Louis VI. (France)

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Louis VI. of France in a representation from the 14th century.

Louis VI. , called the fat one , or the fighter (French: Louis VI le Gros or le Batailleur ; * autumn 1081 in Paris , † August 1, 1137 in Béthisy-Saint-Pierre ) from the Capetian dynasty , was king from 1108 to 1137 of France .

He is considered to be one of the most energetic French rulers of the Middle Ages , who created the kingship in the Île-de-France a strong basis for its later establishment as the dominant political authority of the kingdom. His nickname, already used by contemporaries, goes back to his physical obesity in old age.


Family and youth

Ludwig, baptized Louis Thiébaut , was the eldest of four sons of King Philip I († 1108) and his first wife Bertha von Holland († 1094) and was the only son to reach adulthood. As the first representative of the Capetian house, he was given a Merovingian-Carolingian name. His older sister Konstanze was married successively to Count Hugo of Troyes and Prince Bohemond of Taranto . He was brought up in the Saint Denis de l'Estrée school belonging to the Abbey of Saint-Denis, together with Suger , who became a reliable friend and advisor to him throughout his life.

Ludwig was enfeoffed with the county of Vexin in 1092 and continued to receive the cities of Mantes and Pontoise . This he had to defend against the attacks of the Anglo-Norman King Wilhelm II Rufus . Between 1101 and 1105 he was also Count of Vermandois . Also in 1092, his father expelled his mother to marry Bertrada von Montfort , the wife of Count Fulko IV of Anjou , which plunged the French kingdom into a deep crisis.

Ludwig spent his youth far from court, in 1098 the Count of Ponthieu made him a knight in Abbeville . He is also exposed to the stalking of his stepmother, who tried to influence the succession to the throne in favor of her own sons. After Ludwig was designated as his successor by his father in 1100, Bertrada tried to keep him in London by means of a royal mandate when he was staying there on a trip. When he returned home anyway, Bertrada commissioned three clerics to kill the prince. The attack was discovered in good time, but a subsequent poison attack could not be prevented. The prince became seriously ill and only the healing skills of a Jewish doctor saved his life.

Ludwig then opposed Bertrada's striving for power by marrying the daughter of the influential Seneschal Guido des Roten von Rochefort in 1104 . Lucienne von Rochefort was a cousin of the wife of his half-brother Philipp , the son of Bertrada. By marrying her son to a daughter of the most powerful family in the Île-de-France, she tried to get them on their side, but Ludwig's engagement let this attempt come to nothing, as he could now get the Rocheforts on his side. Furthermore, Ludwig reconciled himself publicly with Bertrada and promised her son the county of Mantes .

Assumption of power

Coronation of Louis VI. in Orléans in
front of the city his opponent Heinrich Beauclerc, who receives the rebellious barons
(picture by Jean Fouquet )

The coronation and anointing of Louis took place in a hurry on August 3, 1108 in Orléans , immediately after the burial of his father in Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire , and had to be performed by Bishop Daimbert von Sens. Because at this point Ludwig was already confronted with the uprising of a broad opposition of the barons against him. The ceremony could not be celebrated in the traditional consecration place of Reims , because after a double election Gervasius von Retel and Radulfus 'le Vert' competed for the archbishopric, which led to a papal interdict for the diocese . In addition, Reims was not safe enough, since Ludwig was exposed to the access of his half-brother Philip and the allied Count Theobald IV of Blois . Hardly any of the great vassals of the kingdom was present at the coronation in person or through representatives, indicative of the low point that the kingship had reached in authority and prestige under Ludwig's ancestors.

However, immediately afterwards Ludwig was able to force Bertrada to give up her ambitions. He allowed her to sell her Wittum , from the proceeds of which she was able to found the Hautes-Bruyères priory belonging to Fontevraud , into which she was allowed to withdraw. He rendered Philip harmless by withdrawing Mantes from him.

Ludwig's royalty

Nevertheless, Ludwig had to fight for the survival of his rule right from the start of his reign. His real dominion, the crown domain , was limited to the Île-de-France with its centers in Orléans , Paris and Senlis . This area was surrounded by the mighty feudal principalities, such as Normandy and Flanders in the north, Champagne in the east, Anjou and Brittany in the west or Aquitaine in the south. The lords of these provinces recognized the king only formally as their liege lord, if at all, but pursued an independent policy.

