Canton of Neuchâtel

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Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel
République et Canton de Neuchâtel
coat of arms
coat of arms
Canton of the Swiss Confederation
Abbreviation / license plate : NE
Official language : French
Main town : Neuchâtel (Neuchâtel)
Largest place : La Chaux-de-Fonds
Accession to the federal government : 1815
Area : 802.16  km²
Height range : 421–1550 m above sea level M.
Residents: 176,850 (December 31, 2018)
Population density : 220 inhabitants per km²
Proportion of foreigners :
(residents without citizenship )
25.6% (December 31, 2015)
Unemployment rate : 6.1% (December 31, 2015)
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Map of the canton
Map of the canton
Municipalities of the canton
Municipalities of the canton

Coordinates: 47 ° 0 '  N , 6 ° 47'  E ; CH1903:  550330  /  205 312

Neuchâtel ( abbreviation NE ; Swiss German Nöieburg, French , Italian and Romansch Neuchâtel [nœʃɑtɛl, nøʃɑtɛl] ), officially French République et Canton de Neuchâtel (Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel) is a canton in the Romandie , the French-speaking country part of Switzerland and is one of the Greater Espace Mittelland region and the capital region of Switzerland . The main town is the eponymous city of Neuchâtel , the largest is La Chaux-de-Fonds .


The canton is located in the geographic region of the Swiss Jura in French-speaking western Switzerland and can be divided into four major regions. A flat strip of shore, called le Littoral , runs along Lake Neuchâtel . The capital of the same name, Neuchâtel, lies on the lake shore. To the north, bounded by the Chaumont , lies the Val de Ruz.

To the west of Neuchâtel, still in the lakeshore plain, is the alluvial cone at the mouth of the Areuse . The valley narrows further west to a narrow gorge and then opens up to the high valley Val de Travers. The Chasseron chain is located between the Val de Travers and Lake Neuchâtel , but most of it lies within the territory of the canton of Vaud . The striking rock basin of the Creux du Van forms the eastern end of this mountain range.

North of the Val de Travers and the Val de Ruz, a mountain range stretches across the entire length of the canton, reaching its highest point in the far east with the Chasseral . The most important pass crossing is the Vue des Alpes . Behind it are the Vallée des Ponts and the high valley of La Chaux-de-Fonds . The gorge of the Doubs with the Lac des Brenets forms part of the border with France .


As of December 31, 2018, the population of the canton of Neuchâtel was 176,850. The population density of 220 inhabitants per square kilometer is above the Swiss average (207 inhabitants per square kilometer). The proportion of foreigners (registered residents without Swiss citizenship ) was 25.6 percent on December 31, 2015, while 24.6 percent were registered nationwide. As of December 31, 2015, the unemployment rate was 6.1 percent compared to 3.7 percent at the federal level.

The population increased from 70,753 to 169,173 inhabitants between 1850 and 1970. Around the 1970s, the canton of Neuchâtel experienced a stagnation in the number of inhabitants, which was reflected during the onset of the severe economic crisis in which Neuchâtel lost its central position in the watch industry to the Biel region and large traditional companies such as Dubied and Suchard closed their doors.


The official language of Neuchâtel is French. In 2012, 88.3 percent of the population were French -, 6.2 percent Italian - and 6.0 percent German-speaking . In addition, English was represented with 3.3 percent.

Religions - denominations

From a denominational point of view, Neuchâtel belongs to the traditionally reformed cantons; only the two communities of Le Landeron  - which was under the special patronage of Solothurn in the Ancien Régime - and La Brévine have a Catholic character.

