Kingdom of Burgundy
The Kingdom of Burgundy was a state in the south of what is now France, which was created through the partition of the Franconian Empire . In 561 to 584 and 639 to 737 Franconian partial kingdoms were created in Burgundy, which first fell to Neustria and then again to the entire empire. In 880 and 888 the kingdoms of Niederburgund and Hochburgund were founded and in 930 they were united to form the Kingdom of Burgundy. It consisted of those parts of the former Carolingian part of Burgundy , which fell to Emperor Lothar I as Lotharii Regnum when the Franconian Empire was divided in 843 in the Treaty of Verdun . This was all of Burgundy except for the area that came to Western France in 843 , is in the center of what is now France and formed the Bourgogne region from 1956 to 2016.
The Kingdom of Burgundy fell to the Roman-German Empire in 1033 , albeit large parts in the 14th and 15th centuries. Fell to the Kingdom of France in the 19th century. The Burgundian part of the Roman-German Empire (the third part of the empire next to the German part of the empire and imperial Italy ) is often referred to in historical studies as regnum Arelatense or Arelat .
Origin and development
The Kingdom of Burgundy developed in three stages:
Karl died in 863, after which his brothers again divided the new empire among themselves:
- The later free county of Burgundy , western Switzerland, the region around Lyon and Vienne as well as the lower Rhône valley on the right of the Rhone fell to the Lorraine King Lothar II.
- The Valais , Savoy , the Dauphiné and the Provence to the Italian King Ludwig II.
When Lothar II (Lorraine) died (869), his uncle, Charles the Bald (who ruled over western France) and Louis the German (who ruled over eastern France), whose part of Burgundy was again divided in 870 ( treaty of Mersen ):
- Charles the Bald acquired the Rhône Valley,
- Ludwig the German the western part of Switzerland and parts of the French Jura .
When Ludwig II also died in 875, Charles the Bald finally also acquired his empire including the parts of Burgundy that Ludwig II had received in 863.
Regional foundations of empires
Lower Burgundy comprised the present-day French regions of Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur , Hochburgund the later Free County of Burgundy , western Switzerland, Basel , Valais , Aosta and parts of central Switzerland. In 930 Rudolf II of Hochburgund united the two Burgundian empires to form the Kingdom of Burgundy . (The later Burgundy belonged neither to Upper Burgundy nor to Lower Burgundy, but to western Franconia . Fraxinetum in Provence became Islamic in 888.)
Kingdom of Lower Burgundy (from 880)
In 877, two years after he had inherited the Burgundian lands, Charles the Bald (western France) died. His son Ludwig the Stammler couldn't prevent a Burgundian nobleman, Count Boso von Vienne , from going into business that same year . In 880, with the help of Pope John VIII and at the urging of his wife Irmengard, a daughter of Louis II of Italy, Boso was proclaimed King of Burgundy and Provence at a gathering of the great at Mantala (Montaille near Vienne). He founded the kingdom of Lower Burgundy, which was also called the Cisjuran Burgundy Empire, or the Kingdom of Arelat after its capital Arles. Boso was able to assert himself against the new king of Eastern Franconia, Karl the Dicken (876-887, from 880 also King of Italy and from 881 Emperor), but could not hold the far northeast of his country, Valais, Aosta and Savoy.
Ludwig the Blind , King of Lower Burgundy 887–924, King of the Lombards ( King of Italy ) 899–905, Roman Emperor 901–905, was the son of Bosos and his wife Irmengard. After his father's death , as an underage heir, he and his mother paid homage to the East Franconian king and emperor Karl the Dicken and received his inheritance from him as a fief . Ludwig was in the same relationship with Karl's successor Arnulf of Carinthia . Ludwig became king of the Lombards in 899 and was crowned emperor by Pope Benedict IV in 901 . In 905 he was defeated by Berengar of Friuli , who blinded him and drove him out of Italy. Count Hugo of Provence was regent of Niederburgund from 905 and king of Niederburgund from 924. Since the withdrawal of Rudolf II from Hochburgund in 926, he was also King of Italy.
