From 1530 the practice of the Protestants' faith was strongly suppressed by the Catholic clergy and the king. Armed conflicts followed in the second half of the 16th century, also known as the Huguenot Wars . Thereupon even stronger persecutions began, which reached a climax under Louis XIV through his edict of Fontainebleau from 1685 and triggered a wave of refugees of around a quarter of a million Huguenots into the Protestant-dominated areas in Europe and overseas.
On the other hand, there was also violence and rioting by some representatives on the Protestant side: Catholic churches and monasteries were destroyed or looted by angry supporters of Calvinism, including the cathedral of Soissons in 1567 and the monastery of Cîteaux in 1589.
After the end of the persecution and the entry into force of the French constitution in 1791 , the term Protestant became more and more popular; the term "Huguenots" usually refers to Calvinist believers at the time of their persecution in France.
French Protestants are now a minority in predominantly Catholic France . In 2012, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of France and the Reformed Church of France merged to form the United Protestant Church of France .
The word Huguenots possibly goes back to the early New High German ( Alemannic ) term confederate and thus shows connections to Geneva . It appears in the French first in the early 16th century in the form eygenot to refer to the followers of a political party in the Canton of Geneva , against the annexation sversuche of the Duke of Savoy fought and so in 1526 a covenant between Geneva and the Swiss locations Freiburg and Bern closed. These Eygenots or Eugenots were Catholics at the beginning, because Geneva was not reformed until 1536. In the second half of the 16th century, it was used increasingly and in contrast to the Catholic Savoy in the sense of “Protestant, Reformed”, including by the Prince of Condé in 1562 in the form aignos . The Geneva freedom fighter Besançon Hugues is also being considered as a godfather for the naming.
Another assumption sees the word origin in the designation "Huis Genooten" ( housemates ) for Flemish Protestants who secretly studied the Bible . The origin of the word can certainly not be deduced, but it is undisputed that the name did not come about as a self-designation of the believers, but as a term of derision that should also discredit.
Against this background, the following derivation of the term is finally offered: In some regions of France in the 16th century, for reasons of persecution, Protestants could only meet in secret. They therefore went to their meeting points at night, many of which were outside the localities. This is where Dante's Divine Comedy , which was very famous in France at that time, plays. In it, Dante meets the French King Hugues (Hugo) Capet wandering around in purgatory. In a speech the king describes himself as "the root of the evil tree" that has overshadowed Christianity. In analogy to this, the “wandering” Protestants are referred to as little Hugos, as “Huguenots”.
Beginnings of the Reformation in France
Francis I , who had ruled France since 1515, had at this time increasingly expanded and rebuilt the Catholic Church into an administrative organ of the state: since the Bologna Concordat in 1516 he had the right to fill the high offices of the French Church at his own will . He used this skillfully to accommodate the French high nobility in the appropriate positions and to commit him in this way. The infrastructure of the church was for Franz also important:
your presence in every town and village, the high range that could achieve the pastors in their communities, and the church records in which the parishes baptisms , marriages and deaths recorded were elements he is responsible for administrative tasks, e.g. B. to publish edicts .
In Paris , this secularization led to opposition from humanistic circles, especially the circle around Erasmus of Rotterdam (Didier Érasme) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (Jakob Faber). Around 1520, people began to discuss Luther's theses in these circles , which made Holy Scripture the standard of faith and called for the separation of state and church . Luther's theological theses were initially received rather positively by the royal family. The king's sister, Margaret of Navarre , and the Bishop of Bayonne , Jean du Bellay , and his brother Guillaume were members of the group around Lefèvre.
Franz I, already very enlightened and open-minded, and probably influenced by his sister, was also not averse to the theological aspects of the beginning Reformation movement. For example, he held his protective hand over Lefèvre when a heresy trial was brought against him after a treatise on Mary Magdalene . Reforming the Church from within was, at least as far as theological interpretations are concerned, nothing that Francis I should have feared.
The idea of the Reformation was initially allowed to gain a foothold in France around 1520. From the humanists he quickly found his way into the upper middle class , where the existing, far-reaching trade relationships not only helped to spread goods quickly, but also ideas.
Beginning of persecution
A Catholic counter-movement soon began. Officials of the church saw their teachings and their power endangered by the emerging movement: Luther was excommunicated by the Pope in 1521, and the Paris Sorbonne University condemned his teachings.