In 2017, 33.9 percent (60,355 people) of the total population of the canton of Neuchâtel were members of the Roman Catholic Church and 29.7 percent (52,807 people) were members of the Evangelical Reformed Church (100 percent: 177,964 people ). A Swiss-wide survey of a total of 200,000 people aged 15 and over by the Federal Statistical Office (FSO) in 2017 revealed the following denomination distribution (which differed greatly from the official church membership numbers): 21.4 percent of those surveyed in the canton of Neuchâtel stated that they were members of the Catholic Church 20.1 percent were of the Evangelical Reformed denomination and 5.9 percent belonged to other Christian churches. Another 4.2 percent were Muslim , 1.2 percent said they were members of another religious community, and 44.8 percent were non-denominational .

State and church have been completely separate since 1941. A concordat concluded in 2001 between the canton on the one hand and the Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Neuchâtel , the Catholic Church and the Christian Catholic Church on the other hand regulates the relationship between state and church and recognizes them as "institutions of public interest".


In 2011 the gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant was 81,661 Swiss francs . In 2012 the canton of Neuchâtel had 102,820 employees, of which 2,381 were in the primary (primary production) , 35,558 in the secondary (industry) and 64,881 in the tertiary sector (services) . 13,264 jobs were counted in the canton in 2012 (922 of them in the primary, 2,515 in the secondary and 9,827 in the tertiary sector). The unemployment rate amounted at 31 December 2015 of 6.1 percent compared to 3.7 percent at the federal level. In 1960, when the watch industry was at its heyday , 61.0 percent were still employed in the second sector.

Constitution and Politics

The currently valid canton constitution is dated September 24th, 2000 (with changes since then). It replaced the constitution of 1858.

Direct democratic people's rights

4,500 voters can take a popular initiative regarding the enactment, amendment or repeal of a law; their signatures must be collected within six months. To submit a Volksmotion , 100 voters are required.

4,500 voters can also demand that laws, spending decisions defined by law and important international treaties are submitted to the referendum ( optional referendum ); 6000 signatures are required for a partial revision of the constitution and 10,000 for a complete revision. Constitutional amendments and popular initiatives rejected by the Grand Council are subject to the mandatory referendum .

legislative branch

The legislative body ( legislative ), the Grand Council ( Grand Conseil ) called cantonal parliament . Its 115 members (grand councilors) are elected for a four-year legislative period in accordance with proportional voting rights.

The Grand Council is composed as follows:

Political party 2009 2013 2017 Distribution of seats Share of voters in percent
FDP.The Liberals (FDP) 41 35 43
6th 17th 32 4th 43 
A total of 115 seats
  • PdA : 6
  • SolidaritéS : 2
  • GPS : 17
  • SP : 32
  • glp : 4
  • CVP : 2
  • FDP : 43
  • SVP : 9
Election to the Grand Council of the Canton of Neuchâtel on April 2, 2017
Turnout: 33.44%
n. k.
Gains and losses
compared to 2013
 % p
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (SP) 36 33 32
Green Party of Switzerland (GPS) 14th 12 17th
Swiss People's Party (SVP) 14th 20th 09
Swiss Labor Party (PdA) and SolidaritéS 10 09 08th
Green Liberal Party (glp) - 05 04th
Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP) - 01 02


The highest executive body ( executive ) is the State Council ( Conseil d'État ) called cantonal government . Its five members (Councils of State) are elected for four years at the same time as the Grand Council in accordance with the major suffrage. Since the end of 2014, the Grand Council has had the right to remove a member of the State Council early with a three-quarters majority.

Members of the State Council of the Canton of Neuchâtel
State Council function Political party Department (with German translation)
Laurent Favre President of the State Council (2017/2018) 1 FDP Département du développement territorial et de l'environnement (DDTE)
Department of Territorial Development and Environment
Laurent Kurth Vice President of the State Council (2017/2018) 1 SP Département des finances et de la santé (DFS)
Department of Finance and Health
Jean-Nathanaël Karakash State Council SP Département de l'économie et de l'action sociale (DEAS)
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Monika Maire-Hefti State Council SP Département de l'éducation et de la famille (DEF)
Department of Education and Family
Alain Ribaux State Council FDP Département de la justice, de la sécurité et de la culture (DJSC)
Department of Justice, Security and Culture
1 Function from May 30, 2017 to May 31, 2018

The State Council is supported by the State Chancellery, which is headed by State Chancellor Séverine Despland.


