but without the diocese of Lausanne .

The Vaud area was the main venue for the Burgundian Wars from 1475 to 1476 and was conquered by the Bernese in 1536 at the time of the Italian Wars . They inevitably introduced the Reformation and ruled the area for 262 years. Vaud was not affected by the various European wars and experienced a relatively peaceful time except for an uprising under the leadership of Major Davel , who was executed as a rebel by the Bernese on April 24, 1723. He is still a popular hero in Vaud today .

The independence of the Lemanic Republic was declared in Lausanne on January 24, 1798 . Fearing Napoleon's troops, the Bernese withdrew from their subjects. A short time later, the Vaud became part of the Helvetic Republic as the canton of Léman .

Through the mediation act of February 19, 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte turned the Vaud into an independent canton. This date is considered to be the founding date of the canton. The first session of the Grand Council in Lausanne began on April 14, 1803 and this date has been a cantonal holiday ever since.

The Vaud Constitution has been amended several times since 1803. In 1831 universal suffrage was introduced, and in 1959 Vaud became the first canton in Switzerland to introduce women's suffrage at cantonal level.

Administrative division

Political communities

Municipalities of the canton of Vaud

The following are the political communities with more than 10,000 inhabitants as of December 31, 2018:

Political community Residents
Lausanne 139'111
Yverdon-les-Bains 030,157
Montreux 025,984
Nyon 021,198
Renens 020,927
Vevey 019,891
Pully 018,313
Morges 015,708
Gland 013,109
Ecublens 012,863
Prilly 012,399
La Tour-de-Peilz 011,828


The canton of Vaud is divided into ten districts. In terms of area, Ouest lausannois is the smallest with 26.32 km² and Jura-Nord vaudois with 702.59 km² the largest. With 166'367 inhabitants as of December 31, 2018, the district of Lausanne  - nota bene on 65.15 km² - has the most, and the district of Broye-Vully with 43'145 the least.

Districts of the canton of Vaud since 2008
district Residents Area
in km²
main place
Aigle 045,589 434.85 Aigle
Broye-Vully 043,145 264.98 Payerne
Gros-de-Vaud 045'258 230.83 Echallens
Jura-Nord vaudois (Vaud Northern Jura) 091,971 702.59 Yverdon-les-Bains
Lausanne 166,367 065.15 Lausanne
Lavaux-Oron 062,329 134.57 Bourg-en-Lavaux
Morges 082,609 372.96 Morges
Nyon 100,685 307.34 Nyon
Ouest lausannois (Lausanne West) 076'212 026.32 Renens
Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut 084,980 282.88 Vevey

Former distribution

Districts of the canton of Vaud before 2008

With effect from September 1, 2006, the " Loi sur le découpage territorial (LDecTer) du 30 may 2006 " (law on spatial structure of May 30, 2006) came into force. The new administrative structure came into effect on January 1, 2008.

From the founding of the canton in 1803 to December 31, 2007, the canton was divided into 19 districts (French district ) and these in turn were divided into a total of 60 districts (cercle) . The districts of Aigle , Aubonne , Avenches , Cossonay , Echallens , Grandson , Lausanne , La Vallée du Lac de Joux , Lavaux , Morges , Moudon , Nyon , Orbe , Oron , Payerne , Pays-d'Enhaut , Rolle , Vevey and Yverdon existed .

It was discussed whether the Lausanne agglomeration could be turned into a district. It was decided in favor of the division that exists today. It was also rejected that Aubonne and Rolle would become an eleventh district on the banks of the lake. According to the decision of the Federal Supreme Court, this would have been too small for a Grand Council constituency.

Since the reform, today's districts correspond to the constituencies .



Saucissons in the market in Lutry

The canton's culinary specialties include sausages with different regional characteristics, known as saucissons (e.g. boutefas and saucisse aux choux vaudoise). Known cantonal recipes are Papet Vaudois (leek stew), Soupe aux choux (Kabissuppe), fondue , Pommes de terre au lard (bacon potatoes), Jambon à l'os (ham), plum cake, Zucchettikuchen with mint , Vaud apples and cheese L 'Etivaz .

With over 3882 hectares of vineyards, the Vaud is the largest wine producer in Switzerland after the canton of Valais . The large Lavaux growing area on Lake Geneva is a UNESCO World Heritage Site .


In addition to the historical sights such as the Romainmôtier Monastery or Chillon Castle , which is the most-visited historical building in Switzerland with 300,000 visitors per year, there are also numerous newer buildings in the canton. The thermal bath and center in Yverdon-les-Bains is known nationwide , as is the spa town of Lavey .

Also known is the Charlie Chaplin statue with the Charlie Chaplin Museum , which is located at Charlie Chaplin's last residence in Corsier-sur-Vevey , where he spent the last 25 years of his life. A Freddie Mercury statue is in Montreux .

The most important institutions are the headquarters of the International Olympic Committee in the capital Lausanne and the headquarters of UEFA in Nyon .