As a result, Francis I came under increasing pressure, for two reasons:
- The first was of an internal political nature, since the administration of the state was in the hands of the Catholic Church: after 1520 it quickly became clear that the Reformation was not just a theological matter that spread in the study of scholars, but that the theses began to attack the existing clerical (and closely related also the secular) power structure. Franz could have no interest in the reformers now sawing the chairs of those nobles for whom he had just obtained ecclesiastical offices, dignities and sources of income and who were an essential pillar of his rule over France.
- Second, at this time Franz I was in a serious conflict with the Habsburgs , more precisely with the German Emperor Charles V. France was pinched by the Habsburgs over the Netherlands , Germany and Spain ; in northern Italy it was at open war with the Habsburgs. If Francis had allowed the Reformation to run free in France, he would have had the Pope against him, and Charles V, who had banished Luther from the empire in 1521 , would have - then supported by the Pope - no longer have been prevented from invading France . These foreign policy considerations also prompted Franz to distance himself from Protestantism.
This led to increasing reprisals against the Protestants, which expanded into the persecution of at least public Protestantism: The first execution of a French Protestant is documented for August 8, 1523: the Augustinian monk Jean Vallière was burned on a stake in Paris.
Protestantism was increasingly pushed underground until around 1530, as religious persecution by the Catholic side increased more and more. Some of the Protestants fled, including to the Reformed towns in Switzerland , where Ulrich Zwingli was in the process of completely disempowering the Catholic Church. However, when pushed into political extinction, the Protestants from the underground appeared increasingly provocative. The first major clashes between Catholics and Protestants occurred in 1534 over the Affaire des Placards , in which anti-Catholic posters were posted in Paris and four other cities. The Catholic mass was referred to as idolatry . Various statues of the Virgin Mary were defaced. After those responsible for this action were burned at the stake, relations between the two sides remained tense.
Around 1533, John Calvin joined Protestantism in Paris. Up to this time he too could be described as a Catholic humanist rather than a Reformed. After a Protestant-tinged speech by Nicolas Cop , the rector of the University of Paris, which was most likely made with Calvin's participation, both had to flee Paris.
But despite the repression, the movement was still gaining traction. In 1546 the first Protestant congregation in France was formed in Meaux . In 1559 the first national synod of the Reformed Christians of France took place in Paris . Fifteen parishes sent their delegates. A church order and a creed were adopted . The church ordinance that Calvin had created in 1541 based on his understanding of the New Testament and the Geneva Constitution was adopted. In addition to the offices of pastors ( pasteurs ), doctors ( docteurs ) and deacons ( diacres ), it provided for that of elders ( anciens ; presbyters ), who were also elected members of the city council of Geneva. As a persecuted minority church, the French Reformed could not rely on secular authorities (like the Anabaptists, they practiced the separation of church and state from the beginning). Therefore, the adult male parishioners chose the (church) elders, lay volunteers, from their own ranks. The French Evangelical Christians added synods at regional and national level to this presbyterial system, the members of which were also elected by the parishioners. This gave the laity a very powerful influence on the governance of the Church at all levels. This democratic church order, which was adopted by many other Reformed churches (e.g. on the Lower Rhine, in the Netherlands and in Scotland), was one of the most important consequences of Luther's teaching of the “general priesthood of all believers ”, which became Protestant common property. At the next French national synod, which took place two years later, around 2,000 parishes were already represented. At the beginning of the 1560s, the Reformed underground churches had about two million followers, which was about ten percent of the total French population.
However, these Reformed congregations were no longer influenced by Lutherans: the persecution had created close ties between the French Reformed and Calvin, who lived in Geneva. Between 1535 and 1560, Calvinism increasingly penetrated French Protestantism, and it was Calvinism that attracted the dissident population. Now the name "Huguenots" also came up.
In 1562 the Geneva Psalter was written, the lyrics of which became an encouragement and consolation for many Huguenots in difficult life situations. From 1564, the Reformed were no longer admitted to the universities. So they only had their own academies and seminars in Montauban , Montpellier , Nîmes , Orange , Orthez , Saumur and Sedan .
