In France , the development of the crown domain , the Domaine royal , from small beginnings to the time when almost the entire kingdom belonged to it, was the decisive means of the political unification of the country up to the implementation of absolutism and centralism . Since the end of Henry IV's reign in 1610, the Domaine royal was identical to the Kingdom of France. Only with the French Revolution and the decree of November 21, 1790 was the crown domain dissolved and transferred to the republican domaine national .
Development of the Domaine royal
When Hugo Capet ascended to the throne in 987, the domaine royal consisted almost exclusively of royal rights and also of an area that was split into several parts and also could not withstand a comparison with the sphere of influence of, for example, the Counts of Blois and Champagne from 1022.
In the Île-de-France , only the county of Senlis and the Burgvogtei ( Châtellenie ) Poissy were part of the domaine royal, since Hugo Capet gave the counties of Paris , Melun and Dreux to Count Burchard I the Venerable of Vendôme for his support in return had given; Paris and Melun got Hugo's son Robert II back in 1016, Dreux got his grandson Heinrich I back in 1023.
In addition, further south, the counties Orléans and Étampes belonged to the Domaine royal and made up most of the property. In the north belonged the lords of Attigny in the county of Rethel and the important fortress of Montreuil in the Ponthieu .
In the period before King Philip II came to power in 1180, it was only possible to combine the divided property: Henry I acquired the county of Sens in 1055 , Philip I acquired the county of Gâtinais in 1068 , the Vexin français in 1074 and the Septaine de Bourges , Ludwig in 1108 VI. The county of Corbeil in 1112 and the county of Montlhéry in 1118 .
Only Philip II succeeded in the decisive expansion of the crown domain to the west ( Normandy ) and south ( Loire ), above all through victories against the English ruling there ; his successors Louis VIII and Louis IX. the Poitou and the Languedoc fell to. This contrasted with the introduction of the appanages , with which younger members of the royal family were supplied, and through which the extent of direct access by the king was at times considerably reduced.
In the 14th century about a third of France was under royal administration, in the 16th century it was the acquisition of Bourbon and Brittany , and at the beginning of the 17th century it was property that Henry IV brought with him into office.
Chronology of the growth of the French crown domain
Roberts II's reign (996-1031)
Reign of Henry I (1031-1060)
Reign of Philip I. (1060-1108)
- 1068: the Gâtinais
- 1074: the French (as opposed to the Norman ) Vexin
- 1081: Moret-sur-Loing
- 1108: Vice-county or Septaine de Bourges
Reign of Philip II (1180-1223)
- 1185: the county of Amiens
- 1191: Vermandois county is acquired
- 1204: Confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy
- 1208: the rule La Ferté-Macé is taken over by William VI. confiscated from La Ferté-Macé
- 1220: The County of Alençon falls to the Domaine royal for lack of heirs for Count Robert IV
Reign of Louis IX. (1226-1270)
- 1239: The county of Mâcon is bought
- 1255: Raoul de Meulan bought the county of Beaumont-le-Roger
- 1259: Dominions Domfront and Tinchebray
Reign of Philip III. (1270-1285)
- 1271: the county of Toulouse , the Poitou and Auvergne , apanages of Alfonso of Poitiers return to the Domaine royal
- 1274: purchase of the county of Nemours
- 1283: the Counties of Le Perche and the Counties of Alençon, bequeathed by his brother Peter .
- 1284: purchase of the county of Chartres
Reign of Philip IV (1285-1314)
- 1284: marriage of Philip, the future king, to Johanna, daughter of King Henry I of Navarra , Count of Champagne ; the Champagne is united with the Domaine royal.
- 1285–1295: Purchase of the County of Guînes from Count Arnold III. who had to raise a ransom.
- 1292: Ostrevant
- 1308: Purchase of the county of Angoulême , Fougères and Lusignan from Jolanda I of Lusignan
- 1313: Confiscation of the Tournai Bailiwick - although it was part of the Holy Roman Empire - by Marie de Mortagne .
- 1322: the county of Bigorre is incorporated into the Domaine royal.
Reign of Philip VI. (1328-1350)
- 1336: Conquest of the county of Ponthieu , which is returned to the English king in 1360 .
- 1349: Acquisition of the dominion of Montpellier from James III. , deposed King of Mallorca .
- 1350–1360: after the execution of Raoul II. De Brienne , Count of Guînes , Connétable of France , the county of Guînes is confiscated for treason. It was ceded to England in the Peace of Brétigny .
Reign of Charles V (1364-1380)
- May 27, 1364: the town of Montivilliers is separated from the County of Longueville and immediately integrated into the Domaine royal.
- 1371: Auxerre county is bought
Reign of Charles VII (1422–1461)
- 1434: The Amboise lordship is confiscated: Louis d'Amboise conspired against Georges de La Trémoille , the king's favorite.
- 1453: conquest of Guyenne ( Aquitaine )
- 1454: The County of Comminges is incorporated into the Domaine royal
Reign of Louis XI. (1461–1483)
- 1477: the county of Ponthieu is finally incorporated into the Domaine royal.
- 1478: the county of Boulogne is acquired by exchange.
- 1482: by the Treaty of Arras which are Burgundy and Picardy in the Domaine royal integrated.
- 1482: Vice-county of Châtellerault is also incorporated.
Reign of Charles VIII (1483–1498)
Reign of Louis XII. (1498–1515)
- June 1498: the counties of Provence and the counties of Forcalquier
- August 25, 1498: the County of Comminges is again integrated into the Domaine royal.
Reign of Francis I (1515–1547)
- Incorporation of the Duchy of Valois , which the Capetians had given as appanage since the 12th century
- 1532: the Duchy of Brittany is incorporated
From the reign of Francis I, the terms Domaine royal and France are mixed together. With the betrayal of the Connétable of Bourbon and the assumption of government by Henry IV , the last fiefdoms are incorporated within the borders of the kingdom.
Reign of Louis XIV (1643–1715)
- 1678: Franche-Comté (Free County of Burgundy) falls to the Domaine royal through the Treaty of Nijmegen .
Reign of Louis XV. (1715–1774)
French-language Wikisource :
- Édit d'union de la vicomté de Châtellerault à la Couronne de France (1482)
- Union au domaine royal de Chastel-sur-Moselle et Bainville qui avaient appartenu au duché de Bar (1483)
- Édit de réunion du County Provence à la couronne de France (1498)