Ore ( plural ores ) is a mineral mixture mined from the earth's crust and usually additionally mechanically and chemically processed , which historically was mined solely because of its metal content in order to process it for tools and the like. The Copper Age , the Bronze Age and the Iron Age indirectly owe their names to this raw material.
Ore consists of the usable ore minerals and the non-usable gangue . The extraction or mining, above or below ground, and the further usability of the ores is determined by the geological occurrence of the minerals, their distributive availability and the technological progress of mining or the subsequent economic operations, such as metal production and processing . The Lübeck Emil Possehl was once the largest Erzhändler Europe.
Today the mining and extraction of a great deal more minerals from the soil to ores takes place, since the chemical and physical usability is technologically more advanced. In some cases, economically usable minerals such. B. to non-metals such as sulfur, referred to as ore, but on the other hand also as mineral raw materials.
Etymology and Definitions
The word "Erz" (not directly related to the adjective "Ehern" in the sense of "iron" derived from Middle High German / Old High German ër , "Erz", derived from ërin ) comes from the Old High German aruz (zi) , meaning "ore" or . "Metal", and may originally be a borrowing from Sumerian urud (u) , "copper".
Ore is a term used in economics today . Whether a mineral deposit is designated as an ore deposit depends solely on the profitability of the mining. This also includes the ores that have been mined in the course of history. Since economic efficiency is the only determining factor, mineral deposits that currently appear uninteresting could definitely be classified as deposits and mined in times of resource scarcity .
“Ores are naturally occurring mineral aggregates of economic interest, from which one or more components of value can be extracted through processing. Mostly these are minerals that contain more or less metallic components. "
"Ore is a more or less pace verwachsenes, metalliferous minerals or mineral dogfight that - from the standpoint of miner viewed or processor - with profits reduced, or can be further processed profitably. The question of whether one metal or several metals are profitable seems to be the only possible criterion that can be used. "
The history of mankind has long been linked to the extraction of substances from nature. At first only the extraction of earth and minerals through the more or less accidental collection of freely occurring minerals and weathering products was in the foreground, but targeted searching and mining soon became human occupation.
Ores can have very different metal contents. A tin ore with 2% tin content may already be considered rich , whereas an iron ore with more than 60% iron (previously in Germany: 30% iron) is considered to be high.
Classification of the ore minerals according to the anion
Breakdown of the ore minerals according to the metal cation
Black metal ores: Fe, Mn, Cr, Ti, Ni, Co, W, Mo, V
- Magnetite or magnetic iron stone: Fe 3 O 4
- Hematite or iron luster: Fe 2 O 3
- Siderite or iron lime: Fe [CO 3 ]
- Chromite : FeCr 2 O 4
- Molybdenite : MoS 2
Non-ferrous metal ores: Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn
Light metal ores: Al, Mg, Li, Be
Precious metal ores: Au, Ag, Pt
- solid silver: Ag
- Argentite or silver luster: Ag 2 S
- solid platinum: Pt
- Sperrylite : PtAs 2
Selection of important ore minerals in alphabetical order
- Argentite : Ag 2 S
- Bauxite : Al (OH) 3
- Bastnesite (actually bastnesite- (Ce), bastnesite- (La), bastnesite- (Y), hydroxylbastnesite- (Ce)): (Ce, La, Y) (CO 3 ) F or (Ce, La, Y) ( CO 3 ) (OH, F)
- Beryl : Be 3 Al 2 (SiO 3 ) 6
- Bornite : Cu 5 FeS 4
- Chalcopyrite : CuFeS 2
- Chalcosine : Cu 2 S
- Chromite : (Fe, Mg) Cr 2 O 4
- Cobaltite : (Co, Fe) AsS
- Columbite -Tantalite or Coltan : (Fe, Mn) (Nb, Ta) 2 O 6
- Galena : PbS
- Gold : Au
- Hematite : Fe 2 O 3
- Ilmenite : FeTiO 3
- Cassiterite : SnO 2
- Magnetite : Fe 3 O 4
- Molybdenite : MoS 2
- Monazite (actually Monazite- (La), Monazite- (Ce), Monazite- (Nd) and Monazite- (Sm)): (La, Ce, Nd, Sm) [PO 4 ]
- Pitchblende : UO 2
- Pentlandite : (Fe, Ni) 9 S 8
- Scheelite : CaWO 4
- Wolframite : (Fe, Mn) WO 4
- Zinc blende : ZnS
- Cinnabar : HgS
Import dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 100% for bauxite, chrome, manganese, nickel, platinum and tin
- 99.5% for copper
- 68% for zinc