Maine (province)

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Maine is a former French province in what is now the Pays de la Loire region . It roughly corresponds to the Sarthe and Mayenne departments . It was bordered by Brittany , Normandy , Anjou and Vendômois and had Le Mans as its capital . It was named Cenomania from the ancient Cenomaniacs .



From Roman rule it came under Frankish , then formed part of the Duchy of Franzien and was under hereditary counts. The son-in-law of Charlemagne , Rorgon or Rorico I , was a count in 839, his family is named after him as the Rorgonids .

Around 895 the county is wrested from the Rorgonids by Roger , a son-in-law of Charles the Bald and an ally of the Robertines . During the time of the Norman raids , the county became more important. In 923 King Rudolf gave it to Wilhelm Long Sword , the Jarl of the Normans, so that he could pass the county on to Hugo the Great . His son Hugo Capet sat here as Count Hugo I , whose descendants retained the title until the 12th century. Hugo II had to recognize Anjou's sovereignty , his son Herbert II the Duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror , whose son Robert ruled the county together with his wife Margarete.

A dynasty of Vice Counts of Maine also existed during this period .

In 1070 Alberto Azzo II. D'Este , who was married to Gersinde, Herbert II's daughter, was called to Maine by an uprising from Italy. His son Hugo sold his rights to Maine in 1090 to his cousin Johann von Beaugency , lord of La Flêche, whose granddaughter and heiress Eremburg married Count Fulko V of Anjou . In 1113 King Henry I of England recognized Fulk as Count of Maine, in return he confirmed Normandy's sovereignty over the county.

Fulko V handed over the county to his son Gottfried Plantagenet , after whose death in 1151 his son Heinrich , who had been Duke of Normandy since 1150, united Maine, Anjou and Normandy in one hand. In 1204 King Philip Augustus of France took it from the English again, and in 1246 Saint Louis gave it to his brother Charles of Anjou , whose descendants owned it together with Anjou; Karl's granddaughter Margarete , who received Anjou and Maine, married Karl von Valois , through his son, King Philip VI. , the land fell to the Domaine royal .

Maine later belonged to the Paragium of Louis I of Anjou and his descendants until they died out in 1481, under which Maine was raised to a peerage in 1331 . In between, from 1424 to 1448 Maine was occupied by the English, who made John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford , († 1435) count.

In 1484 the Mondoubleau lordship was detached from the County of Vendôme and added to the County of Maine.

Earl of Maine

County Maine Coat of Arms

First count

In the 8th century two counts are attested as allies of the Robertines .

  • Roger, Count of Le Mans, 710 and 724
  • Hervé, his son, Count of Le Mans 748
  • ...
  • Banzleib, Count 832 ( Hattonen )
  • Wido, X 834, perhaps identical to Wido, Count of Vannes ( Guidonen ),


  • 832–839 Rorgon I († 839), Earl of Maine and Rennes , his son.
  • 839–849 Gauzbert I († 849), Earl of Maine, his brother.
  • 849–865 Rorgon II († 865), Earl of Maine, son of Rorgon I.
  • 865–886 Gauzfried († 886), Earl of Maine, brother of Rorgon II.


When Gauzfried died, his son was too young to be his successor; County Maine was given to Roger, who was married to a Carolingian . The Rorgonids and the Robertines subsequently fought over the county.

  • 886–893 Roger († 900), Earl of Maine, married to Rothilde, daughter of Charles the Bald
  • 893-895 Gauzbert III. (860–914), Earl of Maine, son of Gauzfried
  • 895–898 Roger († 900), Earl of Maine (2nd time)
  • 898–900 Gauzlin II († 914), Earl of Maine, brother of Gauzbert III. He was the last count of his family whose title was confiscated by Charles the Bald in favor of Robert the Strong .