But even in Île-de-France, the king was only partially master of his own house. The streets between the cities were controlled by powerful lords of the castle, who mostly behaved like robber barons and were closely related to one another. The most powerful family was that of the lords of Montlhéry-Rochefort , who with their castles such as Montlhéry , Rochefort-en-Yvelines , Bray-sur-Seine or Crécy-en-Brie , as well as their extensive family connections, have been a dominant one since the rule of Ludwig's father Exerted influence on the royal court. Ludwig himself was engaged to the seneschal's daughter, whose brother Hugo von Crécy could easily take over the office of seneschal from his father in 1106. After Ludwig had neutralized Bertrada, he set about breaking the power of the Monthlérys.

His first step towards this was the dissolution of his marriage with Lucienne von Rochefort, which took place in 1107, and a council in Troyes provided the necessary dispensation for this at the request of Pope Paschal II .

Assertion of rule against the barons

Hugo von Crécy and Hugo von Le Puiset

This drove Lucienne's father, Guido the Red of Rochefort, and her brother Hugo von Crécy into the uprising, which Ludwig countered with the siege and capture of their castle at Gournay in 1108. The death of Guido von Rochefort a little later was not intended to weaken the opposition to the young king.

Ludwig handed over the seneschallate, which he had withdrawn from Hugo von Crécy, to Anseau de Garlande . Although he was related by marriage to the Montlhérys , he should prove to be a man devoted to the king. Hugo von Crécy allied with Hugo III. von Le Puiset , they then devastated the country around Chartres , which Ludwig in return brought in the powerful Count Theobald IV of Blois as an ally. In 1109 Ludwig conquered the castle La Roche-Guyon and together with Theobald he destroyed the castle Le Puiset in 1111 , took Hugo von Le Puiset prisoner and imprisoned him in Château-Landon . To strengthen his position, the king built his own castle, Toury, two kilometers from Le Puiset .

Ludwig suffered a severe blow immediately afterwards when Count Robert I of Meulan attacked and sacked the Île de la Cité in Paris in retaliation for attacks by royal troops on his territory.

The death of Count Odo von Corbeil in 1112 worsened the situation. The County of Corbeil was small, but it was in an important strategic position between Paris and Orléans. Ludwig seized the opportunity and withdrew Corbeil as a settled fiefdom, but made Theobald IV of Blois, who had made an inheritance claim to it, the enemy. At the same time, Ludwig made the mistake of releasing Hugo von Le Puiset after he had renounced his own claims to Corbeil. Once he was free, Hugo didn't want to hear any more about it and once again allied himself with the rebels. In this distress, Ludwig allied himself with Count Robert II of Flanders and went with his army towards him to unite. Hugo von Le Puiset took advantage of this by taking Toury. Ludwig turned his army around and took Toury back. He then won, together with his cousin Rudolf von Vermandois, in a battle over Hugo von Le Puiset, Hugo von Crécy, Theobald von Blois, Guido II von Rochefort and Raoul von Beaugency, which led to the renewed destruction of Le Puiset and the capture of its master made possible. But in return, the Count of Blois struck and killed the king's ally, Robert II of Flanders, near Meaux .

Ultimately, Ludwig was able to triumph over his enemies after he locked Hugo von Crécy and Guido II von Rochefort in Gournay Castle in 1114 and forced them to submit. The Montlhéry family was destroyed , their possessions were divided among the victors. Montlhéry , Gometz , Châteaufort kept Ludwig to himself, Rochefort he gave to his loyal Anseau von Garlande, Gournay to his own son Robert , Bray-sur-Seine as compensation to Theobald von Blois and Crécy-en-Brie to the Châtillon family . Hugo von Crécy entered Cluny Abbey as a monk .

Hugo von Le Puiset dared to rebel again in 1118 after murdering his own cousin. Seneschal Anseau von Garlande was killed during the siege of his castle, but Hugo was also forced to give up. He then went into exile in Palestine , where he died.