Due to its new judicial constitution, which was enacted in 2010, the canton of Neuchâtel concentrated the previous courts ( judiciary ) into three by the beginning of 2011.

Courts of first instance are the two regional courts ( Tribunaux régionaux ), one of which is set up for the upper (nine judges) and the other for the lower part of the canton (13 judges) and each of which has seven sections defined by subject area. One of these sections is the Vermittleramt ( Chambre de conciliation ,) hinwirkt its single judge in civil cases to an amicable agreement.

Court of second instance is the Cantonal Court ( Tribunal Cantonal ), which is one of twelve judges. The District Court consists of six on the subject matter defined courts (courts) .

The administrative jurisdiction is the by the cantonal court or Court de droit public exercised.

The investigative magistrates' offices are integrated into the public prosecutor's office ( Ministère public ) .

The judges are elected by the Grand Council for six years; they can be re-elected until they retire. The judges' council ( Conseil de la magistrature ) is responsible for overseeing the courts .

Municipalities, districts and regions

The political communities are autonomous within the framework of cantonal legislation. They manage their goods, run the local public services and take on the tasks assigned to them by the canton. Each municipality has a general council elected for four years as the legislative authority and a municipal council elected at the same time as the executive authority.

The six districts were abolished as of December 31, 2017. Since January 1, 2018, the four regions have been used for statistical purposes and as electoral regions for the Grand Council. Together they form a single constituency , but guarantee the various parts of the canton a number of seats to which they are entitled based on the population.



From the Middle Ages to the 19th century, the canton of Neuchâtel can be seen in a certain sense as an anachronism in the history of Switzerland . While most of the places of the old Confederation were able to break their dependency on princely houses in the Middle Ages, this canton remained a principality until 1848 through the Napoleonic period of the 19th century. Neuchâtel was ruled by sole rulers or by large European royal houses; in this it also differed from the forms of rule of a few aristocratic families established in the cities ( oligarchies ) that emerged in some cantons during absolutism . In the transition to the King of Prussia at the beginning of the 18th century, chance also played a not insignificant role. The people of Neuchâtel then found themselves in the unusual situation, both a place facing the Swiss Confederation and a principality in the hands of famous Hohenzollerns such as the "Soldier King" ( Friedrich Wilhelm I ) or the "old Fritz" ( Friedrich II , " enlightened absolutism ") ) to be. That this “chance marriage” with Prussia was rather casual is also shown by the not too great resistance that the militarily strong Prussian state opposed to the various attempts at secession and democratization of Neuchâtel in the 19th century.

Prehistory and early history

Archaeological finds provide evidence that the area along Lake Neuchâtel and the southern foot of the Jura was inhabited by megalithic cultures and Celtic tribes centuries before the Romans . The Neolithic Cortaillod culture and the Celtic Latène culture are named after the villages of Cortaillod and La Tène in the canton of Neuchâtel.

At the height of the A5 tunnel in Hauterive , east of Neuchâtel, lies the Laténium Park , which has replaced the Musée cantonal d'archéologie and shows finds from the Latene period. The Pré de Riva, another archaeological park, is located on the southern side of the lake, only about 26 kilometers away in the canton of Friborg. It is the reconstructed pile dwelling settlement of Gletterens , near Vallon .

middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, many towns and settlements emerged in the two high valleys of Val de Ruz and Val de Travers , but also along the lake, with the churches and castles characteristic of this period, most of which date from the 12th and 13th centuries.

