Paschal II.

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Meeting between Pope Paschal II and King Philip I 1107. Illumination in a manuscript from the Grandes Chroniques de France (1461)
A document of Paschal II dated September 29, 1101. Città del Vaticano, Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Instrumenta miscellanea 4291, I (1)

Paschal II , originally Raniero di Bieda (* in Bleda di Santa Sofia , Forlì ; † January 21, 1118 in Rome ), was Pope of the Catholic Church between 1099 and 1118 .


Privilege from Pope Paschal II for Berchtesgaden

Raniero was born in Bleda (or Galeate) in the Forlì area. He exercised his first important function as abbot of San Lorenzo fuori le mura . Raised cardinal priest of San Clemente by Gregory VII in 1078 , he held the office of legate in France and Spain from 1089 to 1090 .

He became Pope on August 14, 1099. He was the first Pope to be crowned at his enthronement . In the investiture dispute he followed the policy of his predecessor Gregory VII. In 1102 he renewed the ban against Emperor Henry IV. In 1104, Paschalis succeeded in persuading the second son of Henry IV, later Henry V , to rebel against his father. He turned down the invitation of the Reichstag in Mainz of January 1106 to negotiate the investiture . Instead, the investiture was again banned by the emperor at the Synod of Guastalla . In the same year succeeded Paschal II., The investiture struggle in England between Anselm of Canterbury and the English King Henry I to mediate.

On February 9, 1111, Sutri stipulated that the German king renounced the right to invest and in return crowned Paschal II Henry V as emperor and returned the regalia . The contract failed three days later because the secular and spiritual princes did not agree. Henry V then captured the Pope and several cardinals . Two months later, Paschalis forcibly agreed to the Treaty of Ponte Mammolo , in which the emperor was granted the right to invest and Heinrich was promised the coronation of emperor.

A Lateran council in the following year 1112 declared the treaty null and void because it had been made under duress. In October 1112 the emperor was excommunicated . In 1117 Henry V moved against Rome again. Before her death, Mathilde von Tuszien bequeathed her extensive estates in Tuscany to the Church. When she died in 1115, however, the emperor claimed these areas as part of the empire. Paschalis had to flee Rome and was only able to return after the emperor's departure in early 1118, but died a few days later.


Web links

Commons : Paschalis II.  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ferdinand Gregorovius : History of the city of Rome in the Middle Ages. Eighth book in the Gutenberg-DE project
  2. Jacques Le Goff : The high Middle Ages (= Fischer world history . 11). 23rd edition. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-596-60011-1 , p. 94.
predecessor Office successor
Urban II. Pope
Gelasius II