Thomas of Marle

After addressing this threat, the king turned his attention to the region north of the Crown Domain. There the powerful Baron Thomas von Marle and his father Enguerrand von Boves feuded the citizens, the Vidame and the Bishop of Amiens , who had rebelled against their rule. Ludwig supported the city's vidame with troops, and after Thomas was involved in the murder of Bishop Gaudry of Laon , the king arranged for his excommunication at a council in Beauvais in December 1114 . Ludwig then besieged Castillon Castle, north of Amiens, where he was wounded in the chest in 1115, but forced Thomas to surrender and submit.

Ludwig pardoned Thomas and left him in his possession, but after Enguerrand von Boves died in 1116 and the king transferred the county of Amiens to Adelheid von Vermandois, Thomas began a feud against the countess's family, which upset the country for years to come .

Fight against Heinrich Beauclerc

Henry I. Beauclerc, King of England (Miniature from the Chronicles of Matthew Paris )

After consolidating his rule in the crown domain, Ludwig dared to assert royal authority over the great vassals of his empire. The main opponent was the Norman Heinrich I. Beauclerc . Ever since his father William the Conqueror conquered England in 1066, the Anglo-Norman empire he had created has posed the greatest threat to the French kingdom. Heinrich Beauclerc succeeded in 1106 after the battle of Tinchebray in reuniting his father's legacy in one hand, with the Duchy of Normandy being a fiefdom of France. As a prince, Ludwig had given his consent to this change of power, which he later bitterly regretted.

Even during his conflict with the barons, Ludwig waged a war against Heinrich Beauclerc, who in 1106 had fortified the castle of Gisors in the middle of the Vexin . In 1110, Ludwig suffered a defeat before Gisors, which forced him to make a peace with Heinrich in 1113 , not only recognizing him in Normandy, but also his feudal sovereignty over Brittany and Maine as well as Gisors Castle, the gateway to the Vexin , had to leave. After Ludwig had subjugated the barons, he was now able to concentrate his efforts entirely on Normandy and now supported Wilhelm Clito , son of Duke Robert II Kurzhose , who was disempowered in 1106 , as the legitimate pretender of Normandy. Furthermore, he promoted an opposition of Norman nobles against Henry and allied himself with the Counts Fulk V of Anjou and Baldwin VII of Flanders .

The fighting began in 1118 with the revolt of the Norman barons against Henry. However, the king was prevented from making a train to Normandy by Count Theobald IV of Blois, who had allied himself with his uncle Heinrich Beauclerc. But after the Count of Blois was forced to reconcile himself with the king in the spring of 1119, Ludwig was able to concentrate his energies on Normandy. Heinrich had now landed there and had largely suppressed the uprising. Ludwig destroyed the castle of Ivry , but failed at Breteuil , at the same time he suffered a heavy loss after the Count of Flanders was beaten and fatally wounded by Heinrich near Bures-en-Bray .

Ludwig then gathered an army and marched with it from the Vexin into Normandy. But already in the field of Brémule he was caught by Heinrich and defeated in the following battle , despite initial successes. He could only escape capture by successfully escaping to nearby Les Andelys . After this defeat, Ludwig had to give up the fight, also because Fulko V. von Anjou had reconciled with Heinrich.

Conflict with the emperor

In February 1119, just before his campaign in Normandy, Louis had supported the election of the Archbishop of Vienne as Pope. Kalixt II (Guido of Burgundy) was an uncle of his wife and a supporter of the clerical party around Pope Gelasius II , who had died in his exile in Cluny. The king took sides against Emperor Henry V and his Pope Gregory VIII , who were banned by Kalixt at a council in Reims (October 1119). This also met Ludwig's enemy Heinrich Beauclerc, who also supported the imperial antipope.

While Ludwig established such a close and long-lasting alliance between the Capetians and the Holy See, this action led to an alliance between the Norman ruler and the Emperor against France, which was to endure even after the church dispute in 1122 ( Worms Concordat ) was settled. Another attempt by Ludwig and Wilhelm Clitos to penetrate Normandy therefore failed in 1123.

The situation became even more ominous a year later when the emperor assembled a large army and thus marched against France. Ludwig, for his part, called on all vassals of his empire to bring him military successes. And in fact almost all the greats of the empire showed up with their officers, even Count Theobald IV of Blois and the Duke of Aquitaine . Overall, the army that Ludwig, carrying the Oriflamme , led to Lorraine is said to have had a strength of over 60,000 men. In the vicinity of the fortress of Metz they met the Emperor's army, who, given the unexpected size of the French army, decided not to fight and had his own army disbanded.