In the early Middle Ages Neuchâtel was part of the Kingdom of Burgundy , which was ruled by the Frankish noble family of the Guelphs . The last king of Burgundy, Rudolf III. (993-1032), was a weak king oppressed by his vassals. Since he had remained childless, in 1006 he signed a treaty of inheritance with the Holy Roman Empire under Heinrich II , the last of the Ottonian-Saxon kings and emperors. He was a nephew of Rudolf III through his mother Gisela . After the death of Rudolf III. In 1032, the Kingdom of Burgundy then fell by inheritance to the Frankish Emperor Conrad II. From then on it existed as an imperial estate with formal independence within the Holy Roman Empire.

After the old dynasty of Neuchâtel and Valangin had died out, King Rudolf I (Rudolf von Habsburg) enfeoffed John I of Chalon-Arlay with the county of Neuchâtel in 1288. By inheritance, the fief went to the Counts of Freiburg (im Breisgau) in 1395 , to the Margraves of Baden-Hochberg in 1457 and in 1504 to the House of Orléans-Longueville via the marriage of Johanna von Hochberg to Ludwig von Orléans-Longueville . The reign of the Orléans-Longueville dynasty lasted in Neuchâtel until 1707. The rule of Valangin in the northern part of today's canton of Neuchâtel came to the Counts of Aarberg in the 12th century . In 1592 Valangin was united with the county of Neuchâtel. In 1643 Neuchâtel was elevated to a principality.

The connection with the Old Confederation goes back to the Burgundian Confederation around the city of Bern. In 1308 Neuchâtel allied itself with Bern for the first time, and in 1383 the rule of Valangin followed. In 1406 and 1427, both areas achieved the status of an associated location, but there were only alliance agreements with individual federal locations.


Statue of the reformer Guillaume Farel in Neuchâtel

Under the protection of Berne, which exercised a kind of different judicial power over Neuchâtel, the reformer known under the influence of William Farel in 1530, most municipalities in the county of Neuchâtel and the rule Valangin the Reformation . The first Reformed pastor was Antoine Marcourt (1490–1561), a French exile. Only Cressier and Le Landeron remained Catholic. During the turmoil of the Reformation, the sparsely populated mountain regions of Neuchâtel became a refuge for many Huguenots . In the Peace of Westphalia , Neuchâtel was recognized as a sovereign principality under the protection of the Confederation. The sanctioned connection with the Swiss Confederation consisted in the fact that Neuchâtel was one of the associated places . On the part of the confederates, the princes of Neuchâtel were referred to as "country people" of Switzerland and at the same time as "loyal and dear Swiss people", although Neuchâtel had neither a seat nor a vote on the daily statutes , but only an "eternal protective alliance" between the principality and the Confederation.

Under the kings of Prussia

Friedrich II. At the age of 68, painted by Anton Graff.

With the death of the childless Princess Marie de Nemours (1625–1707) on June 16, 1707, the reign of the House of Orléans-Longueville over Neuchâtel , which had lasted over two centuries, expired . Among the 15 applicants for princely rule in Neuchâtel, a rural tribunal formed for this purpose did not elect Prince François von Conti, the "great" Conti , cousin of Louis XIV and former rival of Augustus the Strong for the Polish crown, but instead the name of von Bern favored Prussian King Friedrich I from the Reformed branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty , the son of Princess Luise Henriette of Orange and heirs of the House of Orange appointed by his grandfather Friedrich Heinrich von Orange . After long negotiations, in which the philosopher, scientist and diplomat Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz also took part with a state pamphlet, the formal recognition of the rights of Frederick and his heirs to Neuchâtel took place on November 3, 1707, and henceforth also the title of “sovereign Prince of Orange , Neuchâtel and Valangin ». Louis XIV also recognized him as Prince of Neuchâtel in the Peace of Utrecht in 1712 , whereby the dispute over Neuchâtel was temporarily settled. The Prussian kings ruled the principality through governors who had their seat either in Neuchâtel Castle or in Berlin . They granted the principality all previous rights and freedoms and only rarely interfered in internal affairs.

