Ivo of Chartres
Ivo von Chartres , French Yves de Chartres (* around 1040 probably in Chartres ; † December 23, 1115 or 1116 in Chartres) was a French church reformer and bishop of Chartres. He is venerated as a saint.
He was the first abbot to head the Canons' Monastery of St. Quentin in Beauvais, founded in 1067 . Finally, he was elected Bishop of Chartres in 1090 , invested by King Philip I of France and consecrated in Rome by Pope Urban II . When he refused to divorce the French king, who wanted to marry Bertrade of Anjou , he was persecuted and captured in 1092. King Philip was excommunicated several times between 1095 and 1104.
The time of his canonization is unknown, his feast day is December 23rd .
Ivo von Chartres has traditionally been assigned four collections of canonical content.
Collectio Tripartita A
The tripartita consists of three parts. The first two parts are collectively referred to as A ; they were compiled around the year 1094 and are therefore much older than the third part of the collection called B (see below). Part A is largely arranged in chronological order and contains genuine and false papal letters and council resolutions (mainly from Pseudoisidor ), excerpts from father texts as well as Roman and Franconian law . Ivo's authorship is not assured.
The decretum was written around 1094. It is divided into 17 books with 3760 chapters and covers almost the entire area of canon law. The canons are taken from decretals , councils , church fathers , Roman law and other normative texts. The decretum depends on the decree of Burchard von Worms , the Tripartita A and numerous smaller collections. Ivo added many patristic texts to his collection that cannot be found in any previous canon law collection. The books on the sacraments are particularly carefully prepared.
The third collection, called Panormia , was created after the Decretum (but before about 1120) and has often been ascribed to Ivo since the 12th century; but his authorship is not proven. The work consists of eight books with 1038 chapters and is essentially an abridged version of the Decretum . It was comparatively short and its internal order allowed the location to be found quickly. Presumably for this reason the collection was widely distributed by hand. The work first appeared in print in Basel in 1499 .
Collectio Tripartita B
Like the Panormia , the collection called Tripartita B is essentially an abridged version of the Decretum . The collection was created after 1095 and combined with Tripartia A to form one work. No manuscript that is physically complete today contains only Tripartita A or only Tripartita B, although both were created separately and must have existed separately for a while. In addition, Ivo's authorship is not guaranteed.
Already in St. Quentin and especially as Bishop of Chartres Ivo wrote numerous letters, 288 of which have survived. Individual letters and collections of the same were already in circulation during his lifetime in France, but also in England, Germany and Italy. Probably shortly after his death, two large collections were created, which contain almost all of the letters known today and which were copied very frequently in the course of the 12th century. Around 150 medieval copies have survived to this day; This makes Ivo's collection of letters one of the most widespread of the entire Middle Ages. The letters received deal with very different subjects. a. Ivo's judgments and opinions on the marriages of various nobles, on understanding the Eucharist and repeatedly on various controversial bishops.
- Martin Brett: Urban II and the collections attributed to Ivo. In: Stanley Chodorow (Ed.): Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law, San Diego, University of California at La Jolla, 21. – 27. August 1988 (= Monumenta Juris Canonici. Series C, Subsidia 9). Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 1992, pp. 27-46.
- Péter Erdő : The Sources of Canon Law. A historical introduction. Frankfurt 2002, pp. 98-100.
- Hans Erich Feine : Church legal history. 4th edition. Cologne / Vienna 1964, p. 159.
- Christof Rolker : Canon law and the letters of Ivo of Chartres (= Cambridge studies in medieval life and thought. Ser. 4, 76). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010, ISBN 978-0-521-76682-1 .
- Rolf Sprandel : Ivo von Chartres and his position in church history (= Paris historical studies. Vol. 1). Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1962 ( digitized version ).
- Klaus-Gunther Wesseling : Ivo (Ives, Yves) from Chartres. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 18, Bautz, Herzberg 2001, ISBN 3-88309-086-7 , Sp. 704-710.
- Literature by and about Ivo von Chartres in the catalog of the German National Library
- Digitized manuscripts in Swiss libraries
- Works by Ivo von Chartres in the complete catalog of incunabula
- Ivo von Chartres in the repertory "Historical Sources of the German Middle Ages"
- Edition of the collections and introduction
- Edition and French translation of the letters
|SURNAME||Ivo of Chartres|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Yves de Chartres|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Bishop and canon lawyer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1040|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||unsure: Chartres|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 23, 1115|
|Place of death||Chartres|