Ludwig was able to end the threat from the empire and the emperor died the following year.

Auvergne and Flanders

Despite his failure in Normandy, Ludwig continued to strengthen his position within the great principalities of his empire. An opportunity presented itself to him in the Auvergne , where a feud between Count William VI. and the Bishop of Clermont raged. Ludwig had already intervened there for the bishop in 1122, but the count resumed his activities against the bishop. In 1126, Ludwig once again led a large campaign into the Auvergne. The count then asked his liege, Duke Wilhelm IX. of Aquitaine for help, but the duke did not dare to fight either and preferred to pay homage to the king in Orléans .

This was followed by an ambitious engagement by the king in Flanders , where in March 1127 Count Charles the Good was murdered. Ludwig then resorted to his protégé Wilhelm Clito, who was able to assert a claim as a distant relative of the Flemish house, and had the Flemish nobility elect him as their count in Arras . At the end of March 1127 Ludwig moved into Bruges , where Wilhelm Clito paid homage to him. In Flanders, however, Ludwig again clashed with the interests of his rival Heinrich I Beauclerc of England , for whom Flanders was of great economic importance as a buyer of English wool. The Flemish merchants, concerned about their trade with England, therefore put the Lorraine Count Dietrich of Alsace as an opposing candidate and took control of the cities. In July 1128 Ludwig and Wilhelm locked their opponent in Alost , but the death of Wilhelm from a battle wound made Ludwig's plans in Flanders fail, he withdrew and left the field to Dietrich. He was only ready to pay homage to the king in 1132, after the Count of Hainaut raised his own claims on Flanders, but Flanders was to retain its independent position vis-à-vis the crown.

The Garland uprising

The absence of Louis in Flanders caused a critical situation in the Île-de-France. There his Chancellor and Seneschal Stephan von Garlande went into open revolt after a dispute with the Queen.

Stephan was a younger brother of Anseau von Garlande, the king's loyal seneschal. This had favored his rapid ascent at the royal court, where he was appointed chancellor by Ludwig after the dismissal of the militant Bishop of Senlis in 1118 . After the death of his second brother Wilhelm in 1120, Stephan also took over the office of Seneschal , making him the all-powerful minister at Ludwig's side. This accumulation of offices and other privileges Garlandes had brought King Ludwig a lot of criticism on the part of his advisors, but the king ignored them. And in fact Garlande strove to make the seneschallate hereditary in the family of his niece, the Lords of Montfort . With this, however, Garlande found a resolute opponent in Queen Adelheid . While her husband was fighting in Flanders, Garlande banished them from Paris and had the houses of his followers and the vines of his vineyard at the " Petit Pont " torn down.

The Garlande uprising would certainly have been just another episode in the king's life, but it posed a serious threat after Garlande received the support of the Count of Blois and especially Heinrich Beauclercs. Ludwig therefore resolved to put down the revolt and besieged Garlandes Castle Livry from April to May 1128 together with Count Rudolf I of Vermandois . The Count of Vermandois lost an eye in the fight, and the king himself had to accept a crossbow bolt through his leg. Garlande finally surrendered and was to receive the chancellorship again in 1132, but his influence at court was broken.

Then Ludwig took on the still restless Thomas von Marle, whom he had pardoned in 1115. He had killed Count Rudolf's younger brother in his feud against the House of Vermandois in 1130. The king authorized the count to fight Marles, who was killed in October 1130 during the siege of his castle Coucy .

Last years and death

Reclining figure of the grave of Ludwig VI. in Saint-Denis.

In the last years of his life, Ludwig was primarily concerned with arranging his succession. He did not want to repeat the mistake made by his father, who had neglected to have Ludwig anointed during his lifetime, which caused problems for Ludwig to take power after his death. That is why Ludwig had his eldest son Philip crowned co-king as early as 1129 , who would automatically have become sole ruler after Ludwig's death. Philipp died in Paris in October 1131 when he fell from his horse. The king hurriedly had his second eldest, Louis VII, fetched from the monastery to have him crowned and anointed in Reims that same month . The act of consecration was performed by none other than Pope Innocent II , who was in France at the time.