Francis I died in 1547, and his son Henry II ascended the French throne. He continued the repression against the Huguenots unabated. Around this time the Habsburg Empire began to disintegrate into a number of small states : Emperor Charles V could no longer control the Reformation, and the compromise of the “ Cuius regio, eius religio ” did the rest to split the empire.
Heinrich II wanted to prevent similar conditions as in Germany in any case. Increasingly, aristocrats had now joined the Huguenots, and an agreement based on the Augsburg principle for France would have seriously damaged the successful centralization of France under Francis I. Political discrimination against Protestantism in France finally began .
A new institution and three edicts were enough to suppress the Huguenots more and more:
- The basis was the establishment of the Chambre ardente in Paris, a chamber that persecuted the Huguenot MPs (see Inquisition). Heinrich set up this chamber in the first year of his reign. In June 1551 this principle was extended to the provincial parliaments in the edict of Châteaubriant .
- The Edict of Compiègne followed on July 24, 1557: Protestants “ who disrupted order in any way ” were placed under secular jurisdiction; Heinrich left the condemnation for heresy in the hands of the Church.
- Heinrich put the final point on June 2, 1559 in the Edict of Écouen : From now on the courts for heresy were only allowed to impose the death penalty. Heinrich died shortly after the edict.
The expulsion that had begun continued under Heinrich's son Franz II . In 1562 Catholic soldiers attacked Protestants at Vassy during a service . The Bartholomew Night 23./24. August 1572 in Paris again triggered numerous flows of refugees. Important Protestant figures were murdered. The death toll was around 3,000 in Paris and between 10,000 and 30,000 in the countryside. The murders of children, women, old people and boys continued for two long months.
Finally, in 1598, a new king, Henry IV (who himself was officially a Calvinist until 1593 ), with the Edict of Nantes brought a temporary calming of the situation that lasted almost 23 years. During this time France was able to take back its position of power in Europe and also rise as a colonial power ( New France ). Initially, the Huguenots were settled in New France along with Catholics.
Huguenot uprisings under Louis XIII.
From 1610 to 1617 power in the kingdom lay with Maria de 'Medici and her Italian favorites. Under Regent Maria the Edict of Nantes remained in force and was directly promoted by her (even if the court Italians like Concino Concini wanted to abolish the edict).
When Louis XIII. took power, the Huguenot revolts broke out. His first minister, Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes , initially did not want to intervene militarily, but then changed his mind (allegedly because Louis XIII insisted on it) and went with Louis XIII. against the Huguenots.
In the years 1621 to 1629 Ludwig XIII. against the military might of the Protestants and conquered the city of La Rochelle from them in 1628 . In Alès' edict of grace of June 28, 1629, the Huguenots were finally eliminated as a political power factor, although religious freedom was still guaranteed by the king. Cardinal Richelieu held real power at this time . Richelieu led an alliance with Sweden and other Protestant states against the Habsburg monarchy . France interfered in the Thirty Years War , and from 1635 Richelieu of the Habsburgs declared war directly. In order to be able to stop the alliances, he agreed to the Huguenot situation.
In the colonies, according to a charter from 1627, New France could "only be Roman Catholic " . Because of this determination, many Huguenot settlers emigrated to the English Thirteen Colonies and New Netherlands .
Dragonades and the escape of the Huguenots under Louis XIV.
Between 1643 and 1661 power in the Kingdom of France lay with Anna of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin . From 1651 Mazarin was the sole head of the executive. Although foreign policy became friendlier towards the Habsburgs and Spaniards because of Anna, domestic policy towards Huguenots remained exactly as Richelieu had determined earlier.
Starting in 1661, the “Sun King” Louis XIV initiated a large-scale systematic persecution of Protestants associated with conversion and missionary actions, which he combined with a ban on emigration in 1669 due to the waves of refugees that began and which since 1681 in the notorious dragoons (billeting of soldiers in the apartments of the Huguenots) found a climax. The many government restrictions and harassment in the years 1656 to 1679 drove around 680 preachers to flight and 590 churches were destroyed, despite the ban. Despite travel bans, around 200,000 Huguenots left their homeland over the course of around fifty years. They looked like the children of Israel who had to leave Egypt. With them, France lost its cultural and economic diversity and strength.