The Prussian rulers worked in the sense of a judicial reform and demanded the abolition of torture. The economic boom began in the Neuchâtel region under the protection of the Prussian Crown. Manufactories emerged from farms. After the first attempts to found an academy or university in Neuchâtel in 1742 had failed, Friedrich Wilhelm III founded. with cabinet order of March 17, 1838 the Académie, from which the University of Neuchâtel emerged in 1909 . During this time, the Masonic Lodge "To the Three Eagles" was founded in 1742 by the Masons of the Great National Mother Lodge "To the Three Worlds" .

At the end of 1763 Jean-Jacques Rousseau came to Neuchâtel on the run from persecution by the Catholic Church in France and by the Protestant gentlemen in Geneva and in the canton of Bern , where Governor George Keith, in coordination with the Prussian King Friedrich II. In Môtiers Granted asylum . In 1765, however, Rousseau was forced to leave the country again under pressure from the Neuchâtel Pastors' Society , the Vénérable Classe ou Compagnie des Pasteurs .

French Revolution

The riots of the French Revolution spread to Neuchâtel and in 1792 Neuchâtel proclaimed that it was "mainly Swiss". In view of the state of war between Prussia and France, it came under the protective cloak of the Swiss Confederation in 1793. In 1794, La Chaux-de-Fonds was almost completely destroyed by fire. The reconstruction of the city was planned on the drawing board with the aim of avoiding future fires. In the wake of the French Revolution , the family of the German writer and democrat Georg Forster found refuge in Neuchâtel. His wife Therese Forster b. Heyne lived in Bôle and married Ludwig Ferdinand Huber after Forster's death . She belonged to the circle around the writer and salonière Isabelle de Charrière in Colombier .

Napoleonic period

Louis-Alexandre Berthier, c. 1804. Painted after a painting that Napoleon commissioned for the Tuileries Palace in Paris.

The various states that formed the Old Confederation on what is now Switzerland up to 1797 did not manage to adapt their individual constitutions to the demands of the new era between the outbreak of the French Revolution and 1797. As a result, there were armed conflicts between the Confederates and France. In December 1797 French troops occupied parts of the Principality of Basel north of Neuchâtel, in January 1798 the Vaud region south of Neuchâtel and in March 1798 the areas of today's cantons of Friborg and Bern east of Neuchâtel. The Principality of Neuchâtel was spared from occupation and annexation to the Helvetic Republic in view of the Treaty of Basel concluded between Prussia and France on April 5, 1795 . It was not until 1806 that Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia on the basis of the Paris Treaty of February 15, 1806, the Principality of Neuchâtel Napoleon I , who installed his Field Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier as Prince of Neuchâtel on March 30, 1806 . However, this never stepped on the soil of the principality and left the old order untouched.

The First Peace of Paris was concluded on May 30, 1814 after the fall of Napoleon I (April 11, 1814) and temporarily ended the sixth of the coalition wars, which is also known as the Russo-German-French War from 1812 to 1814. In this peace treaty, the German states were guaranteed independence and unification through a federal bond, and Switzerland was guaranteed independence and self-government. As a result of the First Peace of Paris, Berthier renounced the Principality of Neuchâtel in favor of Prussia by contract of June 3, 1814 in exchange for a lifelong pension of 34,000 thalers, which immediately took possession of it again. The King of Prussia issued a new constitution (Charte constitutionelle) to the Principality of London on June 18, 1814, based on the model of the Constitution of Geneva and renewed the rights of the Principality as a state that existed in itself and was completely separate from Prussian state interests. As a result, the Principality of Neuchâtel was incorporated into the Confederation as a canton on the basis of the federal treaty of September 9, 1814, which came into force on August 7, 1815. Neuchâtel was recognized by the Congress of Vienna (1815) as a “Swiss Canton and Prussian Principality”.