In 1135 Ludwig's longstanding opponent Heinrich Beauclerc, who was far superior in power and means, died. Although after him the Anglo-Norman empire drifted into civil war, Ludwig could not make any profit from it, since with the Blois house only one more of his opponents took over the Norman throne.

In the spring of 1137 the Duke of Aquitaine decided to go on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela , and therefore placed his heir, Eleanor, under royal protection. When the duke died in the course of his journey, Ludwig did not hesitate and arranged the marriage between his son and the young duchess. This move should bring the crown of one of the richest and most powerful principalities in France.

With these promising prospects, Louis set out in the summer of 1137 to fight the robber lords of Saint-Brisson-sur-Loire near Gien . The king, who suffered from obesity and dysentery , was unsuccessfully advised against this move by his advisors. On the way, the king suffered another dysentery attack , which forced him to stop at Béthisy-Saint-Pierre castle . He died there on August 1, 1137, and was buried in the Abbey of Saint-Denis . When the royal tombs of Saint-Denis were sacked during the French Revolution, his tomb was opened and looted in August 1793, and his remains were buried in a mass grave outside the church.


King Ludwig VI. is widely regarded as one of the most deserving monarchs in France in the Middle Ages. Constantly engaged in battle with insubordinate vassals and enemies of the kingdom throughout his life, he brought the authority and prestige of the Capetian dynasty out of its low point, which had been reached by his predecessors. After Guizot sat down with Ludwig VI. introduced a new conception of royalty, according to which the ruler was more than the protector of the church, but also that of the peasants, artisans and merchants.

His campaign against the emperor in 1124 led to a hitherto unknown patriotic sense of unity among the French.

The king of commerce and cities

Paris around 1180

The Île-de-France, the immediate area of ​​rule of the king, experienced a leap into one of the economically most outstanding regions of the country under Ludwig's reign. Guaranteed by the protection of the king, traders could now move safely and without blackmailing local barons from Orléans via Paris to Reims . The cities of the Île-de-France, which revived under Ludwig, particularly Paris, benefited from this. At the beginning of his reign the city was limited to the Seine Island, but by the time he died it had grown far into the surrounding area.

This upswing was particularly encouraged by the king, who founded the abbeys of Saint-Victor (1113) and Saint-Lazare (before 1122), among others , and in the vicinity of the latter he set up a mass , which contributed to the new economic importance of the city. The Queen founded a women's monastery in Montmartre in 1134 , and the Knights Templar settled in Paris in 1137 . Ludwig had the old Roman bridge from the island to the north bank of the Seine demolished and built a new stone ( Pont au Change ) 125 meters further east, near the palace, and secured it with a Châtelet . This construction work was owed to the city after the attack of Count von Meulan in 1111.

According to the Chronicle of Morigny, Paris towered above all other cities in France at Louis's death.

The reformer

Ludwig created an administration and judiciary tailored to the person of the king, which was taken over and expanded by his successors, whereby he can be counted among the fathers of later French centralism. Since then, barons of the crown domain have been forced to submit to the summons before the royal court, which differentiates the kingship from the baronial aristocracy, which was previously not a matter of course, as for example the marriage of Ludwig with Lucienne von Rochefort shows. With the royal knights ( les chevaliers royaux ) and lesser prelates, he created a permanent retinue ( l'entourage du roi ) for royalty . Since its members were preferably recruited from the lower nobility or from the lower church hierarchy, they were loyal to the crown because of the opportunities for advancement they opened up. The king, in turn, was able to break away from the court society dominated by the nobility in his rulership. From members of the royal retinue, a permanent government body in the form of the royal council (called conseil or curia regis ) was formed for the first time under Ludwig's rule , which in future advised the crown in government. At the same time, Ludwig downgraded the previously powerful major offices of the crown in their competencies in order to curb their abuse, as it was previously practiced by the Montlhéry and Garlande.

Even if he was personally prevented from breaking the power of the great vassals and bowing them to the will of the crown, Ludwig created the conditions for this, which ultimately benefited his grandson Philip II August .

Ludwig's personality

The personal character of the king is also judged positively by historians, especially by Suger's vita of Ludwig, which was written around 1144. But even more distant chroniclers such as Ordericus Vitalis or Ivo von Chartres attested that he was cheerful, good-natured and spirited. During a fight, the king is said to have instructed a stubbornly persecuting knight that it is not only forbidden to take the king prisoner in chess. Criticism, on the other hand, found his occasionally revealed naivete, especially in relation to the mild treatment of Thomas von Marle in 1115, or the lack of farsightedness on Heinrich Beauclerc's takeover in Normandy in 1106.