Kingdom of Hochburgund (from 888)
After the deposition of Charlemagne (888), Eastern Franconia fell apart and in 888 in Saint-Maurice the Welf Rudolf I (888-912), a nephew of King Hugo of France, proclaimed himself King of Burgundy. The empire included the later Free County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté) and the Margraviate of Transjurania . In the same year, Rudolf I's brother-in-law, Richard the judge (858-921) - founder of the medieval duchy of Burgundy west of the Saône - defeated the Normans at Saint-Florentin . They had invaded Burgundy in 888 and sacked Bèze .
Rudolf II of Hochburgund (912–937) waged several wars to expand Hochburgund against Alemannia. He acquired Basel and areas in Aargau around 912/19/26. Only the re-establishment of the Duchy of Swabia under Burchard II prevented further expansion. In the Battle of Winterthur (919) Rudolf was decisively defeated. Swabia and Hochburgund then joined forces to assert mutual interests in Italy - Rudolf II married Berta von Alamannien , a daughter of Burchard II. The border between Swabia and Hochburgund was defined by the Huttwil-Aarwangen-Basel line. In 922 Rudolf was called to Italy by the opposition directed against Berengar I of Friuli, Emperor and King of Italy, and defeated Berengar. In 926 he withdrew from Italy and left it to Hugo of Provence , King of Niederburgund.
Union of the Kingdom of Burgundy (930)
In 930 Hugo I left his homeland in Lower Burgundy to Rudolf II, who in return waived his claims to rule in Italy. A marriage contract was signed between Hugo's son Lothar and Rudolf's daughter Adelheid . After Hugo of Provence was coronated as King of Italy , Rudolf II united the two Burgundian empires to form the Kingdom of Burgundy in 930 . 935 he concluded a treaty of friendship with the German King Henry I . After Rudolf's death in 937, Hugo again claimed Niederburgund because his son Lothar Adelheid, the sister of Conrad III. , Son and successor of Rudolf II., Had been promised. He could make his claims against Konrad III. not prevail, by the Saxon duke and Roman-German King Otto I was supported. This left before Hugo's arrival in Burgundy Konrad III. in December 937 to his court in Saxony and thus secured his inheritance.
Hugo's son Lothar II had been co-regent since 931 and after Hugo's death in 948 king of Italy . In 947 he married Adelheid von Hochburgund , who was then presumably 16 years old, who had been promised to him, but died on November 22nd, 950, whereby some poisoning by Berengar II of Ivrea is assumed. He imprisoned Adelheid in Italy after Lothar's death and declared himself King of Italy on December 15, 950. Since Adelheid was not only the (not yet 20-year-old) widow of the Italian king, but also the niece of Ida von Schwaben , the wife of Otto's son Liudolf , Otto moved to Italy in September 951. Otto was interested in intervening in the conflict in Italy because as a widower - his wife Edgitha had died in 946 - he had the opportunity to marry Adelheid and thus to extend his rule. Otto led Adelheid from her refuge in Canossa to Pavia , where he married her in October 951. Otto I conquered Italy and finally confirmed the rule of his brother-in-law Konrad III. about Niederburgund.
Kingdom of Arelat
Conrad III. the peaceable (937–993), brother of Adelheid and heir to the throne of Rudolf, grew up at the Saxon court. After Rudolf II's death in 937 , Hugo von Provence raised claims against him against Hochburgund, against which Konrad was protected by the German King Otto I in 938 . Under Konrad's rule, the empire suffered through invasions by the Hungarians and through feuds and predatory wars of the great. The Saracens also use the power vacuum to raid the north of Burgundy, and in 939 they also plundered the monastery of Saint-Maurice in the lower Valais .
Under Konrad, the two Burgundies grew together under German hegemony. Since then there was a unified Kingdom of Burgundy, which was also called the Kingdom of Arelat after the most important city in Lower Burgundy Arles .
Islamic rule in Provence ended in 975.
King Rudolf III (993-1032) was a weak king oppressed by his vassals. Since he had remained childless, he signed an inheritance contract in 1006 with the German Empire under Henry II , the last of the Ottonian-Saxon kings and emperors, and confirmed this inheritance claim at further meetings with the emperor in Strasbourg in May or June 1016 and in February 1018 in the royal palace of Mainz . Heinrich II. Was a nephew of Rudolf III through his mother Gisela .