Second house Maine

  • 900–950 Hugo I († 940), Earl of Maine, son of Rogers; he may marry a daughter of Gauzlin to put an end to the dispute between the families
  • 950–992 Hugo II († 992), Earl of Maine, son of Hugos I.
  • 992-1015 Hugo III. († between 1014 and 1016), Earl of Maine, his son
  • 1015-1032 Herbert I. called Dog Ringer ( éveillé-Chien ) († 1032), Count of Maine, whose son
  • 1036–1051 Hugo IV. († 1051), Count of Maine, his son, ⚭ Bertha, daughter of Odo II. Count of Blois
  • 1058-1062 Herbert II († 1062), Earl of Maine, his son

Since he had no children, he bequeathed Maine to William the Conqueror in his will


  • 1063–1070 Robert , ⚭ 1063 Margarete, sister of Herbert II, titular count of Maine under the actual government of his father Wilhelm; Margarete died after a few months of marriage.
  • 1070–1073 Alberto Azzo II. D'Este , ⚭ Gersende, daughter of Herbert I .; he conquered Maine in 1070, but lost it again in 1073.
  • 1073-1096 Robert (2nd time)
  • 1096–1110 Wilhelm Rufus , his brother, King of England.
  • 1069–1131 Hugo V (1060–1131), son of Alberto Azzo and Gersendes (around 1030–1069), grandson of Herbert I, Count of Maine (1069–1072), titular count (1072–1090), Count (1090–1093) , Titular count (1093–1131)
  • 1093–1110 Elias von Beaugency († 1110), son of Johann , lord of Beaugency , and inn of Maine (around 1072-before 1110) grandson of Lanzelin I († around 1060), lord of Beaugency, and Paula of Maine, who in turn was a daughter of Herbert I.
  • 1110–1126 Eremburg von Beaugency (1091–1126), daughter of Elias I and Mathilde von Château-du-Loir, Countess of Maine and mistress of La Flèche

House Plantagenet

  • 1110–1126 Fulko V. von Anjou (around 1092–1143), husband of Eremburg, son of Count Fulko IV. (Around 1043–1109) and Bertrada von Montfort (around 1061–1117), in his own right, Count von Anjou (1109 –1129), Count of Tours (1109–1129), King of Jerusalem (1131–1143), through his marriage to Eremburg Count of Maine (1110–1126) and Lord of La Flêche
    • 1122–1124 Fulko V. cedes the county to Wilhelm Clito , the son of Roberts (see above)
  • 1126-1151 Gottfried V. Plantagenet (1113-1151), son of Fulko V. and Eremburg, Count of Maine (1126-1151), Count of Anjou (1129-1151), Count of Tours (1129-1151), Duke of Normandy (1144–1150)
  • 1151–1151 Elias II (around 1115–1151), Elias of Anjou , his brother, Count of Maine (1151–1151) and Count of Poitiers
  • 1151–1189 Heinrich II. (1133–1189), Heinrich Plantagenet , King of England, son of Gottfried and Matilda of England (1102–1167), in his own right Duke of Normandy (1150–1189), Count of Maine (1151– 1189), Count of Anjou (1151–1189), Count of Tours (1151–1189), King of England (1154–1189), Lord of Brittany (1166–1189), Lord of Ireland (1171–1175), by the Marriage (1152) to Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204) Duke of Aquitaine (1152–1189), Duke of Gascogne (1152–1189), Count of Poitiers (1152–1189)
    • 1169–1183 Henry the Younger (1155–1183), Duke of Normandy, Count of Maine and Anjou
  • 1189–1199 Richard the Lionheart (1157–1199), Richard Cœur de Lion
  • 1200–1205 Johann Ohneland (1167–1216), Jean-sans-Terre
    • Brandélis I of Champagne, around 1180–1249, first baron
    • Arthur I posthumus , 1186–1203, Count of Brittany , Anjou, Maine, Touraine and Poitou
    • Fulk I of Champagne, around 1210–1269, baron
  • 1219–1232 Jean Capet, Count



Anjou and Maine reverted to the crown.



  • Régine Le Jan: Famille et pouvoir dans le monde France (VII e –X e siècle) , Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris, 1995.
  • Pierre Riché: Les Carolingiens. Une famille qui fit l'Europe , éd. Pluriel
  • Louise Gérard: "La seigneurie de Bellême X e -XII e siècles", in Le pays bas-Normand , 1990, N ° 3 (199), p. 161-175

Web links

Commons : Maine  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files