The physical development of the king was also criticized by his contemporaries. While he was described in his youth as having a stately build with a penchant for sword fighting, his body increased so much with age that he was obese from the age of forty. For fear of the king's well-being, Suger is said to have advised against the campaign in the Auvergne in 1126. Those around the king wanted to have recognized a consequence of voraciousness in his growing weight.



Robert II the Pious
Constance of Provence
Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev
(? -1054)
Ingegerd of Sweden
Dietrich III. from Holland
(? -1039)
Othelendis von Haldensleben
(? -?)
Bernhard II of Saxony
(? -1095)
Eilika from Schweinfurt
(? -1055/65)
Heinrich I
Anna of Kiev
(? -1089)
Florens I of Holland
Gertrud Billung
(? -1089)
Philip I
Bertha of Holland
(? -1094)
Louis VI. the thick

Marriages and offspring

In his first marriage, Ludwig was married from 1104 to 1107 to Lucienne von Rochefort from the House of Montlhéry , a daughter of Count Guido von Rochefort and Elisabeth von Crécy. The marriage was divorced in 1107. Lucienne married Guichard IV of Beaujeu a little later. She died after 1137.

During his marriage, Ludwig had a relationship with Marie de Breuillet, who was probably of simple origin. With her he had the daughter Isabella ( Isabelle * probably 1105, † after 1175), who was married to Mr. Guillaume von Chaumont.

On March 25 or 30, 1115 Ludwig married Adelheid von Maurienne (* around 1092) in Paris , a daughter of Count Humbert II of Maurienne and Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy. Adelheid had a share in her husband's government and was particularly influential in the relationship between the crown and the Church's reform party. She is the only French queen whose years of reign are mentioned in issued documents alongside those of the king. After the king's death, she married the Connétable Mathieu I de Montmorency in 1141 (see list of the Montmorency tribe ) and joined the Abbey of Montmartre during his lifetime in 1153, where she died on November 18, 1154 and was buried.

The following children emerged from the marriage with Adelheid:

Ludwig in the popular media

  • In the French film comedy " The Visitors " ( les Visiteurs , 1993 Jean Reno ) is a caricatured representation of the king of was Didier Pain played
  • Ludwig the fat appeared in 2006 in four issues of the German mosaic magazine as a comic figure



General representations

  • Joachim Ehlers : History of France in the Middle Ages. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart a. a. 1987, ISBN 3-17-009801-2 .
  • A. Lewis: Royal Succession in Capetian France (1981)
  • E. Bournazel: Le gouvernement capétien au XII siècle (1975)
  • RH Bautier: Paris au temps d'Abélard (1981)
  • Julian Führer: King Ludwig VI. of France and the reform of the canons . Long. Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-54522-5 ( review )


  • A. Luchaire (Ed.): Louis VI le Gros (Paris 1890, reprint Geneva 1979)
  • J. Dufour: Louis VI, roi de France (1108-1137) (1990)
  • Dietrich Lohrmann: Ludwig VI. 1108–1137 In: Joachim Ehlers, Heribert Müller , Bernd Schneidmüller (eds.): The French kings of the Middle Ages. From Odo to Charles VIII. 888–1498. Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-40446-4 , pp. 127-138.
  • E. Bournazel: Louis VI, Le Gros (2007)

Web links

Commons : Ludwig VI.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files


  1. Bernd Schneidmüller: Carolingian tradition and early French royalty. Investigations on the legitimation of rule of the West Frankish-French monarchy in the 10th century. Wiesbaden 1979, p. 89.
  2. Odericus Vitalis VIII, 20, Volume 4, p. 264.
  3. Julian Führer: King Ludwig VI. of France and the reform of the canons. Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2008, p. 46.
  4. ^ Gesta Lamberti Atrebatensis episcopi ep. 44. Col. 664
  5. Julian Führer: King Ludwig VI. of France and the reform of the canons. Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2008, p. 48.
predecessor Office successor
Philip I. King of France 1108–1137
Blason pays for FranceAncien.svg
Louis VII