In 1033 the empire fell by inheritance to the Roman-German Emperor Konrad II and henceforth formed the third part of the Roman-German Empire alongside the German part and Imperial Italy . The influence of the Roman-German monarchy in Burgundy was traditionally only weak and in fact only somewhat effective in the north of Burgundy. In the course of the 13th century, French influence increased in the Burgundian part of the empire.
The Burgundian part of the empire included Provence around 1300 , the so-called Free County of Burgundy , the Dauphiné (County of Vienne ) and the Counties of Mömpelgard and Savoy , but not the Duchy of Burgundy, which belongs to France . Derived from the coronation city of Arles , the Burgundian part of the empire is often referred to as regnum Arelatense or Arelat in historical studies . The coronation of Charles IV in Arles in 1365 was the last Burgundian coronation and was primarily intended to emphasize once again that the Arelat belonged to the Roman-German Empire. Soon afterwards, Charles gave up this policy and even favored French influence by granting the French crown prince imperial proxy powers in Burgundy during a visit to Paris on January 7, 1378, thus effectively giving up imperial rights, probably in order to obtain other concessions from the French crown .
During the late 14th and 15th centuries, most of the Burgundian part of the empire fell to France or the House of Burgundy , which created a comprehensive territorial complex that encompassed both French territories and imperial estates. At the end of the 15th century, the House of Habsburg under Maximilian I regained parts of it, but could not hold them permanently.
Territorial splintering and ending
In the Staufer period from the middle of the 12th century, the territories of Avignon as the county of Venaissin and the Valentinois ( Valence ) as the margraviate of Provence under the Counts of Toulouse and the territory of the Counts of Savoy became de facto independent territories within Burgundy.
The rectorate for the emperors was exercised by the dukes of Zähringen in the remaining areas . Several cities were founded among them (including Bern ). The dioceses of Basel , Sion , Lausanne and Geneva became increasingly independent.
France used the defeat of the Staufer against the Anjous for a further area correction: The valley to the right of the Rhône between Valence and Avignon (the Ardeche) also became French. Basel , Lausanne and Besançon are free imperial cities .
In 1384, Duke Philip the Bold of Burgundy (the French Bourgogne ) won control of the Free County of Burgundy. This finally destroyed the territorial unity of the Kingdom of Burgundy, but the union of the Duchy of Burgundy (French) and the Free County of Burgundy (German) resulted in a new Burgundy, see House of Burgundy .
- Laetitia Boehm : History of Burgundy. Politics, state formation, culture. 2nd, supplemented edition. Kohlhammer , Stuttgart 1979, ISBN 3-17-005213-6 .
- Hermann Kamp : Burgundy: History and Culture ( Beck'sche series 2414). Beck , Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-53614-4 .
- Jessika Nowak, Jan Rüdiger (Ed.): Between Basel and Marseille. The Rudolfinger Burgundy (9th – 11th centuries) ( Itinera 44). Schwabe , Basel 2019, ISBN 978-3-7965-3918-3 .
- Rudolf Schieffer : Die Zeit des Carolingischen Großreichs (714-887) (= Handbook of German History . Vol. 2). 10th, completely revised edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-608-60002-7 , p. 144 ( books.google.de ).
- Thietmar VII, 27 (20) ff.
- Thietmar VIII, 7 (5).
- Cf. for example Bertram Resmini: The Arelat in the field of forces of French, English and Angiovini politics after 1250 and the influence of Rudolf von Habsburg (= Cologne historical treatises. 25). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 1980, ISBN 3-412-01778-7 (At the same time: Cologne, University, dissertation, 1974).
- Heinz Thomas : Karl V. In: Joachim Ehlers , Heribert Müller , Bernd Schneidmüller (Hrsg.): The French kings of the Middle Ages. From Odo to Charles VIII. 888–1498 (= Beck's series. 1723). Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54739-7 , p. 251 ff., Here p. 271 f.