Economy and industrialization

With the Huguenots , the early watch industry and automation technology came to the country. The Huguenots also brought lace making to Neuchâtel. In the 18th century, calico printing and the production of printed fabric wallpapers were the most important export items of the newly emerging Neuchâtel industry . In 1826, the chocolatier Philippe Suchard had his first chocolate factory built in the Neuchâtel suburb of Serrières, thereby establishing the well-known Suchard brand . In 1833, the town of Le Locle was practically completely destroyed by a conflagration and rebuilt based on the model of La Chaux-de-Fonds (La Chaux-de-Fonds was cremated to three quarters even in a devastating conflagration in 1794 and then with a right-angled one Newly built floor plan). In 1834 the first academy was opened in the city of Neuchâtel and in 1839 the Seyon torrent , which repeatedly flooded the city of Neuchâtel, was laid in pipes and diverted around the city. In 1843, the canton's first synagogue was opened in La Chaux-de-Fonds .

Republican Constitution

The historical coat of arms of the Principality of Neuchâtel until 1848

After Neuchâtel was accepted into the Confederation as a canton, the Prussian king only retained sovereign rights as personal property. This double position of Neuchâtel (Neuchâtel question) was not sustainable in the long run. As early as September and December 1831, Neuchâtel republicans and democrats made an attempt to overthrow the ancien régime of the royalists , which had been restored after the Congress of Vienna . However, the uprising was put down and the governor Ernst von Pfuel initially managed to maintain the old order.

On March 1, 1848, the people of Neuchâtel rebelled against the Prussian monarch, led by republicans from Le Locle and La Chaux-de-Fonds . Around 1400 armed mountain people under the command of Fritz Courvoisier and Ami Girard marched from La Chaux-de-Fonds over the Vue des Alpes to Valangin and took the castle there. On the evening of the same day, to the cheering of the people, they took the castle in the city ​​of Neuchâtel , where the government under Ernst von Pfuel abdicated in all forms and handed over the official business to a new provisional government under Alexis-Marie Piaget . The Prussian government in Berlin was content with a protest against this attack and the King of Prussia released the councilors of state imprisoned in Neuchâtel from the oath of allegiance. A constitutional council then drew up a new constitution in the spirit of representative democracy, which was adopted by the people on April 30, 1848, and Neuchâtel called itself from then on "République et Canton de Neuchâtel".

Royalist coup and trade in Neuchâtel

A small faction of royalists in the canton of Neuchâtel stayed away from all state affairs and tried by all means to force a secession of Neuchâtel from Switzerland. At the head of this faction were the former State Councilor of Petitpierre-Wesdehlen and Count Friedrich von Pourtalès-Steiger. The latter gave the order for the attack shortly after returning from a trip to Berlin on August 29, 1856, which was to start in the night of September 2 to 3. The order was signed "in the name of the king". On the evening of September 2, 1856, hundreds of royalists invaded Neuchâtel Castle, occupied it and hoisted the black and white flag of Prussia on the castle tower. On the morning of September 4, 1856, armed republicans broke into the palace and, after weak resistance, took the leaders of the royalist uprising prisoner. The royalist coup failed, but the affair threatened to escalate. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Of Prussia demanded the immediate release of the captured royalists, but Switzerland strongly opposed this. After the Federal Council had refused an amnesty for the royalists, Prussia and Switzerland prepared for war. The Swiss general Guillaume-Henri Dufour sent troops to the Rhine to secure the border. In Basel , a temporary strategic bridge ( Dufour Bridge ) was built over the Rhine at short notice in order to have enough bridge capacity for troops to be moved to the right bank of the Rhine.

With the mediation of Napoleon III. the dispute was settled peacefully, and the Prussian king finally renounced his claim to the Principality of Neuchâtel in the Treaty of Paris on May 26, 1857. In return, the Swiss federal organs granted the rebels an amnesty in the so-called Neuchâtel trade . On June 19, 1857, the Prussian king released the Neuchâtel from their oath of loyalty in a solemn proclamation. This ended the 150 years of Prussian rule in Neuchâtel, with a brief interruption between 1806 and 1814, in terms of constitutional and international law, even if it had in fact already been ended by the proclamation of the republic in 1848.