Customs and events

Since 1889, the largest wine festival in Switzerland called Fête des Vignerons has been held in Vevey approximately every 25 years . For this purpose, a large arena is being built on the Grande Place , the second largest marketplace in Europe after the one in Lisbon .

The Christmas market in Montreux, the Montreux Jazz Festival , the Paléo Festival Nyon , as well as an annual tulip festival in Morges are among the most important events.

See also

Portal: Vaud  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Vaud


  • Gilbert Coutaz: Vaud. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  • Lucienne Hubler: Histoire du Pays de Vaud . Loisirs et Pédagogie, Lausanne 1991, ISBN 2-606-00526-0 .
  • Johann Georg Krünitz : Geology of Switzerland: Northern sub-zone of the Alps, Jura and hill country . Bern / Zurich, S. 414-419 .
  • Bernhard Studer : D. Johann Georg Krünitz economic-technological encyclopedia or general system of state, town, house and agriculture, as well as the description of the earth, art and natural history: in alphabetical order 231 which contains the articles Volkstheater to Vaud . Berlin 1855, p. 557-573 .
  • Louis Vulliemin : The canton Waat, historically, geographically and statistically portrayed from the oldest times to the present. A manual and house book for everyone . Translated from the French manuscript by G. H. Wehrli-Boisot (=  Historical-Geographical-Statistical Painting of Switzerland, Vol. 19) (2 volumes). Huber and Compagnie, St. Gallen / Bern 1847/1849 (digitized version of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Volume 1 and Volume 2 ).

Web links

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Individual evidence

  1. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  2. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  3. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  4. Canton (Switzerland) #Liste the Swiss cantons and their key data
  5. Schweizerisches Idiotikon , Volume XVI, Columns 2207 f., Article Wāt II, its etymological information on information from the Glossaire des patois de la Suisse romande and the Center de Dialectologie et d'étude du Français régional of the University of Neuchâtel and the French Etymological Dictionary , Volume XVII, p. 486, Lemma wald . The same explanation is offered by the Lexicon of Swiss Community Names , ed. from the Center de Dialectologie at the University of Neuchâtel under the direction of Andres Kristol, Huber, Frauenfeld and Payot, Lausanne 2005, p. 519, Lemma Le Vaud VD, and Maurice Bossard, Jean-Pierre Chavan: Nos lieux-dits. Toponymy romande. Payot, Lausanne 1990, p. 36, Lemma Vaux .
  6. One of the three Freiburg enclaves, Notre Dame de Tours in the municipality of Montagny , is so small that it cannot be seen in the maps shown above: Daniel Huber: Crazy Borders, Part I: Six Swiss Borderline Cases, No. 6 Welscher Patchwork Carpet.
  7. Vaud information center. Retrieved December 11, 2009 .
  8. CITY AND COUNTRY. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007 ; Retrieved May 19, 2010 .
  9. ^ Swiss cantons mountains. Archived from the original on November 4, 2011 ; Retrieved December 14, 2009 .
  10. ^ Website of the Federal Statistical Office: Area and population of cities with more than 30,000 inhabitants . ( September 23, 2015 memento in the Internet Archive ) ( Microsoft Excel ) Retrieved May 19, 2010
  11. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  12. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  13. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  14. Population development 1850–1990. (PDF) Federal Statistical Office , pp. 183–184 , archived from the original on November 18, 2013 ; Retrieved May 19, 2010 .
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  16. a b Resident population according to selected characteristics and nationality as well as gender. ( Microsoft Excel ) (No longer available online.) Federal Statistical Office , formerly in the original ; Retrieved September 24, 2009 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  17. ^ Constitution of the Canton of Vaud , The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation ( )
  18. a b c The Canton of Vaud 2009. (PDF; 4.0 MB) Archived from the original on August 25, 2009 ; Retrieved September 24, 2009 .
  19. ^ Constitution. Archived from the original on September 25, 2009 ; Retrieved September 24, 2009 (French).
  20. (accessed on May 19, 2010).
  21. (accessed on: May 30, 2012).
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  28. L'importance du tourisme pour l'économie vaudoise. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Département de l'économie , November 2004, formerly in the original ; Retrieved November 2, 2009 (French).  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  29., French-language commercial register of the canton of Geneva, spelling Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le Lac Léman with the entry of Michel Jeannet (ship restoration). Retrieved November 29, 2016.
  30. MOBILITY AND TRANSPORT. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007 ; Retrieved November 2, 2009 .
  31. TRAFFIC. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007 ; Retrieved November 2, 2009 .
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  35. International Sport. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007 ; Retrieved December 15, 2009 .
  36. ↑ A natural spectacle of sport. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007 ; Retrieved December 15, 2009 .
  37. ^ The Vaudois Centenary of 1903, pp. 402–406
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Coordinates: 46 ° 36 '  N , 6 ° 36'  E ; CH1903:  535362  /  161,653