In the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes. Exercising the Protestant Reformed faith has since been punishable. As a result, many went to an underground church and partially offered resistance in the Cevennes ( Camisards ). Jean Cavalier , Pierre Roland Laporte and Abraham Mazel were the leaders of the 3,000 camisards. Between 1703 and 1706 there was a civil war there with around 30,000 dead, whereupon Louis XIV and his 25,000 soldiers had 466 villages razed to the ground. Singing psalms and reading the Bible was punishable by heavy penalties. Many people were forcibly converted to Catholicism, also to avoid the dreaded dragons. But Protestantism could not be exterminated because the persecuted and punished Protestants were venerated as martyrs. In 1715 the "Church of the Desert" was founded under the leadership of Antoine Court , which had called off the violence. Mostly covered and hidden, around 400,000 Protestants survived in the south of France.
Since members of the Protestant upper class, including most of the clergy, fled abroad, the Church was led by lay pastors who felt called by divine inspiration. That is why prophetic and ecstatic forms of religiosity emerged. They took effect in the Inspired Movement across Europe.
Emigration in the 17th century
The rulers of the neighboring countries readily welcomed the dispossessed Huguenots, who belonged to the most productive strata of society. They were granted privileges and credits , which in turn caused incomprehension, envy and hostility in the rest of the population. In addition, as Reformed people they came across Lutherans, so that they again embodied a religious minority .
The countries that became a new home for around 200,000 Huguenots included Switzerland, the Netherlands, England, Ireland, North America and some territories of the Holy Roman Empire . Huguenots also settled in Scandinavian countries such as Copenhagen and Fredericia in Denmark , Stockholm in Sweden , Russia and South Africa.
Most of the emigrants (approx. 50,000) emigrated to the British Isles. As early as 1550, a French Protestant church had been founded in Soho (London) by Royal Charter . Huguenot centers in England were u. a. London, some places in Kent and Bedfordshire and Norwich . In the course of the plantation (settlement of Protestant settlers) some Huguenots also came to Ulster (Ireland). There they made a major contribution to the establishment of the linen industry in the region around Lisburn , which, along with shipbuilding, was the most important industry in Ulster for a long time. Even today, there is still a Huguenot neighborhood in Cork City . There is a Huguenot cemetery in Dublin (near St. Stephen's Green ).
In the countries to which they immigrated, the Huguenots often ensured a flourishing economy and especially agriculture . They opened up cultural and intellectual life. They significantly developed the textile and silk manufacturers and trade ( silkworm breeding ), introduced tobacco cultivation in Germany (mainly in the Uckermark with the center of Schwedt / Oder ) and were active in the manufacture and trade of jewelry.
Tolerance and equality in France
Only in 1787 was the Edict of Versailles under Louis XVI. created a new, open opportunity for Protestant life in France. From 1790, some goods were returned to re-naturalized Protestants, which was to last until 1927. However, not too many Huguenots returned to France because they had often integrated and assimilated economically and socially in the respective countries. In 1792 the first new Protestant church was built in Nîmes, and in 1804 Protestants were given equal rights. But it took decades before the new law was implemented across the country. In 1852 a society for the history of French Protestantism , the Société de l'Histoire du Protestantisme Français SHPF was founded. In 1872 the first reformed national synod since 1659 could take place. The proportion of Protestants in France remained small, however, the censuses show a population proportion of 1.4 (members) to 3.6% (sympathizers).
Huguenots in America
Huguenots who lived in La Rochelle and elsewhere in western France also chose America as their escape destination. From 1670 to 1720 about 4,800 religious refugees crossed the Atlantic and reached the cities of Boston , New Rochelle , New York and Charleston on the east coast of the English colony of America. About 800 Protestants tried their luck in Canada, the northern French colony. As early as 1654, the Protestant pastor Pierre Daillé, who was first theology professor in Saumur , France , founded the first Reformed church in New York.
Huguenots in Germany
From 1670 to 1720, especially around 1685, 40,000 to 50,000 Huguenots fled to Germany and formed around 200 Reformed parishes there. About 20,000 of them went to Brandenburg-Prussia , where the Reformed Elector Friedrich Wilhelm granted them special privileges with the Edict of Potsdam . Two regiments were formed by Huguenots: Regiment on foot Varenne (1686) and Regiment on foot von Wylich (1688) . The Brandenburg ambassador to Paris, Ezekiel Spanheim , helped many emigrants to leave the country.