Absinthe ban and university foundation

On October 7, 1910, absinthe was banned in Switzerland due to a referendum on July 5, 1908. The Val de Travers lost one of its most important branches of industry. The Pernod family left Switzerland and rebuilt their factories for absinthe production in Pontarlier, France, not far from the national border. On March 1, 2005, the absinthe ban in Switzerland was lifted. In the first year after legalization, around 130,000 liters of absinthe were produced in the Val de Travers; according to estimates by the Federal Alcohol Board, illegal production during the prohibition era was around 50,000 liters per year.

In 1910 the Neuchâtel Académie was converted into the University of Neuchâtel .

Administrative division

Political communities

Regions of the Canton of Neuchâtel

As of January 1, 2013, 15 of the 16 municipalities in the Val-de-Ruz district merged to form a single municipality called Val-de-Ruz .

The following lists those political communities with a population of more than 5,000 as of December 31, 2018:

Political community Residents
La Chaux-de-Fonds 37,952
Neuchâtel (Neuchâtel) 33,489
Val-de-Ruz 16,990
Val-de-Travers 10,668
Le Locle 10'216
Milvignes 08977
La Grande Béroche 08852
Boudry 06154
Peseux 05813


Former districts of the canton of Neuchâtel

The canton was until the entry into force of the new cantonal constitution 1 January 2018, with the districts were abolished in six districts ( districts ) and four geographical regions ( régions ) divided:

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References and comments

  1. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  2. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  3. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  4. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  5. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  6. a b The situation on the labor market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  7. a b Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz Vol. 9, p. 185.
  8. ^ Henri Buehler: Le pays de Neuchâtel: Horlogerie. Neuchâtel 1948.
  9. a b key figures. Neuchâtel. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), accessed on June 25, 2015 .
  10. SPI St. Gallen: Church membership in the Roman Catholic and Evangelical Reformed Church by cantons (2017) | Table 1.4. 2018, accessed February 28, 2019 .
  11. Since 2010, the FSO's data on religious communities in Switzerland have been based on a sample survey, for which 200,000 people over the age of 15 are surveyed. As a result, the data from the censuses before 2010 and the annual membership statistics of the regional churches, which cover all people of all ages residing in Switzerland or in a canton, cannot be compared one-to-one with the data from the annual structural survey. See census in Switzerland # structure survey .
  12. Permanent resident population aged 15 and over by religion and cantons, 2017., accessed on February 28, 2019 .
  13. ^ Constitution of the Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel. Swiss Federal Chancellery , accessed on July 29, 2014 .
  14. ^ Conseil d'État. State Chancellery Neuchâtel, accessed on June 25, 2015 (French).
  15. ^ Pouvoir judiciaire. Organes du pouvoir judiciaire. Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel, accessed on July 29, 2014 (French).
  16. In detail: Adrian Bachmann: Die Prussische Sukzession in Neuchâtel. Schulthess, Bern 1993, ISBN 3-7255-3131-5 .
  17. Grégoire Oguey: Une académie à Neuchâtel? Vainses tentatives, entre philosophie et économies. In: Elisabeth Crettaz-Stürzel, Chantal Lafontant Valloton: Sa Majesté en Suisse. Neuchâtel 2013, ISBN 978-2940489-31-2 , p. 316.
  18. Olaf Kappelt: When Neuchâtel and Valangin were still with Prussia, 300 years ago. 2nd Edition. Berlin-historica Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-939929-08-6 .
  19. ^ Franz August v. Etzel : History of the Great National Mother Lodge of the Prussian States named for the three worlds. Berlin 1867, p. 11 ( digitized version ).
  20. Permanent and non-permanent resident population by year, canton, district, municipality, population type and gender (permanent resident population). In: bfs. . Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 31, 2019, accessed on December 22, 2019 .