Almost 10,000 Huguenots moved to Baden ( Friedrichstal , Neureut ), Franconia ( Principality of Bayreuth and Principality of Ansbach , today part of Bavaria with 3,200 refugees), Hessen-Kassel (7,500 people), the County of Nassau-Dillenburg and Württemberg (2,500 people). Another 3,400 religious refugees moved to the Rhine-Main area ( Hanau ), to the counties of the Wetterau Counts Association , to what is now Saarland and to the Palatinate with Zweibrücken . Around 1,500 Huguenots found a new home in Hamburg , Bremen and Lower Saxony . About 300 Huguenots at the court of the Duke found George William of Brunswick and Luneburg , his wife Eleonore d'Olbreuse even Huguenot was in Celle recording and received a church of their own . Huguenots founded Neu-Isenburg in the county of Isenburg-Offenbach in 1699, and many settled in their Offenbach residence . Most of the refugees settled in their Refuge , as their new home was called, from 1697 onwards .
Huguenots in England
A Church of Foreigners was recognized in London as early as 1550 . From 1553 to 1568, when Mary I ruled, Protestants were rarely accepted in England. Shortly afterwards, 6,000 to 7,000 Huguenot craftsmen and traders came to England from the west and north coasts of France. Around 1685, when the wave of refugees was at its peak, around 45,000 religious refugees reached the British island. The majority of them settled in London, Canterbury and the east of England.
Huguenots in the Netherlands
The cremation of Johannes van Esschen and Hendrik Vos , two Augustinian monks from Antwerp who had become Evangelicals in 1523 in Brussels , marked the beginning of the persecution in the southern Netherlands. As a result, it led to the flight of around 40,000 Protestants to Amsterdam and Emden . Between 1544 and 1648, around 60,000 Evangelical Walloons who lived in the southern province of the Netherlands followed to the northern province. From 1680 around 50,000 Huguenots and another 100,000 Flemings fled to the northern Netherlands in order to freely practice their faith. In addition to the city of Amsterdam, the University of Leiden also became a focal point for evangelical refugees.
Huguenots in Switzerland
150,000 or more Huguenots crossed Switzerland on their way to Germany and other European countries of exile. They came in two waves, the first from 1540 to 1590 and the second from 1680 to 1690, with the highest number of people passing the country in 1687. A particularly large number of Huguenots reached Geneva (up to 28,000 refugees for a population of 12,000) and Zurich (23,000 for 10,000 in the years 1683 to 1688). The city of Lausanne also provided great support with travel money for thousands of Huguenots and Neuchâtel with naturalizations for 5,300 people. About 20,000 religious refugees stayed in Switzerland permanently, they settled in many cities and also formed their own Reformed, French-speaking parishes in Aarau , Basel , Bern , Biel , Chur , St. Gallen , Schaffhausen and Winterthur . With their professional knowledge, educated Huguenots made a significant contribution to the development of banks, textile production and handicrafts.
Huguenots in South Africa
The flight from France led some Huguenots via the Netherlands to the southern tip of Africa. The Voorschoten was the first ship to sail with several Huguenot families on December 31, 1687 from Delfshaven towards the Cape of Good Hope . It reached the Cape region on April 13 of the following year. Some of the fellow travelers carried vines with them and thus brought a noticeable upswing in viticulture in South Africa . Around 200 Huguenots came to South Africa in this way and founded Franschhoek . By 1749, numerous other ships followed that brought Huguenots to South Africa.
Branch offices in Germany today
Today Huguenot communities exist in the following places (list not complete):
- Bad Karlshafen , North Hesse, today the location of the German Huguenot Museum , the German Huguenot Center with a genealogical research facility and the library and image archive of the German Huguenot Society .
- Weser Valley (Waldenserorte Gewissenruh , Gottstreu )
- Frankenau (places: Louisendorf , Ellershausen )
- Hertingshausen (Wohratal)
- Walloon-Dutch Church in Hanau
- Friedrichsdorf (1890 founding place of the German Huguenot Society, current seat in Bad Karlshafen )
- Hofgeismar (places: Carlsdorf , Kelze , Schöneberg , Friedrichsdorf )
- Immenhausen (Place: Mariendorf )
- Wolfhagen ( Leckringhausen )
- Helsa (place: St. Ottilien)
- Mörfelden-Walldorf ( Walldorf district )
- Ober-Ramstadt (districts Rohrbach and Wembach-Hahn)
- French Reformed Church in Offenbach am Main
- Ehringshausen (places: Daubhausen and Greifenthal )
Independent Huguenot-Waldensian congregations founded
- In the old district of Frankenberg
- In today's district of Kassel
- Bad Karlshafen
- Mariendorf (Immenhausen)
- Schöneberg (Hofgeismar)
- Peace of mind
- Friedrichsdorf (Hofgeismar)
- St. Ottilien
- Hofgeismar , Neustädter Church
- Friedrichsfeld (Trendelburg)
- Huguenots settled in the old Hessian town of Zierenberg and in the municipality of Dörnberg in the old district of Wolfhagen
- In the rest of Hesse
- Marburg-Biedenkopf district (places: Schwabendorf , Todenhausen and Wolfskaute ) as of 2006;
- Greifenthal (founded by Wilhelm Moritz Graf zu Solms-Greifenstein )
- Friedrichsdorf (founded by Landgrave Friedrich )
- Kassel , Oberneustadt (own district)
- Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld (then Electoral Palatinate )
- Friedrichstal (part of Stutensee since 1975 )
- Palmbach (since 1975 district of Karlsruhe )
- Mutschelbach (since 1975 part of Karlsbad )
- Welschneureut (since 1935 united with Teutschneureut to Neureut , this part of Karlsruhe since 1975 )
In Hamburg and in the Hamburg district of Altona there were French Reformed congregations until 1976, which in 1976 united with the German Reformed to form the Evangelical Reformed Church in Hamburg .
- Pinache (since 1975 district of Wiernsheim )
- Serres (since 1975 district of Wiernsheim )
- Großvillars (since 1972 part of Oberderdingen )
- Kleinvillars (district of Knittlingen since 1972 )
- Corres (district of Ötisheim )
- Perouse (since 1972 district of Rutesheim )
- Neuhengstett (since 1974 part of Althengstett )
- Nordhausen (Nordheim)
Berlin and Brandenburg
In Berlin and Brandenburg the French Reformed congregations belong to the Evangelical Church Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia and form the Reformed Church District. In 1997 this church district took on a French-speaking congregation (Communauté protestante francophone de Berlin et environs).
In Berlin, the names of districts such as Moabit and French Buchholz and Straßen and in the Oderbruch the place names Vevais, Beauregard and Croustillier still recall the Huguenots who settled in Prussia . An alternative name, especially in the 19th century, was refugies .
- Andreas Jakob: Huguenots in Franconia. More than a spark? in: Andrea M. Kluxen / Julia Krieger / Andrea May (eds.): Strangers in Franconia. Migration and Culture Transfer (History and Culture in Middle Franconia, Vol. 4), Würzburg 2016, pp. 157–212. ISBN 978-3-95650-137-1 . ,
- Manuela Böhm (Ed.): Huguenots between migration and integration. New research on the refuge in Berlin and Brandenburg. Metropol, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-936411-73-5 ( review ).
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- Jochen Desel : Huguenots. French religious refugees all over the world. 2nd edition, Ger. Huguenot Society, Bad Karlshafen 2005, ISBN 3-930481-18-9 .
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- Willi Stubenvoll: The German Huguenot Cities, Frankfurt am Main 1990.
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- Neil Kamil: Fortress of the Soul. Violence, Metaphysics and Material Life in the Huguenots' New World, 1517-1751. University Press, Baltimore MD 2005, ISBN 0-8018-7390-8 .
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- Taylor Caldwell : All the power in the world. Novel. Bechtermünz, Augsburg 1999, ISBN 3-8289-0246-4 .
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- German Huguenot Society
- German Huguenot Museum, Bad Karlshafen
- Library for Huguenot History (BfHG)
- Website calvin.de of the Evangelical Church in Germany EKD, 2019
- European cultural long-distance hiking trail Huguenot and Waldensian trails
- Musée virtuel du protestantisme Virtual Museum of Protestantism (in French, English and German)
- Emil Dönges: Wilhelm Farel. A reformer of French-speaking Switzerland. Through 2nd edition (1st edition 1897). Ernst-Paulus-Verlag, Neustadt / Weinstrasse 1993, p. 104.
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